Skip to main content

Full text of "The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [microform] : containing an entire translation of the Spanish work of Colonel Don Antonio de Alcedo, Captain of the Royal Spanish Guards, and member of the Royal Academy of History"

See other formats









% ^ IS 

^ 1^ 12.0 


1.25 1.4 1,6 

■• 6" 







o^ ' :» 







WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 

















Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 

Technical and Bibliographic Notes/Notes techniques et bibliographlques 

The institute has attempted to obtain the best 
original copy available for filming. Features of this 
copy which may be bibliographically unique, 
which may alter any of the images in the 
reproduction, or which may significantly change 
the usual method of filming, are checked below. 




Coloured covers/ 
Couverture de couleur 

I I Covers damaged/ 

Couverture endommag6e 

Covers restored and/or laminated/ 
Couverture restaurie et/ou pe<llicul6e 

Cover title missing/ 

Le titre de couverture manque 

Coloured maps/ 

Cartes g6ographiques en couleur 

Coloured Ink (i.e. other than blue or black)/ 
Encre de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) 

Coloured plates and/or illustrations/ 
Planches et/ou illustrations en couleur 

Bound with other material/ 
Reli6 avec d'autres documents 


Tight binding may cause shadows or distortion 
along Interior margin/ 

La raliure serr6e peut causer de I'ombre ou de la 
distortion le long de la marge intirieure 

Blank leaves added during restoration may 
appear within the text. Whenever possible, these 
have been omitted from filming/ 
II se peut que certaines pages blanches ajout6es 
lors d'une restauration apparaissent dans le texte, 
mais. lorsque cela 6tait possible, ces pages n'ont 
pas 6tA film6es. 

Additional comments:/ Various pagings. 

Commentaires supplimentaires: 

L'Institut a microfilm^ le meilleur exemplaire 
qu'il lui a 4t6 possible de se procurer. Les details 
de cet exemplaire qui sont peut-Atre uniques du 
point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier 
une image reproduite, ou qui peuvent exiger une 
modification dans la mdthode normale de filmage 
sont indiqufo ci-dessous. 



Coloured pages/ 
Pages de couleur 

Pages damaged/ 
Pages endommag^os 

Pages restored and/or laminated/ 
Pages restauries et/ou pellicul6es 

rpV Pages discoloured, stained o^ foxed/ 
Lkd Pages d6color6es, tachetdes ou piquies 


Pages detached/ 
Pages ditachdes 

riTI Showthrough/ 


I I Quality of print varies/ 

Quality in6gale de ('impression 

Includes supplementary material/ 
Comprend du materiel suppl^mentaire 



Only edition available/ 
Seule Edition disponible 

Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata 
slips, tissues, etc., have been refilmed to 
ensure the best possible image/ 
Les pages totalement ou partiellement 
obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, 
etc., ont M fiim^es it nouveau de fa^on d 
obtenir la meilleure image possible. 

This item is filmed at the re«Juction ratio checked below/ 

Ca document est filmti au taux de rMuction indiquA ci-dessous. 

10X 14X 18X 22X 









The copy filmed here has been reproduced thanks 
to the generosity of: 

National Library of Canada 

L'exemplaire film6 fut repror^juit grSce d la 
g^ndrositd de: 

Bibliothdque nationale du Canada 

The images appearing here are the best quality 
possible considering the condition and legibility 
of the original copy and in keeping with the 
filming contract specifications. 

Original copies in printed paper covers are filmed 
beginning with the front cover and ending on 
the last page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion, or the back cover when appropriate. All 
other original copies are filmed beginning on the 
first page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion, and ending on the last page with a printed 
or illustrated impression. 

The last recorded frame on each microfiche 
shall contain the symbol ^^> (meaning "CON- 
TINUED "), or the symbol V (meaning "END"), 
whichever applies. 

Maps, plates, charts, etc., may be filmed at 
different reduction ratios. TSose too large to be 
entirely included in one exposure are filmed 
beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to 
right and top to bottom, as many frames as 
required. The following diagrams illustrate the 

Les images suivantes ont 6t6 reproduites avec le 
plus grand soin, compte tenu de la condition et 
de la nettetd de l'exemplaire filmd, et en 
conformity avec les conditions du contrat de 

Les exemplaires originaux dont la couverture en 
papier est imprimde sont filmds en commenpant 
par le premier plat et en terminant soit par la 
dernidre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustiution, soit par le second 
plat, selon le cas. Tous les autres exemplaires 
originaux sont filmds en commenqant par la 
premidre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustratirn et en terminant par 
la dernidre page qui comporte une telle 

Un des symboles suivants apparaitra sur la 
dernidre image de cheque microfiche, selon le 
cas: le symbole — ^ signifie "A SUIVRE", le 
symbole y signifie "FIN ". 

Les cartes, planches, tableaux, etc., peuvent dtre 
film6s d des taux de reduction diffdrents. 
Lorsque le document est trop grand pour dtre 
reproduit en un seul clichd, il est film6 A partir 
de Tangle supdrieur gauche, de gauche d droite, 
et de haut en bas, en prenant le nombre 
d'images ndcessaire. Les diagrammes suivants 
illustrent la mdthode. 

12 3 
















\ I 


OosictH Strttt, Londtm, 















JLaxQt zmtions and Compilation0 






VOL. V. 

"^ '^Jii^na modii mulli.s miranda vidtltir 

tii'nti .r/itimfinis regio, visendaqiiefertur, 

Jielius opimii Iwnis. LucRETH's. //7». /. iinr ,T. 

Lontiou : 

CAKPFNTKn AM. snN.oi.nnoxn.THi:.:.-; r.oNGMAN.iansT.HEKs.oHMP.AM. mumN, HA.E i».^Tri.r.- v,if . <of.l^,^^ 

AM. CO. ILbLT-STKtKl, AN). IMIHI'.AV, AI.UKM AULK STHEtT, l.dNI.ON; PAUKKU, OXFOKD, .. .,. i. .1 .S ... M llRlni.K. 










It was your advice and encouragement that first induced me 
to attemnt the Translation of Alcedo's Dictionary. The work 
was undertaken six years ago, when I was only twenty-three 
years old, and has ever since been the chief employment of 
those hours which the necessary attendance of my office has 
left at my disposal. 

In seeking a name to give credit to my work, I am naturally 
led to solicit yours, not merely by the impulse of gratitude 
and esteem, but by the dictates of prudence, since there is no 
name that is better calculated than yours to stamp on it the 
impression of authority, and give it currency. 

With you, Sir, whose duty it has been to provide for the 
pecuniary exigencies of your country in times that have called 
for an expenditure so unprecedented and astonishing, the 
resources she has derived from the extensive regions of the 


Western World iiiusL he too familiar not to be duly appreciated. 
To display those resources in their due magnitude and import- 
ance to your countrymen at large is amongst the objects of my 
labours : 1 trust, therefore, that yourself and the public in 
general ^vill have the goodness to receive them, if not with 
commendation, at least without much severity of censure. 

The Egyptians wisely suspended their judgment of distin- 
guished men till death had sealed their characters. Were I 
here to take the liberty of expressing my sense of your worth, 
my contemporaries would suspect me of flattery, whilst posterity 
would, with infinitely more justice, blame me for underrating 
it; nor would the attempt be less presumptuous in me than 
displeasing to yourself. I hope, however, I may be permitted 
without offence to yourself or to any one, to acknowledge my 
great obligations to you, and to assure you of the high respect, 
esteem, and gratitude with which 

I have the honor to be, 


Your most devoted 
and faithful 

humble servant, 



ti I? 





Ihe writers of every age have been inclined to represent their own as inferior to those 
which preceded it. No writer of the present day, however, can with reason com- 
phun that he has been called on either to act in, or to behold, a drama destitute, at 
least, of incident. Tlic great theatre of human life has for the last fifty years exhibited 
in rapid succession transactions of such extraordinary novelty, of such perplexing 
intricacy, of such terrific grandeur, and of such increasing interest that he must be 
destitute of feeling as well as of reflection, who is capable of regarding them without 
an earnest wish to trace them to the causes in which they originated, and to the con- 
sequences in which they are likely to terminate. Whichever course he pursues, 
whether retrograde or prospective, he will find that part of the swelling scene, which 
has been laid in the old world, much more intelligible and of easier explication than 
that which is supplied by the new. In contemplating the former portion of the drama, 
he will be aided by all the lights which ardent inquiry and unfettered communication 
have, during a course of many centuries, been able to throw on it. In considering 
the latter, he will find himself obstructed, not only by the obscurity naturally belong^ 
ing to his subject, but by that in which the art of man has purposely laboured to in- 
v')lve it. To assist in dispelling this darkness has been my principal motive for 
cngaginp; in the work I now offer to the public. 

Wiien Buonaparte, in the year 1808, entered Spain, the curtain, as it drew up, dis- 
covered, even to the most inattentive spectator, and by no means in the back part of 
the stage, a view of the transatlantic possessions of that nation. The plot of the 
piece here so strongly developed the grasping ambition of its chief hero, the baseness 

t • 

1 1 



' i I 

of tho princes and rulers who ouglit to have opposed him, and the unstahle, though 
virtuous energies of the hetraye<l and deserted people, against whom the detestable 
machinations of both these distinguished parties seemed e(|iially directed, that all 
mankind, however before divided in their sentiments of the performance, seemed to 
stand up, and with one common feeling to pronounce their sense of it. 

I was, I must confess, not amongst the last to catch the general enthusiasm ; and 
wishing to contribute my mite towards the sacred cause of truth and freedom, I 
determined to give to my country a work to which ray attention had been directed, 
no less by the commendations it had experienced of learned and judicious friends, 
than by the public testimony borne to its merits by the enlightened Editors of the 
Edinburgh Review. To this end, I immediately entered upon an elaborate study of 
the Spanish language, with which my acquaintance had then been the etlects of only 
a few weeks application, and before the lapse of two months from the period of my 
first resolution, began the translation of Al<;edo's Dictionary. 

It was mentioned in my Prospectus, and ought to be recorded here, that the 
original was published at Madrid, in 1787, by Colonel Don Antonio de Albedo, a 
native of America, in tive small quarto volumes, by a large subscription of the most 
respectable characters in the state, and that its merits were its only condemnation ; 
for that the very true and accurate information it contained was looked upon with an 
eye of such jealousy by the Spanish Government, as to have caused its immediate 
suppression by the Supreme Power. The copies which escaped were very few ; I 
found, after many enquiries, that a very small number, not supposed to exceed five 
or six, were existing in this kingdom, and the late endeavours to procure any from 
the continent have always been unsuccessful, even when attempted by official pursuit, 
and at an unlimited expense. 

Whatever is good in the original, I confidently assure the Public, will be found 
in the translation, for (with the exceptions mentioned in the advertisement published 
in the First Volume, namely, in some cases of evident errata) I have faithfully 
given the whole text. To this [ have added much new matter, drawn, all of it, 
from the best sources extant, and a great portion of it from those of the most un- 
questionable authority; but of the nature and extent of the additions made to Albedo's 
Work I shall presently speak more fully, whilst, for an account of the indefatigable 
exertions of that author, I feel I cannot do better than to refer the reader to his own 

The invasion of Spain has led, as I conceived it would, to the confusion of its 
authors ; and though it has not yet been attended with all the good to that nation, 
or to the vrorld in general, which I fondly hoped it might, it must yet be inevitably 







prpgnnnt with mifflity, and I trust most snlutary, eflorts. Those aro diicfly to he 
h)ok«Ml for ill the \v«'st<'ru ht'inispherei and if tiie work I now ofl'tr to the Pnhlic 
ran, in the sinallost de|j;ree, help to piwline tht'in, I sliail think my ialjonrs ami»ly 
rewarded. 1 well know that the writer of u Dictionary, whether of words or thiiif^s, 
is aptly ronsidered hut as the «hiid};e of science, the mere pioneer of hleratnre. 
With this hiimlde character I shall he well satistied if I shall, in any degree, have 
helped to clear the way for the Pliilanthro|)ist, the Patriot, the Philosopher, the 
Statesman, or the Merchant, and supplied them in their several capacities with the 
materials either for thought or action. 

If I may stand excused for having thus far explained my views in undertaking the 
work in question, and for exhihiting to the Pnhlic the general plan on which it has 
been founded, it will be both necessary and becoming in me to shew the sources 
from whence I have chiefly derived the materials by which the superstructure has 
been raised. These are acknowledgements which 1 shall have peculiar pleasure in 
making, not only in justice and gratitude to my authorities, but in deference to the 
claims of my readers, and in gratitication of my own feelings. 

But if the political state of the western hemisphere be, at the present moment, 
an object of the greatest, universal interest, it seems, in its relations with this coun- 
try, io be of a striking and peculiar importance: I shall, therefore, endeavour to 
advance whatever may be desirable to be said as well OQ this as on the foregoing 
head, in the following order : 


On the Commercial Importance of America and the TVcat Indies to Great Britain, deduced from Facts, 

and from Calculations on official Documents. 




Liu of the chief Booh, Documents, and Authorities, consulted for the Completion of this Dicthnary. 


Geographical Appendix. — Memoranda. 

PART 11 






li' tlu< wcstnii htiuisphon' adonis us a soiurr ttf aniusouuMit ami instruction front 
tlif validly of ils hisfoiy. aiul fron» its i-xtraonliuai y pliysioal advantages, with 
rosport to its connuiMcial relations, it has, uuuv tlian any other portion of the jih)l»e, 
.1 rii;lit Ut th luaiul our attention, ('onuneree. at hast siuee the Revohition. has been 
ihe soul of (Jreat Britain, ami it is from An»«>riea ami the West Indies that the 
-reali>st portion of her life-hloo.i h%s heen dnMvn. The snhjeet is in itself both 
^nuid and invi' io-: it has exeited (he \von«ler ami admiration of surroinulins>- nations 
MO less than of ourselves. Some ae<>ount, thertfore. of the orijiin. proifress, extent, 
,Mul nature of our lra«le, when supported l.y otlu'lal testinu)ni.>s, will not, I trust, be 
ui this piai'e dtu'UU'd useless or invaluable. 

To the iuiportaiue of (lu- intercourse between country and the new world, it 
has been my endeavour to do justice in the body of this work. With regard to the 
success that has awaited my etlorts, I am little tloubtful; since, to whatever cAtent I 
may have t;«»ne, I have scrupuh)usly avoid«'d all theory and speculation, and have stated 
uolhiui- but facts. In this view. I trust tliat tlu> information ituparted, nu»re |).irli- 
(ularly under the heads I nited States and West Imlies. wiil be fouml as well original as 
desirable. Something,, however, is still wantini;- to substantiate the utility of the 
commercial documents int« rspersed throut;h this work. The scattered rays nuist 
be drawn tot;«'tlu!r into one locus, that their mutual relations may be placed in a 
more ct)uspicuous lijiht, and their combined iiitluenre Ix' n.or<> duly apprt-ciated. 

It vas not until the l\e\olution that this country bei;au to form a riuht estimate 
of th ad\anta,ut's of commerce. From the time of William tin- Coiupuror to the 
rei^ii of i:ii/.ab«tli. a few feeble att<>mpts oidy were n)ai!e to establish *)r encourai;e 
uu'uufactun's. ComnuMie, either iiit«rual or external, was har«lly look«>d upon as a 
scurce of emolum«'ut, ami m()uo|»olies ami patents without umnber, si>tmed to fornv 
ll»<M)idy revenue of the (.'rtuMi, and interest of the Slate. 






Bill tlir ostahlislmu'iit ofllir Airi'iinin (((iDiurs in tlio irijiiis of James iumI Cliarlcs, 
if tlicv (!iil u«)t aHonl an imnir(liaf»< atlvantaj;*', laid llu' ronnilatiun of an «\tinsi\t< 
and |M'os|)iM()iis in(t'noiiis«> in limes to etmie. nefiui" Iji-iland \\as known a-^ a 
eommeivial state, Spain and I'oitnual liad immense a(<niisiiions in llie Indies; and 
it was with exactly tli»> same spirit of monopoly, and al»and«)imient of arts and nia- 
luifaetiires. that led lo the ruin of these sovereiiinti(>s. that tiie ori-inal charters of 
James, granted to the North American colonies, wer(< indittd. Wealth, witlu.nt 
indnst.y, produces eipially the tlehasemcut of individinds a> oC kin-doms. Spain 
and l»ortui>al fell conquests to their iidlnx of -oM. The Dutch rose upon their 
ruins, and lurame the curriers and factors ,)f the world, 'riu-ir formidal.h' na\ \ 
awi'kcned theapprehensioii and jealousy of ( Hrilain. 'I'he spirit »»f conuner- 
cial emulation was roused hy Croiuwell. and the celeluated navi-atitui act was lorlh 
with passed. Immediately upon tli.« Hevolution. three other a.ts were pass.-d of 
considerable importance to the extension of trade; namely, those of | >V . and M. 
cap. 12. and cap. 21., niul « (Jeo. I. cap. ICt. By the two tirst. htMinties wer»< 
jiianted t)ii the exportation of corn, when it »lid not exceo<l a limit«>il price ; l»y tin- 
last, near two hundred taxes, on ru>v mal«'rials imported, and on British manufactures 
exported, were at once rept^ded. 

A review of the wisely discriminative measures hy which tli«' commercial interests 
of Clreat Britain have been j-uarded and upheld to this «lay, woi.ld form a subjec f 
far too ditluse, and pre<?nant with historical and parliain.nfary circumstances, to 
aHonl any reasonable hope of doini;- justice to it in the limiteil sco|)e of this Preface; 
but the followiii}.- document 1ms in itself advanta.:>es of u natiir.> more valuable and 
intrinsic than any commentary I ini-l.t »»tr.'r on that subject. It is a .ontiiimMis and 
oro-anized system of facts, n.utually assistinj;- and assisted, a-ainst which tlnre is no 
answer or appeal. It is a standiii"- lecortl, that in all times ,.f internal cu- external 
coinnu)tion, of foreign or domestic peace, this ct)untiy, like soim. stately vessel, has 
been still impelled forvvani, iIom n a never-ebbins;- tide of tortiim«, whilst at every har- 
bour into which sh,. has enttM-ed, and at ev«My barivn p»>iiit at which she has touclu'd, 
^he lias left some lusting memorial of her ureatness and her wealth. 





The Annual Value of Goods Impoktkd into and Exported from Great Britain, com- 
pared uith tlieir 1'jXcess, in the undermentioned Years, viz. from IG97 to 
1812— IIG Years. 






I'xi'oi's. Imports Excess. 

Exports Excess. 

1697 ■ - 



. . - 


1698 ■ - 



. _ - 


1699 - - 

5,707 669 


- . . 


1700 - - 



. . . 


1701 - - 



- - 


1702 - - 



- - - 


1703 - - 



. - - 


1704 - - 



. . . 


1705 - - 




1 ,1-70,027 

J 706 - - 



. - . 


1707 - - 



. . . 


1708 - - 



. . . 


1709 - - 



. . . 

2,1 16,452 

1710 - - 



. . . 


1711 - - 




. . . 


1712 - - 



. . . 


1713 - - 



- - - 


i 1714 - - 



. . . 


! 1715 - - 



. . . 


1716 - - 



. . - 


1717 - - 



. . . 


1718 - - 



. . - 


1719 - - 



. . . 


1720 - - 



- - . 


1721 - - 


«,68 1,200 

. . . 


1722 - - 



. . . 


1723 - - 



. . . 


1724 - - 



. _ . 


1725 - - 



- - - 


1726 - - 



. - . 


1727 - ■ 



. . . 


1728 - - 



- - - 


1729 - - 



- - - 


1730 - - 



. . . 


1731 - - 



. . . 


1732 - - 



- . . 


1733 - - 



- - - 


1734 - - 










Imports and Exjxirts, kc, — conliiiued. 




Imports Fxcc.-is, 

Exports Kxces?. 

1735 - - 



■■ a. V 


1736 - - 



- - - 


1737 - - 



- . . 


1738 - - 



- - - 


1739 - - 



. . - 


J 740 - - 



. . - 


1741 - - 


11,4 69,872 

. . . 


1742 - - 



- . . 


1743 - - 



- - - 


1744 - - 



. - - 


1745 - - 



. . . 


1746 - - 



. - . 


1747 - - 



_ _ . 


1748 - - 





1749 - - 



_ . . 


1750 - - 



. . . 


1751 - - 



. . . 


1752 - - 



- . . 


1753 - - 



. . . 


1754 - - 



- - - 


1755 - - 





1756 - - 



. . . 


1757 - - 

9,2 53,317 


. . . 


1758 - - 



. . . 


1759 - - 



- . - 


1760 - - 



_ - . 


1761 - - 



■ - . 

6,822,05 1 

17G2 - - 





1763 - - 



. . . 


1764 - - 



. . . 


1 765 - - 





1766 - - 



- - 


1767 - - 



- » - 


1768 - - 



. _ . 


1769 - - 



. _ . 


1770 - - 



. . 


1771 - - 



- - . 


1772 - - 



, .. 


1773 - - 




3,356,1! 1 

1774 - - 



_ . - 


1775 - - 





, 1776 - - 





1777 - - 



. - - 




;') i 



Imports and Exports, A:v.— continued. 



Imports I'.xces.. 

Exports Hxcfss. 

1778 - - 



— * a. 


1779 - - 



- - - 


1780 - - 



- - . 


1781 - - 




1782 - - 



_ . _ 


1783 - - 



- _ _ 


1784 - - 



- . . 


1785 - - 



- - - 


178(i - - 



_ . . 


1787 - - 




1788 - - 




1789 - - 



_ _ _ 


1790 - - 



- . _ 


1791 - - 





1792 - - 



- - . 


1793 - - 





1794 - - 



- _ - 


1795 - - 



. . _ 


1796 - - 



- ■ . 


1797 - - 



. . - 


1798 - - 





1799 - - 



. - - 


1800 - - 



- _ - 


1801 - - 



- - - 


1802 - - 



. . - 


1803 - - 





1804 - - 





1 805 - - 





1806 - - 





1807 - - 





1808 - - 





1809 - - 





1810 - - 





1811 - - 





1812 - - 





1813 - - 







2,198,142 i 

Total Bal 

ance of Trade in 

favour ci^i^vt^uf Ri'itfiiii fiw 



■^'■■■^-■v^ vrA .a. ■ u\lW 111 

eai-is, up to 181 -J 

, inclusive, - - -,£.436,929,185 

* The aulhoritits for the above table are as follow ;— 
From 16.97 to 1773 inclusive,— Sir Charles Whifwortli's Tabl.;s, consistinj; of compilatioiis tVom animal accounts 
'lejivered tc House of Commons. 



- -s 





In the above account ^ye look in vain for those glaring features so common, smro 
the late unsettled and distressing times, in the commercial .statements of most other 
nations; for those striking distinctions of profit and loss, those blots of defalcation 
or those blanks of depreciation, with which the columns of their accounts have 
been so mvar.ably disgraced. We find, on the contrary, that the increase of the 
trade of Great Britam has been rapid and progressive; and that, if at any time a 
partial check has been experienced, it was the dam reserving the impetus of an 
overwhelmmg torrent, or that i.dierent stubbornness in material things, that relaxes 
but to recod, and that benefiting by coercion and resistance, assumes, in proportion 
a power more elastic, an energy more uncontroulable. 

I do not, however, mean to deny, that the variations of our Imports and Exports 
ui the long period just alluded to, bear sufficient marks of originality, in certain 
years, to afford ground for speculation and historical research. To li ce some >f 
he more important facts will be desirable; and I shall enter upon the subject wi 
he greater wi iingness, as I shall tL.s be led to the more immediate ob/ect of 
diapter, namely of affording some, I trust, useful illustrations respecting 
ntrinsic value of our colonies in the western hemisphere, and the relative e^tinm- 
t.on m which they should be held, as well with regard to each other as to tbe re- 
is expended "'' """"^ ''""*"'' *"" ''^"''' '•'" ""bounded interc(nirse of Great Britain 
From the year 1697 to 1776, a periou of 80 years, the value of the Imports in- 
IZL^oV'T"" v. "'"'"'^ ^"' '^^ *^^'^' *'-^ ^' *'- ^^^oL from 
43,000 to 7,359,000. Thus the Imports and Exports had ri.sen on a medium of 
h.r aggregate amount as 4 and a quarter to f, and the balance of tradeTs to 

1 11 80 years I„ the 36 years following „p to 1812, the highest amount of Im! 

lo^^o^o ' T'' :! ^^'"'^ '■'''''''''' '^"^^ ^^^ '-^-' ^'^^-- «^ "-^' - 

10,000,000, and thus the Imoorts and Fvnni*« 1..,..^ „• 

:ie 3^1:1:.:;;:^^^—*^ -^ '- ^--^^-^ - ^-s, compared with those :; 

f:i lUn \: T, ;nd;:::::'=K3':;; ur'r'.'?"'"'"'^^^^' ^"'t-"-' '^ -^"-- °f sedans 

and ,„her authenlic .I^I.'n.sI '"'"^ "•"''""'' ^'""'"''' 1 804-M,scellano«s Accounts and P., 

iipcrs, 1 8 1 2, 




Imports. ^ Export!), Export* Excess. 

« 12,090,775 806,.'n9,083 274,'228,308 

The excess of Exports to those colonies, now the United States, during the same 
period, was £.20,657,232 *, which was more than one-thirteentli of the whole com- 
mercial profit derived by Great Britain in lier intercourse with all parts. 

In the following six years of struggle and perturbation, arising from the American 
Revolution, a considerable proportion of our Exports to that part of the Continent 
had necessarily fallen off, though not to such an extent as might be imagined. The 
annual average excess of Exports for the six years ending 1776 was £.791,697, 
and for the six years following, or during the disturbances, £.362,123, making a 
loss of profit to Great Britain during the latter period, of somewhat more than half 
of that derived from the regular trade. 

The total amount of Imports and Exports to those colonies, with the balance of 
trade, for the six years ending 1782, was 

Imports. Exports. Imports Excess. Exports Excess. 

197,977 2,370,718 5,217 2,177,958 


"Balance in favour of Great Britain 





The total amount of Imports and Exports and Balance of Trade, between Great 
Britain and all parts, for the same period, was— 

Exports Excess. 






Imports Excess. 


Balance in favour of Great Britain - £.7,459,787 

So that during this period the intercourse of the United States formed a proportion 
of 2 to 7 of the whole balance of trade in favour of this country. 

The two next periods of 10 years each, commencing with 1783, will afford some 
general phaenomena on our commercial relations, respecting the effects produced by 
peace and by war. 

The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and all parts of 
the world, between the years 1783 and 1792, both inclusive, being 10 years of peace, 
was — 

.See Vol. V. Page O'J, of lliis Dictiniiiiry. 



he same 
le com- 

(1. The 
taking a 
han half 

ilance of 

en Great 




bid some 
duced by 

1 parts of 
of peace. 







i 58,006,7 II 



Imports Excess. 

Exports Excess. 


Balance in favour of Great Britain - £.14,654,847 

The vahze of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and the United 
States, dunng the above 10 years of peace, was- 

aloToin ''^'"""- Exports Exces,. 

«'^0>.O48 25.494,296 17.393.248 

the^\"o;e'i?v''"'''^*'!f^ "'■'*'•" ^''''"'^ ^'•"™ the United States alone in 

millbns ' ' ' '^"' '"" '" "*''^ ^""''^ ^^ '^' "•^r^^ ^y "---ly t»-ee 

With respect to the war period. 
The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and all oarts of 
the world, between the years 1793 and 1802, both inclusive, was J ^ 

ImporLi. I, 

244 I 'iq Oil '' Exports Excess. 

244,153,913 314,073,174 69,919,261 

The value of goods imported and exported between Great Britain and the United 
States, during the above 10 years of war, was- 

15 7rfi7«n ^'"'"""- Exports Excess. 

15,768,780 53,571,870 37.803,090 

The first thing to be noticed here is the extraordinary increase of profit derived bv 
Great Britain with all parts during 10 years of war, comparatively, witlftL prece di- 
lO years of peace, as there was an increase of nearly 5 to 1 in favour of tLTr t 
nod. ihe next observation, and what is not less worthy of remark, is, that in time 
of war, the exports to the United States diminished in so great 1 d gee that Tn 
«tead of exceeding those to all other parts, as they usually did in time of peace tVnv 

ports of the British empire to all parts; being, however, still more than do.ll r 
the excess of exports of the former period of 10 years of p;ace. ''"''' '' 

But this consideration naturally leads us to another not less 
Jhether the surplus of English commodities thus excluded fio„, Z T . wT '' 
did not find a vent, not merely as we have seen in othe parts but rn ^'"*^^.^^^^^«' 
m the British colonies in North America and in the WestTdies " '"'""'"'^ 







Now, the balance of trade from the North American colonies, for any period of 
10 years previously to that ending 1783, (when they benefited exceedingly by the un- 
settled state of the neighbouring colonies) was never greater than for the 10 years 
ending 17!)2, which was £.5,028,370*; and hence, the decrease of exports to the 
United States |, compared with the general trade of Great Britain, for the period of 
war ending 1002, may be taken as the cause of the increase of the balance of trade 
to our own colonies in North America, in the 10 years ending 1802, when it rose to 
£.7,735,401) ; this increase being as about 7 to 5 in favour of the North American 
colonies, whilst the decrease on the part of the United States was as about 2 to 4. 

Thus far, however, we have only brought to account the trade of oiu" North Ame- 
rican Colonies. — If we add to this another statement, also requisite to be made, of 
the trade to the West Indies, the demonstration of the proposition advanced Mill 
be infinitely more striking and conclusive. — But, in this case, it is not the balance 
of trade to which we must refer, since that of the West Indies is always against 
Great Britain; and this, although it may seem an anomaly, always at least to the 
amount to which she is really benefited. This will be easily understood, when it 
is remembered that colonial produce, constituting the imports, is so much real pro- 
perty belonging to the inhabitants of the country, which is the same as to the 
country itself, and is, consequently, so much profit; that the exports consisting 
chiefly of articles of manufacturing industry, are also so much profit. If, also, we 
consider that the imports from the North American colonies, and, in short, that, 
generally speaking, all exchange of wealth, whether in regard to import or export, 
between colonies and the parent state, is so much actual property belonging to and 
enriching the latter, it will obviously appear that, by taking the aggregate amounts 
of import and export of the trade between Great Britain and North America and 
the West Indies, and comparing the same with the aggregate amount of imports 
and exports of any other country for a similar period, we shall have a tolerably 
fair, and perhaps only, medium by which, in a short and compreliensive manner, 
an estimate of the value of any trade compared with that of our colonies can be 
made out. I proceed, therefore, to state, 



» See vol. V. page 35v), of this Dictionary, 
t See idem, page 66, idem. 

< ■ > 








The official Value of linportt! and Exports between Great Britain and the United 
States, and between Groat Britain and tiie North American Colonies and the Went 
Indies, for the two periods above alluded to, viz. — 

United Stntca. 

North America, 

West Indies. 

Sin|iluf of North 
Aniorica nnd 
Wc:tt Indian. 


10 years of peace, ^Imports 
ending 1792 -^Exports 


10 years of war, Um ports 
ending I 02 - ^Exports 










53,57 l,C70 




09,340,650 i 




Fi-om whence it appears, that from the year 1793, a comparative check was given 
to the trade of the United States by the increase of that to the colonies, for, 
whereas the intercourse of the former with Great Britain, aft'orded, as it has been 
already shewn, with respect to the balance of trade in her favour, for the 10 years 
ending 1792, an excess of the balance to all other parts, the amount of imports and 
exports having been as about 1-lOth, or as J.33,595,344 to £.330,788,270, in com- 
parison with those of Great Britain in general; and whereas in the 10 years ending 
1802, the same balance of trade with the United States, so far from exceeding, fell 
to about one-half of the whole balance of Great Britain, the imports and exports 
for the same period being, however, as l-8th, or as £.69,340,650 to £.558,227,087, 
in comparison of those of Great Britain in general, the large and progressive ad^ 
vance of the trade of the remaining colonies was most striking : first, from the 
balance of trade to the North American colonies for the last period of 10 years, 
bemg, as already shewn, as 7 to 5 compared with the former; and, secondly, irom' 
the aggregate amount of imports and exports of those colonies and the West In- 
dies, bemg with respect to those of Great Britain in general, as about 1-Otl,, in 
the former, or as £.51,817,826 to £.330,788,270, and as about one fifth, or as 
£.105,672,551 to £.558,227,087, in the latter of the periods under consideration; 
and here, also, I infer that the whole imports and exports of Great Britain havin- 
increased, in the latter period of ten years, in the ratio of as about five to three. 








1 1)1^' 

■' i 


! f 




whilst those of Nortli America and the West Indies have increased in ihe ratio of as 
about ten to five, and the latter angnientation being more than C(|nivalent to 
aeconnt for the increase of the trade of (ireat Britain in general, the comparative 
decrease of the trade to the United States was the canse of its increase to the British 

I proceed, now, to treat of the actual relative importance of the trade of the Western 
Hemisphere, compared with that to all other parts. 

The amonnt (official value) of the imports and exports, with their excess, and the 
balance of trade between ( Jreat Britain and all the Colonies in North America, and 
between Great Britain and all parts, for the period of 13 years, ending 1812, was 





Exports Excess. 


With Colonies in North America 

j Annual average balance in favour 

V of (Jreat Britain £ 

With all parts 

.'$.00, 584,739 


Aimual average balance in favour 
of Great Britain 


£. 7,544,312 

Thus the balance of trade derived from the North American Colonies, is as one 
tenth in proportion to the whole balance of trade derived by Great Britain with all 
other parts : it thus, also, appears that taking the aggregate amounts of the imports 
and exports, the trade of those Colonies forms one thirty-seventh and an half part of 
the whole trade of Great Britain, for the thirteen years ending 1812, or is as 
.f.23,8G5,532 to £.897,245,544 *. 

Thus far the tiade of our North American Colonies does not look very important, 
but, if there be any weight or moment in that generally received opinion, that on their 
possession depends, in all probability, the safety of the West India islands, and in 
consequence, our lucrative cormection with them, and their's with the United State?, 
and that in the eventual loss either of our North American or West Indian Colonies, 
our intercourse with the United States would be either suspended through the 
hostility of that government, or be put on a footing highly disadvantageous to this 
country ; in consideration, I say, of all these points, it Avill be necessary to take also 
into the accoiuit the aggregate value of the imports from and exports to those several 
parts separately and collectively; they were as follows : 

* See preceding tabic of Imports and Exports. 



J i 





For tlie thirteen years ending 1812. 

Between Great Britain and tlie Colonies 

of North America 

Idem, and the West In<lies .... 
Idem, and the United States . , . 









168,624,094 329,210,444 

£. 160,586,350 

From whence it appears that the trade of the Western Hemisphere, estimated on 
the aggregate amount of the imports and exports for tlie last thirteen years, is, 
according to the official value, though not quite half, more than one third of the value' 
of imports and CAports between Great B-itain and all parts, or as £.329,210,444 t„ 
£.897,245,544, or, at an annual average, as £.25,323,880 to £.6,0,018,880. 

It cannot be denied that the balance of trade with the Continent of Europe is in 
favour of the country; but more than half of the exports to that quarter consist of 
transatlantic produce*. With the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and Man the balance 
is against us,— with Africa it is but inconsiderably in our favour,— with Asia it is 
against us. But our colonies in the last-mentioned quarter are extensive and rich, 
and the nature of their commercial relations with the parent state may here hv 
advantageously considered. 

By a general account! of the trade of Great Britain for five years, ending 1810, 
the balance of trade in her favour amounted to as follows : 

t. O^W«/ value of exports 201,804,783 

O^c/a/ value of imports 162,228,462 

Balance m/aroM/- of Great Britain . £.39,576,321 

But, according to the realyahw, there appears by the same account, to have been a 
balance against Great Britain ; viz. 

* See lliis Dictionary, article West Indi es, Table (B.) 
t See idem idem. Table (C.) 
, ^t % '•^tum to the House of Commons. April 8, I S(,(f, it was shewn that the real is to the ojicial value as 40 to 

VvJj or O to 3m 

The official values ■.to calculatecl on estimates for.ned at the establishment of the office of inspector-general oi 
nnports and expor s n. the year IO96 ; and the real values are ascertained from the declarations of the exporter on 
all articles chargeable duty aU valore.n, and iron, the average prices current of the year, on articles S a" 
charged a rated duty, or entitled to a dcawback or bounty on the quantity exported. The quantities oXeZ 
and colonial goods exported are. in like manner, ascertained with the utmost accuracy, on delivery from 1 warf 
ouses for exportation, and the value, thereof are calculated at the otficiul rate, a'nd also at S aZge market" 


t V, 





/fcrt/valiu! of imports 2ni, '2.10,788 

/et'«/valu(M)f(Xi»ortN '2Mi,2(M, 10!) 

Balaiirc aarainst Great Biitaiu . . . i'. 2,O-2!»,.J70 

It is, however, to be remarked, that, taking tho traih; at thi« poriod, according to 
the real valne, the excess of exports to America and tlie West Indies was, neverthe- 
less, niONt considerable. 

Ileal value of exports 
To America . . . 
To West Indies 

Real valne of imports 
From America 
From West Indies 

r, 1,2 12,0 II 




Balance in favour of Great Britain 


Now, admitting the principle just urged, the advantages of a colonial intercourse, 
even when the balance is against the mother-country, it must also be allowed, that 
this benefit is neither so large or direct as that derived from an actual excess of 
exported to imported produce. Looking therefore at the comparative value of the 
trade to the East Indies and to the Western Hemisphere through this medium, one 
certainly not the most favourable to the latter, when the productions of the one and 
the other imported are relatively appreciated, we shall plainly perceive the extent to 
which the Western trade exceeds the Eastern, and the little probability there would 
be, in the case of the eventual loss of the former, of the defalcation being supplied 
by this portion of the Old World. 

Bv the account (C) above referred to, for the five years ending 1810, the balance of 
trade with Asia against this country was prodigious, viz. 

Real value of imports from Asia . . . 39,402,437 
i?ea? value of exports to Asia .... 16,641,554 

Balance against Great Britain . 


So that the difference of value, as to the balance of trade between the Eastern and 
Western Hemispheres in the above period was, 





>i'ding to 

wed, that 

excess of 
ue of the 
iium, one 
le one and 

extent to 
ere would 
; supplied 

balance of 





lixcfss of exportfi to America and the West Indies 
Excess of imports from Asia 

Total in favour of the Western Hemisphere. . . 




Or, at the annual average of live years, ending 1010 £.9,254,275 

astern and 

Nor does an agt^egate statement of the amount of imports and «>xports make the 
account with Asia more favourable. For the live years ending IHIO, the total value 
of these was £.50,123,991, or, at an annual average, £.11,224,79}), whereas the value 
of those of America and the West Indies was £.232,022,700, or, at an annual 
average, £.40,504,552, which is as four to one in favour of the latter; and, whilst 
the trade to America and the West Indies for the same period was nearly half of the 
total of that of Great Britain, or as £.232,022,760 to £.500,432,197, that to Asia 
formed only one-tenth part of it, being as £.56,123,991 to £.S0({,432,I97. 

Ill closing these cursory remarks on the commercial relations of Great Britain, one 
other would seem to force itself upon my attention ; namely, how do these facts and 
calculations bear upon the internal situation of the country, her resources and her 
finance? To which I answer, that, though aware of the strong and intimate connec- 
tion existing between them, I am also too .sensible of the impossibility, should 1 
endeavour to point them out, of my doing justice to the subject in the limited 
scope of this Preface : a due sense, also, of my own inefliciency would cause me to 
shrink from the task, at least till I had better prepared myself to enter upon its 
execution. In the absence, however, of more practical results, it should appear that, 
upon a re-consideration of what has been here laid down, the following important 
conclusions may be deduced. 

First, That an insular situation, with a superiority of marine, is most favourable to 
general and colonial trade ; and that such a power will be strengthened and en- 
riched by the dissentions that weaken and impoverish the rest. 

Secondly, That it is as difficult for a nation with a commanding trade to exceed her 
resources, as it is for another without commerce to supply them. 

Thirdly, That an increase of trade involves an increase of industry, and that as 
the latter generates an augmentation of capital and floating medium to represent, in 
part, the property created, a National Debt may, in that light, be considered as the 
offspring of national prosperity. 

Fourthly, That a National Debt having a direct tendency to attach the public 
creditor to the government, is a great sedative in every disposition to domestic 




(listurhiUKM'. aiul ran novoi- ho «lau}>0K)n.s hut when moans aiv (hiUitnt io pay tho 
intorosl Ihoroon ; and thai, with a oonnnanding trach', it is almost impossihh' tor 
siu>li jlofioionoy to arise. 

Finally, That oonnnorce is the oontro and oircnmfeionot! of insidar }>i-oatnoss. 
and tliat the oxallalion of (Jioat Britain in the scale of nations has proeoeded from, 
and must over (h'i)end upon, an attention to its interests. 




i PI 

1 1 

TAUT in. 


Ic> pay 1li«> 
(Kssililf lor 



(UhI from. 



In sta(<HH>nt i» may Im- lur. ssaiy t<. pivniisr. Ihat ll.o traii.sla(i..ii ..f tl.o ..ri-iiial 
vc.lmutvs >vnv ro.nplrlnl uHI,i„ the ( y,>ar afU-,- tl„. voumwuvcuum cf the 
t-Ml^rfak.nj.. so tUv iulr.vruino ,M.ri,Hl of .our yra.s to tho ,uvsc„t ...o.nn.t,tl, 11... rx.vption of so,,,.. i,..Iispn,sal,lo ,.„j.aov,„..„ls) l,.r,. ,.x.l.,siv..|y ,l,.v.,t.-.l 
l<» n,t. ..MUiulat,.,,, of „.at..,ials IV.,„. s„.l, u.„k.s as „,ioI,t ill„s|,at.. a,„l till „p tl„. 
e.vtn.s.v.. o„tli„.. thai ha<l 1,...„ o,ij;inally .halk,.! o„t ; whilst, with a vi.w of 
l»«-i.j....j; .1... l),.t,ona.y to tho highrst p.rlWti.M. ..f uhi.l, it was .apal.l.-. ..v..,y souno 
otuiUmuMum has luvn t... a,..l „.. ,.vp.M,s.. ,„• lah,.,..- has Urvn spar..! 

io tl,.. „a.„.. .,r thr s.>v.Mal auth..,iti.>s I,.mv .p,ot...l. I s„l,joi„ tl... „at,„v a,„l ,.x|..„t 
" th.. ,.xt,a.-ts that hav.. I,.r„ „,a<l..; ,m hvss Co,- the p,„pos.. .,f a.k>,ouU-,lui„.. „.v 
ol.l.;;a.,.>„ to ..a.I, i,. pa,.i.M,la,-. tha,. ..f poi„ti..f; o„t ,o th.. ,ra.!o,- the on„„ ..poi, 
M J,iel, any laet or (loe„ii,ei,t n,ay have be.ii instite.l. 

\UT in. 

rsOHTll AiMFHK A. 

Lviiors IV.„„ (^u,a.l«, writ...,, .hui.,. a Uosi.l..,KH. tlu-.v i» .1... Yoa,-s IS(K{. IS()7. a.ul ISOS slu.„ i,,.. 
lu. ,>.vs..,.t ^, its l>n„|,u.ti.,ns, T.-a.!.., c., I>np.>.-.a,u-.., an.l ,,,i..a, ,{.,,,: 
u.ns ; ..xlnlu,M.» als,. th.-.-.,.„,n.....-ial l..,,H,.ta,H-.. .,f Newlhuaswick, a.ul Ca,,.. n,.,..,,. .^,. .^.. 
Uy lli.iii (.llA^. London. ISO!). 

, ,' "" '; ','"'■","'' ' ' •''•''■ "•'■■'"""lion from this ,vo,k, ,.i,l„.r 1„ .-Mrarls ,„■ n.l 

Itiuiisuiik. N„V!, S,:„(ii,. au.l l'ass;,„uu|uo,l,l_v Ifciy. 

i..<.I...Im».„„„.m,U, rv„„„,i«l(!,„,il,w. isi.i. 

I ..-X i„sn„.,l a s,va, „„„ ,- „r ,„■„ a,-.i,.l..,, r,,,,,, ,l,i» l,„ ,,. ,,„,,,,„.„ 





' !' 

' t 


^ i!' 


' 1 f 



the topography of others, and selected from it the tables exhil)itii)g the division of the 
province of Upper Canada, together with the bearings and distance of every principal 
place from York. 

The Britisli Empire in America, containing tlie History of the Discovery, Settlenent, Progress and 
State of the Continent and Islands of America. '2 vols. London. 1741, 

These volumes, although in a great degree superseded by the information of more 
recent liistorians, I have found it necessary to consult no less in the early history of 
the West Indies than of the Continental Colonies in North America, with a view to 
fill up and illustrate particular portions of historical dissertation, as, amongst others, 
in the articles Massachusetts and West Indies. 

The History of the Colony of Massachusett's Bay, from the first Settlement thereof in 1628 to the 

Year 1719. By Mr. ifuxcniNSoN, Lieutenant Governor of the Massachusett's Province. 

!2 vol-;. Londor. 17(0. 

As forming an interesting record of the transactions of a British Settlement, the 

parent of all the other Coiumcs of New England, and of political events in which all 

the other American Colonies were deeply concerned, I have inserted an abridgment 

of the complete history of Massachusetts under that article. 

Some Information respecting America, collected by Thomas Cocpeh. London. 1794, 

Tin: information contained in this pamphlet was collected by the author with a 
view to serve as a guide for his own conduct, though he published it for the informa- 
tion of his friends, and to account for his motives for quitting this country, and going 
to ^ettle in the I'nited States ; his chief reason appearing to be, as ho states, the com- 
parative ease of providujg for a large family in the latter country. I have inserted in 
the Dictionary some extracts of the American trade, as it stood about the period of 
hiN journey, together with many commercial tables of coins and exchanges at the end 
of llie article United States. 

Travels througli Lower Canada and the United States of North America, in the Years i806, 
IS()7, and IS08. By John Lambfiit. J vols. London. iSJO. 

Amonot nuK h lit^lit but pleasing anecdote, a great deal of weighty statistical in- 
formati(»n is contaiiuMi in these voliun.s ; and there are, consequently, few articles in 
the Dielinnary, which, with regard to the latter sort of communication, and within the 
seopeofthat authors research, are not indebted in a greater or less degree to the 
valuable contents of his work. 


ion of tlie 

rogress and 

1 of more 
liistoi'y of 
a view to 
;st others, 

1628 to the 
> Province. 

ment, the 
wliich all 


[)r with a 
3 informa- 
111(1 going 
tlie coni- 
iscrted in 
period of 
it the end 

'ears J 806, 

tistical in- 
iirlich's in 
tvithin the 
ee to Iho 


The American Review of History' and Politics, and General Repositorj- of Litc.atme and State 

Papers. 3 vols. Loudon. ISI'2. 

Tm: title of this work too clearly indicates its importance with re-iard to that sort 
of information aspired to in the Dictionary, to need any comntent; hnt it may be 
proper to stale, tiiat the accounts of trade, revenue, and Hnance, under the article 
United States, have either been formed from the Treasury Reports and other ollicial 
documents contained in that periodical, or by such a collation of them with other 
materials as might have fallen into my pc ossion. 

The Travels of Captain Lew- and Clarke, !rom St. Louis, by way of the Missouri and Columbia 
Rivers, to the Pacitic Ocean, in the Years 1801, J803, and IS06, by o.der of the (Government 
of the United States; containing Debneations of the Manners, Customs, Rolbion, &c of the 
Indians, &c. &c. &c, London. 1812. 

Besides inserting numerous new articles in the Dictionary, under the heads or names 
of the different tribes, with a succinct detail of their particular manners and customs, 
I have extracted from this memoir an account of the navigation of the Missouri, its 
soil, productions, and commerce; and this, with a more speciHc description of the 
degree and nature of the civilization existing amongst the natives, may be found under 
that article; as likewise an account of the navigation, &c. &c. of the Mississippi 
under this head, being also extracted from a document in that memoir, taken from the 
journals of Wm. Dunbar, Esq. and Dr. Hunter. 

History of the Voyage from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence, through the Continent of North 
America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1789 and 1793; with a Preliminarv 
Account of the J{ise, Progress, and Present State of the Fur Trade of that Country. By A . ex- 
ANOER Mackenzif, Esq. London. -^ ^ 

An abstract historical narrative of the Fur Trade has been drawn from this volume 
and ,s mserted under the article Canada; also, the positions of numerous phKvs that 
had been touched at and explored in the rout of this enterprising traveller, have been 
notihed under separate articles. 

The Gazetteer of the American Continent, an 1 also of the West L.dia Islands, &c. <S:c. .v^c. By 

.Iedidiaii Morse, D.D. London. 1798. 

In abnostall the minor articles of the United States this Dictionary maybe said to be 
a reprint ot this Gazetteer, and respecting these the author ha. to n-jret'that he could 
only r- -ure an abstract .letail of the population of each >late according to the la^l 

d 2 

« _ t 

( i 




XX\ 111 


census. The reader will, therefore, consider the amount of population, and in general 
the statistical information in the townships, &c. as correspondini:!,' with that of the year 
1700 ; and for the present amounts, the numbers may, on an average, he about doubled, 
as may be seen in the account of the population in the periods 1790 and 1810, and 
statistical table of the progressive increase of the United Stales for twenty years; and 
this method I have preferred, as more consistent with the character of the Dictionary, 
as being rather a book of authority and of fac^s, than of facts submitted on analogy 
and surmise. 

The work of Morse is too well known not to be generally appreciated, it is an 
abstract of all the works written on America and the West Indies up to the year 
1796; besides v.bich it contains mucli local information respecting the Unitod States 
not to be found in any other book existing. It would indeed be reprinthig a cata- 
logue to recapitulate all the authors and documents mentioned by Morse, in his pre- 
face, as his authorities, I shall therefore forbear to restate them here. It was 
suggested by persons of talei^ts and discernment, .ipon my proposition of translating 
Al<jedo's volumes, that the embodying with it the contents of the American Gazetteer 
would make a veri/ complete work. Indeed a better sui>erstructure for the American 
Dictionary could not have been laid ; but what I have already stated in regard to the 
illustration of the original, and what I am about to add, will shew how even the con- 
tents of Morses elaborate production have been improved upon by the addition and 
collation of later authorities. 

Political Essay of the Kingdom of New Spain, containing Researches relative to the Geography of 
Mexico, the Extent of its Surface and its Political Division into Intendancies, the physical 
Ai-pect of the Country, the Population, the State of Agriculture and Manufacturing and Com- 
mercial Industrj, tlie Canals projected between the South Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, the 
Crown Revenues, the Quantity of Precious Metals whicii have flowed from Mexico into 
Europe and Asia, since the Di'covery of the New Continent, and the Military Defence of New- 
Spain. By Ai.EXANDEH DC Humboldt. London. ISll. 

I HAVE found it necessary greatly to condense, and, at the same time, completely to 
new-arrange the valuable w ork of this learned traveller ; in the first instance, by a 
general digest, under the article iMexico ; in the second, by the insertion of a greater 
part of his information on the intendancies of Nuiva Espana, in new articles, under 
separate heads; in the third, by a collation of his statistical accounts with those of 
Ahjedo antl otlicis, in tlic several capitals and towns; and, lastly, by an insertion of 
various new settlements, and many, now by him more accurately ascertained, geogra- 
phical positions. 

I general 
the year 
310, and 
ars; and 

it is an 
the year 
3d States 
g a cata- 
i his pre- 
It was 
ird to the 
I the con- 
iition and 

'ograpliy of 
he physical 
»• and Coni- 
Occan, tlic 
Icxico into 
nee of New 

ipletely to 
nee, by a 
' a greater 
les, under 
h those of 
isertion of 
■d, geogra- 

PREFACE. xxix 


Histoire Philusophiqnc ct Politique dcs Etablissemens ct du Commerce dcs Europeens dans les 
deux Indes. Tomes 7. a la Haye. 1774. 

By the large scale on which this work has been planned, it may be considered a 
reservoir of much useful information; and I have not failed to drsiw frt m it such as 
could not be afforded through other sources : but as the chief advantages I have 
derived are rather illustrations in amoral and philosophical point of view, than any 
abstract historical, commercial, or physical information, their influence is too loosely 
diffused over the Dictionary to authorize the mention of one particular instance iu 
preference to the rest. 

Voyage a la Partie orientale de la Tierre Ferme, dans I'Anierique Meridionale, fait pendant les 
Annees 1801, 1802, 1803, et 1804. Par F. Depons. Tomes 3. a Paris, 1806. 

The whole of the N. and N. E. Coast of South America, including the whole of 
the ^jpanish dominions, bounded by Peru and Mexico on the W. and by the At- 
lantic on the E. formed the object of the statistical researches of Depons ; conse- 
quently I have readily adopted all the new information I could find relative to the 
governments, provinces, cities, towns, and villages, within the scope of his inquiry ; 
and, as most of the articles in the Dictionary, with respect to those territories, 
will be found to be either entirely new, or an improvement of the original work of 
Albedo, the readf - is requestetl, except where the contrary is asserted, to consider, 
in all such cases, Depons as the authority for the information submitted. 

Interesting official Documents relating to tlie United Provinces of Venezuela. London. 1812. 

The declaration of independence by a country so large and valuable as that of 
Venezuela, was, in an historical point of view, a subject of too great magnitude not 
to deserve a specific and minute attention. As a corollary therefore to the outline of 
events tliat led to the independence of those States, the official documents that they 
have published, namely, ' the Grievances complained of in their Manifesto,' their 
' Act of Independence,' &c. and their ' Federal Constitution,' have been recorded 
in the Dictionary. 

Sketch of the present State of Caracas, including a Journey from Caracas, through la Vittoria 
and Valencia, to Puerto Caballo. By Robert Semple. London. 1812. 

This little volume, though neatly written, is chiefly entitled to notice from its late- 
information respecting the territories of which it treats. Some brief account of 






1 1 

ill V* 





VoiK'Zuela, and of other places on the roast of Caracas, is the extent of the ex- 
tracts for which the Dictionary is ind(!l)te(l. 

Vo^'agcs dans rAmerique Meridionalc. Par Don Felix de Azaua, Commissairc pt Coni- 
iimndant dcH limitcs Espagnoles dans le Paraguay. Depuis 1781 jusqu'eii 1801. Tomes t. 
Paris. 1809. 

The oliject of Azara was to collect the most accurate statistical information of 
that part of the South American Colonies bordered on the N. by Brasil, N. \V. by 
Pern, and S. W. by Chile, namely, of Paraguay and la Plata. The result of his 
inquiries have been incorporated by the collation of his information with that of 
Alfredo in some hundreds of articles, and many new ones have been added on his 
authority. The geographical positions of the several settlements now existing in 
those territories, the years of their foundation, and the amount of their several 
populations, have been extracted from the tables in his work, and may be found 
under articles liuenos Ayrcs and Paraguay of the Dictionary. Some illustrations 
of their natural history have also been transferred into the Appendix. 

Guia Politica, Eclcsiastica y Militar de Virreynato del Peru ; or, Political, Ecclesiastical, and 
Military Guide of the Viceroyality of Peru. Published annually ' for the Academical Society 
of Lovers of the Country of Lima.' 

The first number of this work was published in 1793. In 1797 it contained a 
digest of the information of the four previous years ; and having received the sanc- 
tion of the Governor, contained some useful tables of a commercial, financial, and 
statistical nature. Indeed it seems always to have been well compiled, and in a 
manner to give, in a small compass, the greatest possible information respecting 
the power, resources, and actual state of that viceroyalty ; and I much regret that, 
not having been able to obtain any information respecting the subsequent numbers (and 
it is not improbable that they were suppressed) I was obliged to seek for other autho- 
rities in completing the account of those far-famed territories. And this I have done, as 
the reader will find, by consulting those no less accredited works, the Viagero Universal, 
and Alvear y Ponce. But of the preciseness and value of the information of the perio- 
dical just alluded to, the reader will be convinced, amongst various other instances, 
by turning to those under the articles Xauxa, Urubamba, Yauyos, &c. in the 


■ » 





f the ex- 

D et Com- 
Tomes 1. 

nation of 
>f. \V. by 
lit of his 
1 that of 
d on his 
dsting in 
[• several 
)e found 

stical, and 
ul Society 

itained a 
:he sanc- 
cial, and 
md in a 
ret that, 
)ers (and 
?r autho- 
! done, as 
be perio- 
. in the 

Tho (Jcoeniphical, Natural, and Civil History of Cliile. By Abbe Don J. Ignath's Molina. 
With Notes, from the Spanish and French Versions. United States. 180S. 

Therk are, 1 believe, few persons (certainly amongst those with whom I have 

met) who have not read and been delighted with this entertaining production. So 

convinced was I of the valuable and perspicuous information it contained with 

regard to those southern limits of th(> Spanish dominion, that I resolved not to 

omit any thing in the Dictionary that had been stated by Molina, and seemed 

worthy of record. But this has been a work of considerable difliculty ami labour. 

for not only has the manner of imparting such information to my readers been 

necessarily completely changed to suit itself to the style of the work before them. 

but it has been condensed into somewhat less than one-half of the original, and this 

more especially by curtailing the more minute and uninteresting part of the detail 

of the Araucanian wars, or of such other heads of investigation as appeared to have 

been already fully treated of, either under the original article, or the provinces of 

the kingdom of Chile, by Albedo. 

History of Brasil. By Robert Soutuey. Part the P>st. London. 1810. 
The article Brasil in the Dictionary is almost exclusively indebted, with regard 
to the historical information, to the labours and researches of this author, as far as 
his narrative is now before the Public, that is to say, for the period between the 
year 1498 and H512. Some other articles have also been entirely newly written or 
corrected by the same authority. 

History of Brasil comprising a Geographical Account of that Country, together with a Narra- 
tive of the most remarkable Events which have occurred there since its Discovery &c &c 
ByANDHEwGRAKT, M.D. London. 1809. .y, vxi,. o.t. 

A CONTINUATION of the History of Brasil has been brought down to the present 
rlay from the period above mentioned, namely, from 1042 to the middle of the last 
century, by a succinct narration of the events alluded to in the annexed title; and 
rom that period to the present day, by a particular detail of each, as they attached 
to he different, either upon the credit of the same authority, or of 
.uch other as might, m the course of my researches, have fallen in my way. 




' > ' 




Travels in the interior oP Brasil, partir ularly in the Gold and Diamond Districts of tliat Country, 
by Authority of the Prince Regent of Portugal, including a Voyage to the Rio de la Plata, 
&c. &c. By John Mawe, Author of the Mineralogy of Derbyshire. London. 1812. 

Much useful information has been derived from this work respecting the soil, 
productions, and mineralogy of all the most important places of Brasil, no less than 
of those of Monte Video, and other parts of the province of Buenos Ayres, so that 
from 25 to 30 long and important articles have either been fresh arranged, or newly 
prepared from the observations of this interesting traveller. 


The West India Common-Place Book, compiled from Parliamentary and Official Documents, 
shewing the Interest of Great Britain in its Sugar Colonies, &c. &c. &c. By Sir William 
Young, Bart. F.R.S. M. P. London. 1807. 

Although, through the liberality of friends, I had, from time to time, been 
put in possession of most of the important parliamentary documents that might assist 
me in the subject in which I was engaged, yet such is the clearness and perspicuity 
with which the voluminous information of the annexed work is arranged, that I can- 
not but express myself in the most unqualified manner indebted to it ; since, indeed, 
wherever it has answered my purpose, I have made use of the subject matter of the 
text, no less than of such tables as might conduce to its illustration; but not, I trust, 
with such a close imitation either of method or arrangement as in any way to injure 
the originality of the Common-Place Book. With respect to the value of the extracts 
I have made, the reader m''11 be enabled in some degree to judge by the following 
account of the high pretensions of the honourable author, though so modestly asserted 
by himself. 

" When (says he, in his Preface, page 11) I first took my seat in the House 
of Commons, now more than twenty-two years past, I carefully observed the course 
and succession of parliamentary business, with the view of chalking out some line of 
industry, rather than of talent, in which I might qualify myself to be humbly useful 
to my country ; and I selected the Poor Laws, the British Fisheries, and the Com- 
merce of the Kingdom, as the leading subjects on which my attention was to be fixed, 
and my attendance given on the Committee. From that time (June, 1784) I kept a 
Common-Place Book, in which I entered, under distinct heads, whatever occurred 
iinder these matters iu dabate, or I could collect from the Statute Book and other 
reading; and, at the same time, I carefully arranged and preserved, every document 
returned to Parliament, and some which Avere not printed by order of the House, I 
copied iu the Journal Office." 





lat Country, 
le la Plata, 


; the soil, 

) less than 

ea, so that 

or newly 

V William 

ime, been 
ight asijist 
lat I can- 
e, indeed, 
ter of the 
)t, I trust, 
T to injure 
e extracts 
y asserted 

lie House 

tie course 

ne line of 

)ly useful 

the Coni- 

) be fixed, 

I kept a 


and other 


House, I 


The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies la the West Indies. By Biiyan 
Edwards, Esq. F.R.S. S. A. 3 Vols. London. 1801. 

This generally appreciated work, though consulted by Morse and other authors of 
later date, of whose labours I have availed myself, was yet too clear and circuujstan- 
tial in the original not to require my attentive perusal, and the consequence has been 
that I have found it necessary, in justice to the plan of the Dictionary, to form from 
the historical information contained in Edwards's volumes, a newly digested, and con- 
cise History, not only in sepai. 3 articles relating to most of the islands,' but con- 
jointly under the head West Indies. Some of his statistical information has also 
been acceptable. 

Present State of the Spanish Colonies, including a particular Report of Hispanola, or the Spa- 
nish Part of Santo Domingo, &c. &c. &c. By William Walton, Junr. Secretary to tho Ex- 
ped.t.on which captured the City of St. Domingo from the French ; and resident British Agent 
there. 2 Vols. London. 1810. ^ 

Some information of an interesting and useful nature, extracted from the annexe<I 
work, has been scattered over several parts of the Dictionary; such for instance as 
may be traced in the account of the Spanish intercourse with Vera Cruz, under thai 
article, and in the later detail of historical transactions relative to St. Domingo under 
the article West IndL. ^ with various other cursory statements and remarks, for which 
as they might be too tedious to detail, it is hoped this general acknowledgment of 
obligation will suffice. 

'^Wri!^T?\^'r'''""'''r"'^'''""'^^ Q-rter of the 

World ; Illustrated by copious Statistical Tables, constructed on a new PlaZ By P. Col^u- 
HOUN, LL.D. London. 1814. "^ 

No one unless prepared to push his researches to the extent of those of this dis- 
tinguished author, or unless enjoying every means of information on the subjects on 
Jhich he has been peculiarly engaged, could do justice to his compilation, by pro- 
ducmg any original statements, however nearly by approximation they might corres- 
pond with those in the Statistical Tables here quoted 

n.nnr.'' ^ ^""^T T^^ "^ ""^"' *"^"*^ '^ '"' judgment in having given the amount of 
population, and the estimated value of the colonies, asset forth in his most useful 
and elaborate treatise. 

V ?■ 



■' ri i a 


xxxiv PREFACE. 


State of tlio Trade of Great Britain, in its Imports and Exports, progressively, from the Year 
ieS7 to 1773, &c. &c. &c. Uy Sir Cuarles Whitwohth, M. P. Folio. London, 177U. 

This was the Hrst and last work of the kind ever undertaken, in this or perhaps 
any other country. In as far as relates to the trade of the western hennsphere and 
to the trade of Great Britain with all parts, I have, by the assistance thereby attbrded, 
given complete accounts of the Imports and Exports, from the Revolution down to 
the present day, distinguishing those, 

• with North America, 
with the West Indies. 

■ witli the United States. 

■ with all parts of the world. 

1st. of Great Britain 
2d. of do. - 

3d. of do. - 

4th. of do. - 

Annals of Commerce, Manufactures, Fisheries, and Navijfration, &c. &c. &c.; with an Account of 
the Commercial Transactions of the British Empire and other Countries. By David Macfiier- 
soN. 4 Vols. London. 1805. 

This valuable compilation, amongst other important records of the trade to Ame- 
rica and the West Indies, is enriched with a series of official documents, from whence 
I was enabled to bring down the Tables of Import and Export above alluded to, and 
as inserted in the Dictionary, to the year 1800 inclusive. 

The History of the Public Revenue of the British Empire. By Sir John Sinclair, Bart. 

3 Vols. London. 1790, and 1804. 

Many of the financial and commercial calculations in the Dictionary have been 
made upon the credit of the accounts and statements found in the elaborate and useful 
production of the distinguished author here quoted. 

An Inquiry into the Colonial Policy of the European Powers, By Henry Brougham, Jun. Esq. 

2 Vols. Edinburgh, 1803. 

I OWN myself indebted for several useful hints and illustrations to this able treatise. 

The Financial Accounts and Papers laid before Parliament. 

By these, as far as they have been laid before the House ofCouunons for some years 
piist, I have been able to supply the deficiencies of modern authors in all objects of 
s1ati>tical research. 




n tlio Year 

1, mo. 

•r perhaps 
[)here and 
I afforded, 
I down to 

I Account of 
) Macpuer- 

e to Arae- 
>in whence 
ed to, and 

LAIR, Bart. 

have been 
and useful 

Some Series ofCaracaH and other South American Gazettes. 
An intimate view of the more recent affairs of the Spanish colonies has thus l).'«'ii 
brought before me, from wlience I have reflected such lights upon those subjects in 
the Dictionary as might be deemed desirable. 

A Number of Original and Personal Communications, of the Sources of which the Translator does 
not feel himself warranted more spccilically to treat. 

But though restricted from speaking of the sources of such communication, it will 
be necessary to mention their nature ; and I shall, therefore, at the same time, be-v to 
offer my smcerest acknowledgments for the liberal communications of those Genlle- 
men, who, from the situations they have held, or from the interest they have had in 
America or the West Indies, have been peculiarly entitled to my gratitude, who 
have added so much to the value of the book by the local informatvn they have, in so 
nmny instances, contributed. 

I am also particularly bounden in duty to express my sincere thanks for the as- 
sistance and advice I have had the good fortune to enjoy, during the whole course 
of my labours, from one, who, equally distinguished for his judgment and experience 
IS hlling, with universal applause, an exalted station in the British Government- by 
whose powerful assistance I have been able to supply whatever of statistical, financial 
and commercial information was necessary to the completion of a Work, which I 
trust, will prove as novel in its principle as useful in its design. 

M, Jan. Esq. 
)le treatise. 

some years 
objects of 


PAirr IV. 

. '■*r 

■■»■! - 1- -^Ci-iriiti i,r 






M ' / 


TA BLE of the Geographical Positions of the more important Places in the Spanish 
Colonies, determined by Astronomical Observations. 

(The positions marked with an asterisk, arc established cither by triangulations, or angles of altitude 

and azimuths.) 

Namei of Places. 


Mexico -.---.--- 

S. Au^nstin dc Ins Cuevas, (village) 
Cerro dc Axusco*, (mountain) • - 
Venta dc Chaico, (farm) - - - 
Moran, (mine) - - - - - - 

Aclopan, (villajjc) . . . - . 
Totonilco el Grande, (village) - - 
Tisajuca, (village) . - . . - 
Toluca, (village) ------ 

Nevado dc Toluca 

San Juan del Rio, (city) - - - 
Qucretaro, (city) ------ 

Sulamnnca, (city) .-.-.- 
Guanaxuato, (city) . - - - - 

Valladolid, (city) 

Patzquaro, (city) . - - - 
Las Piajas de JoruUo, (farm) 
Volcan de Jnrullo* - - - 
Pont d'lstla, (farm) - - • 
Tehuilotepec, (village) - - 

Tasco, (city) - - - . 
Tepecuacuilco, (village) 
Puente de Entola, (inn) ' 
Mescala, (village) 
Popocatepetl*, (volcano) 

San Nicolas de los Ranchos, (village) 
Itztacihuatl*, (mountain) . - - - 
Pyramide de Cholula, (ancient monu- 

N. Latiludr. 

19 25 45 

19 18 37 

19 15 '27 

19 1(1 8 

20 10 4 
20 17 28 
20 17 55 

19 16 19 
19 II 33 

20 3G 39 

20 40 

21 15 

19 42 

18 37 41 

18 35 
18 20 

17 56 4 

18 35 47 

19 2 
19 10 

19 2 6 

I^ngitiide W, 

fioni London, 

n degrees. 

99 5 30 

99 7 
99 12 


W. from Pa 
ris. In time. 

Names of Obaervcrsind Remarks. 

98 28 
98 49 
98 33 

98 51 

99 21 
99 25 
99 52 

100 10 
100 55 
100 55 






100 52 15 

lOI 90 


101 I 

m 14 

99 28 

99 29 
99 28 
99 24 
99 29 

45 42 Humboldt, at the convent 
of St. Augustin. 
6 45 48 idem. 
6 46 1 1 idem. 











idem, at the house of Don 






6 52 49 

30 6 
45 6 


98 33 

98 21 
98 35 

98 13 30 






43 33 



6 42 14 

Diego Rul. 
dem, at the bishop's pa- 





idem, near the watcr-spout 





idem, summit of themoun- 




e Spanish 
I of altitude 

md Remark). 

he convent 

use of Don 
ishop's pa- 




Table of Geographical PoHitioiin — f continued. J 


Namri of Placet. 

La Put'bhi do los Angeles, (citj') - 
Vcnia dc .*»olto, (farm) .... 
Perotte, (village) ---... 
Coffre de Perote, (mountain) - - 
l-as Vigas, (village) - - - _ . 

Xalappa, (city) 

Cerro de IVfacultepec, (mountain) - 
Pic d'Orizaba*, (volcano) • ■ . 

EI Encero, (farm) 

Tezcuco*, (city) ---.-.. 
Zumpango*, (village) . . . . . 
El Pertol*, (hill) 

Xaltocan*, (village) - - . - - .- 
Tchiiilovuca*, (village) - - . . . 
Haciencia de Xalpa*, (farm) - - . 
Cerro de Chiconnutia*, (hill) - - . 
San Miguel dc Guadalupe*, (convent) 

Huehuetoca*, (village) 

Gurita de Gaudalupe*, (barrier) - - 
Cerro de Sincoque*, (hill; - - . . 
Hacienda de Santa Ifies*, (farm) - - 
Cerro de San Christoval *, (mountain) 
Pucnte del Salto *, (bridge) . - - 


Campeche, (city) -----_. 
Punta dc la Disconocida - . . - - 

Castillo del Sisal 

Alacran, (western point) - . - - . 
Alacnui, (northern extremity) - - . 
Mouth of the Rio de los Lagartos 

Punta S. O. del Puerto 

North point of the Conboy - - - . 
South point of the Conboy - - . . 
Baxo del Alerta ....... 

Shallow of Diez Brazan 

Small island to the S. W. of the triangle 

Baxo del Obispo - - 

Vera Cruz, (port) ----.-. 
Island of Sacrifices, (centre) ... 

Shallow of the Pajaro 

Isia Verde --...._.. 
Islote Blanquillafl, (centre) .... 
Anegada de Fuera (south point) - - 

Gallega Shallow - 

Punta Gorda -.--.. 

N. Latitude. 

19 I.-} 
19 S6 30 
19 33 37 
19 28 57 
19 37 37 
19 30 8 
19 31 49 
19 2 17 

19 28 25 
19 30 40 
19 46 52 
19 26 4 
19 42 47 
19 43 17 
19 47 58 
19 38 39 
19 28 48 
19 48 38 
19 28 38 
19 49 28 
19 42 25 
19 35 5 
19 54 30 

19 50 45 

20 49 45 

21 10 

22 27 50 
22 35 15 

21 34 

22 21 30 
21 33 30 
21 28 50 
21 33 
^0 32 JO 
20 55 50 
20 30 14 
19 11 52 
19 10 10 
19 10 55 
19 11 16 
19 12 55 
19 12 12 
19 12 55 
19 13 20 
i9 14 30 

Lnnititiuir W. LonKitiiile 

from London. Iw. from I'a- NameiofObiervem mid Rcmurkf . 
In drgrei's. riii. In linif. 

98 2 45 

6 41 


13 45' 

8 45i 

96 55 
96 66 35 
94 15 15 

96 48 32 
98 51 15 








9 45 

98 56 


4 45 

12 45 

4 45 

13 30 
4 15 
I 3f> 


90 30 45 6 

6 3H 
6 37 

6 37 
6 36 
6 38 

6 36 
6 44 
6 45 
6 45 
6 45 
6 45 
6 45 
6 45 
6 45 
6 46 
6 45 
6 46 
6 45 
6 45 

6 46 

31 Humboldt. 

- idem. 
15 idem. 
55 idem. 

- i<Iem. 

58 idem. 

21 Humboldt and I'Vrrer, 
I summit of the mountain. 
34 Ferrer. 
45 Velasquez. 

36 idem 
30idei . 

25 idem. 
54 idem. 

59 idem. 

39 idem. 
1 1 idem. 
14 idem. 

37 idem. 

26 idem. 
24 idem. 


90 24 30 
89 59 45 
89 47 40 
89 40 45 

88 10 15 

89 38 15 
86 45 
86 44 
86 51 

91 54 

92 11 52 
92 10 236 
96 9 06 

6 40'6 
6 106 
5 266 

4 356 

5 56 
8 226 

11 206 







56 20 
56 16 
56 45 
15 56 





33 56 
33 47 
33 45 
33 42 
33 47 
33 38 
33 40 

33 531 

34 5 

Ferrer and Cevallos. 
Cevallos and Herreru. 

Humboldt and Ferrer. 

-■ ■.j.*^>^j-rtifif^s^^^Hr-nT^^y!"«K;^ --• 



ii %^i 


If ^1 



■ 'Ml 



Tabic o( (Jooijrapliical Position;! — {covtwitrd.) 

.' lines of I'liiiTs. 

Moiitlis of ilio Mil) Aiil'ififiui - . - - 
Ht riial ("liico -.----.. 

nonial (iraiuir -----.-- 

I'mila Mali Aiidroa --..-- 
Harra dr Tamiaijiia ------ 

SaiitaiulfM-, (litv) - - . - . _ . 
liaijodf San l'Vriiaii(lo,or laCarboiieni 
Mouth of till' Rio Uravo dol Norto - 

WKsn.IlN (OAsr Ol' NEW SPAIN. 

Acapiilco, (|)t)rt) - ... - - . 

W Cslt'riH'xtivinitvoriasl'layasdoCiijm'a 
Mono I'clatlaii, "(hill) - ' - - -" - 
i'orl dc St-lanii (a little tUtuhttul) - - 
('al)o Corrii'iitos - ------ 

SmaU island to the N. N. W. of Caju' 

Corrioiiios .-..--.. 

(Vno del Vallo (hill) 

Islos Marias, (Capo soiitli of (he most 

caslorii) ----..--. 

Mountain of San iMian - - . - 
San nias, (p»)rt) ----.-- 

I'iodia Mlanca -----..- 

Isle San tinanico ------- 

Isloto Isabella .-----.. 

Cape San Lucas 

Mission de S. Josef, (villajjc) - - - 
Mis>ion de 'I'odos Ids Santos - - - 
Mountain ol' San Lazaro - - . - 
Mountain to the north of the Abieojos 
Islaiul ofCedais, (south point) - - - 
Isin de San Henito (the hii>hest part) - 
Isla ( I nadalupe, (Cape south) - - - 
Isia de San liei'iiardo ------ 

Isla de S. Maitin m- de los Coronados 

(the laiijest and nu>st eastern islot) 
^■A\\ l)iey;o, (j'orl) - . - - _ . 

Isla S. Sahailor, (south |)oint) - - - 
Isla San Nicolas, (west cape) - - - 
San finan, (mission) ------ 

Isla lie ,1 nan Kodrijjnez Cabrillo, (west 

cap( ) -----.-.-- 

Santa Hnenaxentura ------ 

I'resulio de Santa llarbara (mission) - 
iMonterev. ^I'residio) - - - . . - 
I I'uuta ilel Ano Nuevo • - - _ - 
|l''arallones. (rocks) -..-_- 




N. L:\lit lulf 

from 1,t)iu 


\V. f.oin I'j- 

Names iif OIiscimm.s midRciiiniks. 

111 iK'jjit' 


lis. Ill iiinc. 

■« / / ,■ 

v'' / 


ti / // 

i«) IS n 

nt) 17 

I7:() .'il '2^) 


M) :>7 \h 

f)() 'i() 

.jit) .'J.j \ 


If) :{<) 4'.> 

<)() 'ij 


() .'j.j [] 


ID v.) I.') 

f)S 'ij 


() Jj y 


'.^1 1.^ ts 




'J:J .I") IS 

fIS I'i 


() I'i 91 


yi :}(i t) 

f)7 .JS 


(j -11 13- 


'ij IK) 

f)7 Jl 


(> :jf) 'i3 


\6 bo yo 

99 IG 

() 18 'il 

Iluniboldt, at the ^ovcr- 
nor'.s house. 

17 I.J 

100 t.j 


(i .j'i 'il 

l'i\peditioii of Malaspinn. 

17 :y> 

101 'iS 


(» ;j.j I.j 


IM () 

101 33 


7 7 .'J'i 


'-^0 'J.J :j() 

lO.J .'Jf) 

7 II M 


'iO l.") 

lOS 17 


7 I'i 'i9 


'Ji 1 ao 

107 lj 

7 IS 'iO 


'Jl l(> 

IO(j 17 


7 II .'Jl 


'ji 'j(i i.j 

lO.j .'J 

()7 9 :i^2 


'-M IV> is 

lOj 17 

l.jj7 10 .'Jl 


'Ji :.vj 

lO.J 17 

I.j 7 II II 


'Ji I.j .';n 

I0() 11 

,'J.j7 l() (j 


'iO ,J0 .'JO 

lO.j .J7 

,j7 l.'J S 


'j'i .j9 y.'j 

lOf) ;j;j 

|j7 'is .j.'j 


'i:j J y.j 

109 I'J 

'ij:7 'is 11 


'i.'J y() 

no IS 

|j7 'JO .'J.'J 


'it 17 

ll'i 'il 

|j7 .'JS .j 


'it) .J» .';() 

1 l.'J IS 


7 1 1 .'>;> idem. 

'JS 'i It) 

1 l;j y.'J 


7 30 J.'J 


'iS IS '>i 

llj ItJ 


7 3'i 'i3 


'JS .O.'J 

IIS 17 


S 'i 'if) 


'J!) 4t) 10 

ll.j .J7 


7 .j.'i f? 


:i'i 'i.j 10 

117 IS 


7 3S ;;() 


:y> v>\) .'JO 

117 IS 


7 3S .'J.'J 

\ ancouverandMalaspina. 

.'J'i 4. 'J 



S .'J 'il 

I'Xpedilion of IVIulaspina. 

lui l(i .'JO 

llf) .'Jt) 


S 7 IJ 


:j;j 'if) 

117 b'3 


S 31 

V ancouverandMalaspina. 


I'iO .'Jl 


S II 'iJ 

l''\|)edition of Mala.spina. 

.•Jl 17 

119 'i.j 


S 7 'i 

\ ancouver. 

:\\ 'i() 

119 I.j 


S S '2^2 

\ aiu'ouverandiMalaspina. 

.'J() .'J() 

I'il ,JI 


S It) llj 

I'iXpedition of Malaspina. 

.'J7 f) I.j 

I'i^ 'W 


S IS 31' 


;J7 'IS 10 

I'l-J "\ 


S 'il 'i3 




the jjovcr- 







Tabic of Goo<jraphical I'ositioiis — (couliniied.) 


Nnnu's III" I'liic'i's. 

San Fiiiiicisco, (porf) 
Cape Mt'iidociiU) - 
Not)tka, ( port) 

Itl.Vll.I, AdWiUno ISLANDS. 

Isla (ii> .Saiila Uosa, (ci'iitir) - - - 

[sla (li'l Soforio, (siiiimiit ol'tlu' iiioim- 
*aiii, wliirh is moio »li;ui IJI.')iiie- 
(ri's hiijlt, (n- :j,(ij7 tl'ol) - - . - 

Hocca I'arlida -----_.. 

Isla do .Sail lioiu<dito, (soiilii i-apo) 

I'osirioNs (T.urAiN. 
(iiiatiiico, (jiorl) - - - . . 
|{ariii (!(• Maiiialtopt'c - . - 
racliiitla. (villai-c) - - . . . 
Xiiniilcpw, (\illa»o) - . - 
(Jiiifiiiapa, (villaj,^o* - . . - 
OincloptH-, (viliafjc) .... 
NcK-lii^liaii, (\illai;v) .... 
'I't'poscoliila ---.-.- 
Sail Antonio dt> los Cues, (villa"*-) 
(iiiadalaxara, (city) .... 
Zacatfias, (city) - . - . . 

Real (Id Uosaiio, (mine) - - - 
I)iiraiij;<>, (city) . - . . _ 
I*r«'sidi<» dol l'assa<rc - - . . 
Villa dol Fiiorto - - . . . 
Real did los Alamos, (niino) - 
Pivsidio do Rnonavista - - . . 
(^Iiilinaliiia, (city) ...... 

Aiispc, (citvl --..._. 
l'n>si(lio do .lanos ---... 
I'rosidio dol Ahar ...... 

Paso dol Norto,(l'rosi(lio) - - 
Jniulionoldio UioCJilaand Color 
Las Casas j.iaiidos (noar RiofJila) 
Saiila To, (oity) - ... . . 

I^l 31 


N li W (i II A \ A A , QU ITO, &C. 

Quito - - .--... 
Ciioiua - ----... 
Jaoii --.--.... 
liO\a -.-... 
S. lloija --....'"." 
(luayaipiil - . . .... 

IS 4S 

in \ 

19 I.') 


\b It 

I'l 17 
1.") ,')() 

l(» 7 

I.) !^:. 

I(> 31 

17 l() {) 

17 IS 
IS 3 

yi 9 


y,'5 .'io 

yi y.) 

y."» ys 

»(i :)() 

|y7 s 

|y7 i") 

ys ho 

I'jO 3(i 

bi y 

[,*)y 9 

.'W »■) 

33 30 

3{> ly 


y ,'^»,j 

o yi 

.•} ,^)9 

4 y? 





y 10 yo ,v, 

Loiinitudo W.I l,iiii|{iliiil 

\. l.iilillKlv. 

fmin 1.(111(1(111. 
In decrees. 

o / // 

i.'jy 31 
lyi ys 1.) 

iy(i 31} 1.-) 

\V. I'.i 
lis. In tunc 

37 4s' .'JO 

10 y9 

49 J;> \3 

1. / // 

S 19 JS 

s y7 I.j 
s 3:1 \ 1 

Niiuics iit'ObstTVivs ami Kdiuiks 

114 3 \:n b\ 33 


III .') 

1 18 .W 





4."»7 ys [}•} 

I Of) 

















104 \3 

7S yo 

7S ,J0 

7S ys 

79 I.j 
7() yi 30 
79 40 



I, 'J 











s ,jy 

V'ancoiivor and Malaspiiia. 
Kxpodilion of Malaspiiia. 
idoin. I This position and 

llio piooodinji are ho 

voiid tlio iu-liial lionnds 

of\o>v Spain. 
Collnot, ("amaolio, (<• Tor 

ros ( monioiio of M. 


Podro do r-aijiiiia. 









Masoaid and Rivera. 

Connl do la l-asiiiiia. 

Masiai*) and Rivora. 


Masoaro and Rivora. 




Masciiro and r,al'ora. 

Vlascaro and Rivora. 


Mascaroaiid Rivora. 


lalhors Diaz and I'oiit. 

Falhor Font. 








i '! 

^ i fL 


i \ 




Table of Geographical Positions — (continued.) 

Names of Places. 

Rio Baiiilia - - - 

Macas - - - . - 

Esineraldas - . - - 

Otavalo - - - - 

Ibarra - - . - - 

Biieiieventura - - - 


Popa^aii - - - - - 

Neyva - - - - - 

Santa Fe - - - - 
St. Juan de los Llanos 

J unja - - - - - 

.Vntioqua - . - - 

Panama - - - . - 

New Edinburgh - 

Cartagena - - - - 

Santa Marta - - - 

ilncha - - - - - 

TenerifFe - . . • 

.Mariquita - - - - 

Lima - - 

PERU, &C. 


Pisco - - 
Titicaca - 
A rica - 
La Paz - 
Ilo - - 

mo NEGRO, &C. 

St. Carlos Ft. Espafiol - - 
Ft. de S. Joze .... 
Sta. Joaquim - - - - - 
Sta. de Nazaret . . _ - 
S. An to. do Casanhoronova - 
Carvociro --__-. 

Ft. de S. Joze 

Borl)a Villa 

Santarein ....... 

N. Latitude. 

LonpitiiUe W 
Iron) London 


Names of Observers and Remarks 

III dv^rfc^- 

lis. In time. 

O / // 

1 42 0*. 

2 25 Os. 

/ // 

78 35 ( 

77 48 

Il / // 

Collations by.Arrowsmith 

56 On. 

79 24 



13 Ow. 

78 3 30 



20 0«. 

77 55 

. - - 


3 51 5«. 

76 49 



1 13 Om. 

77 5 30 

. - - 


2 28 20 «. 

76 29 



3 15 On. 

75 12 



4 36 n 

74 8 

. _ . 


3 11 20«. 

73 57 20 



5 25 0«. 

73 47 

. . - 


6 45 0«. 

75 18 



9 «. 

79 18 



8 47 n. 

77 34 

. . - 


10 27 10 «. 

75 23 30 



11 16 Ow. 

74 7 30 

. . - 


II 30 Om. 

72 55 30 



9 45 On 

74 33 30 

. . • 


5 15 30 w. 

74 15 10 

- , - 


8 8 20 5 

78 52 


6 52 5. 

78 40 



12 2 20 s. 

76 58 30 

- . _ 


II 35 0*. 

75 17 20 



13 46 Os. 

76 8 30 

.• . . 


12 57 s. 

73 58 



13 42 0*. 

71 6 



16 17 20 .V. 

71 58 10 



16 39 s. 

69 43 



18 27 s. 

70 19 



17 30 0.S-. 

68 26 



19 47 s. 

67 25 



20 17 5. 

70 6 20 

« ■■ . 


17 36 s. 

71 12 


1 54 Ow. 

67 37 


1 12 Ow. 

67 30 



i 30 s. 

67 40 



7 Os. 

67 20 



20 Os. 

65 20 



1 19 5. 

61 58 20 



3 10 5. 

59 57 

. . • 


4 26 5. 

59 20 

. - - 


2 28 5. 

54 57 



and Remarks. 








U B A 

UBAQUE, a head settlement of the district of 
the corrc^imknto of tliis name, in the new king- 
dom of (jranada; it was, during the Pagsin- 
ism of the Indians, one of the most powerful 
principalities belonging tc the caciques : at pre- 
sent it contains :^00 inhabitants and as many 
Indians. In its church is venerated with parti- 
cular devotion an image of our Lady painted on 
canvass, and which after undergoing much injury 
from time, appeared all at once miraculously re- 
novated. By a rugged spot, called De Zaname, 
close to the valley in which this settlement stands, 
there is a stone wlih the impression of a human 
foot, which, by the tradition of the Indians, is on 
various authority that of the apostle St. Bartho- 
lomew. It is seven leagues from Santa Fe. 

UBARANA, Ensennada de, a bay on the 
coast of the province and captainship i»f Seara, 
in the kingdom of Brazil : it is between the 
rivers Lagaribe and Riobara. 

Ubauana, a point of land of this name, which 
is one of those that form the afore-nientioned 

UBATE, a head settlement of the district of 
flio corrcpmicnto of that name, in the new king- 
dom of (jranadu. Its climate is cold, but not to 
excess, and produces in abundance the fruits pe- 
culiar to such a temperature ; especially wheat, 
potatoes, maize, apples and barky. In the 
church is worshipped a miraculous image of 
Christ on the cross, to the sanctuary of which 
the people are impelled by devotion io coaie 

VOL. V. 

U B A 

from the other provinces. It contains more than 
10,000 inhabitants, and was one of the first set- 
tlements of the kingdom which was converted by 
the missionaries of the order of St. Francis, of 
whom it was for many years a doctrinal curacy. 
It is 29 miles m. w. w. of Santa Fe. 

UBATUBA, a town of the province and cap- 
tains/lip of San Vicente in Brazil ; situated on 
the coast on a neck of land opposite the Isle of 

Ubatuba, a lake of this name, in the same 
province and kingdom, by the coast, on the 
shores of which the Portuguese have constructed 
a fort. 

UBAY, a large and copious river of Pera. It 
takes its source from u lake which is formed by 
the river Parapiti, or Apere, in the country and 
territory of Isoso, and runs to the «. always in- 
clining to the n. n. w. more than 70 leagues. It 
crosses the country of the Chiquitos Indians and 
the province of Los Moxos in the kingdom of 
Quito, in which it enters much encreased by the 
waters it has received from that of Itenes, oppo- 
site the entrenchment of Santa Rosa. This river 
is also called Magdalena San Miguel, and for- 
merly Los Chiquitos. Its mouth is in lat. 11^ 
57' s. 

UBAZA, a huge settlement, in tlie time of the 
Indians, of the province and corrcsiniirnto of Ve- 
lez in the new kingdom of Granada ; it was con- 
quered by Conzalo Ximenez Quesada in 15^7, 
but is at present entirely ruined. 


1 «■ 


^1 ^V 
III =i^> 

1 4 

■ n\ 

•1 ' 

Ml '. : 

2 U C A 

UBAZU, or Canqua, a river of the province 
and captai/is/iip of San Viccnto in Brazil, wliich 
enters the sea opposite the island San Sebas- 

I'BKITA. SpoOijkita. 

VBERO, Point, on tlie coast of the province 
and government of Venezuela and new kinn;dom 
of (iranada, op))osi(e tl>e islandofCura9oa, close 
to the point ofHicacos. 

l.'BIA, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of San .Fuan de los Llanos in the now king- 
dom of (Jranda. It is formed by the junction of 
several streams, and enters the (Cruayavero. 

l.'BINAS, a settlement of the province and 
corrcgimktito of Moguehua in Peru ; situate on 
the opposite side of the cordiUcra, lying to the e. 
of the province, the same having on its skirts a 
great volcano, which is constantly vomiting fire, 
and also seen frequently in the month of October 
to emit black and boiling water. To the district 
of the settlement belongs a church, well furnished 
and of no mean erection, in a spot called Ichufia, 
where there is a mill for grinding silver metals 
extracted from a mine in that quarter, and al- 
though the q\uintity procured be at present 
trifling, it was not always so, if we may judge 
from the sumptuous ornaments still belonging to 
the temple just mentioned. 

I'BOCA, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of La Guavana, which enters the Apure. 

UBZAQI'EN, or I'sAQUEN, an ancient city, 
at the present dav almost in a st!>'r of ruins, i» 
the province of the Indian nation of the Mozcus, 
of the new kingdom of Granada. It was con- 
quered and subjected by the arms of Gonzalo 
Ximinez de Quesada in 1537. At present it 
forms a settlement of the corrcglmiriito of the In- 
dians of Boza, is of a cold temperature, abound- 
ing and fertile in the productions of a similar cli- 
mate. It has .1 vice-parish in a neighbouring 
hamlet, called La Calera. Its population is com- 
posed of 100 housekeepers, and some more In- 
dians. [It lies about i I miles n. e. from Sajita 

[L'CAH, Port, on the >i. tc. coast of N. Ame- 
rica, is situate on Washington's Island, y. of 
PortGeyer, and ii. of Port Sturgis. At its mouth 
are Needham's Isles. The middle of the en- 
trance of this l)ay is in lat. /)'2^ 23' ;/.] 

I'CAHEO, a head settlement of the district of 
the (dcaldia inai/or of Xueva Espaua. It contains 
4S0 families of Indians, including those dwelling 
in the wards of its district, and in a convent of 
the religious of S. Augustin. It is I'J leagues to 
tlie n. ic, of its capital. 


UCAYALE, a vt .y abinulant and navigable 
river, and one of the largest of tliose which enter 
the Maranon, or Amazonas, and, according to 
some, even wider than this at its mouth. It has 
its rise in a great lake, called Chinchaycocha, in 
the mountains of the province and corrcshuicnto 
of Tarma in Peru, and only about 12 miles from 
the city of Tarma. It runs, under different 
namesj'first to s. then turns its course to c. and, 
after many windings, inclines to the «., forming 
many islands and lakes, in which are multitudes 
of alligators and tortoises. Amongst the nume- 
rous rivers which j jin it in its course, are the 
Paucartanibo, Manua, Sarayacu, Cassavatay and 
Tapissi. According to modern oliservations it 
runs more than 200 leagues: in the woods on its 
borders dwell the nations of the Piros, Cuni- 
vos and Cocamas Indians, who had, for the most 
part, been reduced by the labours of the Jesuit 
missionaries of the province of Quito, but sud- 
denly rebelled, and put to death the father En- 
rique Jlicter, with a clergyman called Vazquez, 
and retired to the mountains; and although it 
lias been since attempted to bring them into a 
civilised state of life, first in the year 1()95, and 
again in 17(il, the effort was vain. The river 
Ucayale enters, as before observed, into the Ma- 
ranon, or Amazonas, by the s, side, [in lat. 4^ 
25' ,v.] 

UCCHIUMARCA, a settlement of the pro- 
vince and tonrg/w/fw/o of Lucanas in Peru; an- 
nexed to the ciiracv of Saiza. 

UCCHUBAMBX, a settlement of the province 
and correginiktito of Xauja, in the same kingdom 
as the former ; annexed to the curacy of the set- 
tlement of Apata. 

UccHUBAMBA, auotliei*, in the province and 
corregimiento of Andahuailas, in the same king- 
dom : annexed to the curacy of the settlement of 

LTCnUILLUAILLAS, a settlement of the 
province and correghtiiento of Angaraes, in the 
same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Lircav. 

UCCHUSTAMBO, a settlement of the jiro- 
vince and ro/vrg/w/Vw/o of Lucanas, in the same 
kingdom : annexed to the curacy of the settle- 
ment of Saiza. 

I'CH AN, a settlement of the province and 
cnrrcgimknto of Chichas and Tariia, in the same 
kingclom, and of the division and district of Lu- 

IJCHAYUCAPA, a settlement of the pro- 
vince and government of Canta in Peru: an- 
nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pari. 

u c o 

U L S 

, hich cuter 
corning to 
ith. It has 
aycocha, in 
miles from 
r different 

to ('. and, 
n., forming 


the nume- 
•se, are the 
iavatay and 
jrvations it 
/ouds on its 
iros, Cniii- 
br the most 
r the Jesuit 
o, but sud- 

tiither En- 
■d Vazquez, 
althoiiirh it 
thoni into a 
[• 1(j9j, and 
The river 
nto the Ma- 
, [in lat. 4=" 

of the pro- 
n Peru; an- 

the province 
me kingdont 
y of the set- 

rovinco and 
s same king- 
lettlement of 

ment of the 
raes, in tlie 
iracy of the 

of the pro- 
in tlie same 
,f the settle- 

rovince and 
, in tlie same 
strict of Lu- 

of the pro- 
Peru : an- 
it of Pari. 

[UCHE, an Indian town of N. America, si- 
tuate on the Chata Uche river. It is situated, 
according to Bartram, on a vast phiin^ and is the 
hugest, uM)st compact, and best situated Indian 
town he ever saw. The habitations are large, 
and neatly built ; the walls of the houses are con- 
structed of a wooden frame, then lathed and plas- 
tered inside and out with a reddish well-tempered 
clay or mortar, which gives them the appearance 
of red brick walls; and the roofs are neatly co- 
vered with cypress bark, or shingles. The town 
appears populous and thriving, full of youth and 
young children ; and is supposed to contain 
about 1500 inhabitants. They are able to muster 
500 gun-uien or warriors. Their national lan- 
guage is radically different from the Creek or 
JSIuscogulge tongue, and is called the Savanna 
or Savainica tongue. It is said to be the same as, 
or a dialect of the Shawanese. Although in con- 
federacy witli the Creeks, they do not mix with 
tlicm ; and are of injportance enough to excit.; 
the jealousy of the whole Muscogulge confede- 
racy, and are usually at variance, yet are wise 
enough (o unite agamst a common enemy to sup- 
port the interest of the general Creek confede- 

L'CHIRE, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of Cumanii, which enters the sea. 

I'CHOS, a seitlement of the province and cor- 
regiiiik'iilo of Caxamarquilla in Peru, having a 
very good port in the river Marafion, whereby 
the commerce is facilitated between this province 
and that of Conchucos. 

UCHUMARCA, a settlement of the same pro- 
vince and kingdom as tlie former; annexed to 
the curacy of the settlement of Balzas, in the 
province of Chachapoyas. 

L'CIIUPIAMOUIAS, San Joseph de, a set- 
tlement of the province and corregimienlo of Apo- 
lal)aniba in Peru, one of the missions that were 
held there by the religious of St. Francis. It 
lies between the cordillera of the Andes of Cu- 
choa and the river Beni, and has the name of the 
Indian nation from whom it is formed. 

UCITA, a small river of the province and 
government of (niayana, or Nueva Andalucia, 
which rises ic. of V'errama, runs parallel to the 
same, and enters the Ventuavi. 

I'CO, a settlenuMit of the province and cor- 
res;imit'n(o of Conchucos in Peru, to the curacy of 
wiiich belongs the valley of Araucay, in the s.v). 
part of the Marafion, where there are three 
estates, all belonging to the province of Iluania- 
iies. [This settlement is situate nearly 00 miles 

«. of what Fritz in 1707 called the source of the 

UCUBAMBA, or UcuPAMPA, which signifies 
in the Qnechuan language, a deep lUinura. It is 
here the name of a river, which rises in the pro- 
vince and corregimif'tito of Caxamarquilla, of the 
kingdom of Peru, passes throuo;h the province of 
Chachapoyas, and, united with the Taulia, en- 
ters the Maranon, between two lofty mountains 
called Remtema, opposite the settlement of To- 
mepcnda. It has also the name of Chachapoyas, 
and near its mouth that of Iluabua, in lat. 5'^ 
30' *. 

UCUCHACAS, a settlement of the province 
and f orrfig-Zw/rw/o of Condesuyos de Arequipa in 
Peru ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement 
of Choco. 

UCUNTAYA, a mountain of the province 
and conrgiinrtito ofCarabaya in Peru, celebrated 
for a rich silver-mine, from which there was ex- 
tracted in the year 1713, a solid mass of that 
metal, which produced many thousands of dol- 

[UGALACIIIMIUTI, a Russian settlement 
on the «. u\ coast of America. For a further de- 
scription of which, see Vol. iii. p. 222. of this 

UGUNUCU, a settlement of the province 
and government of Popayiin, in the new king- 
dom of Granada. 


[ULIETEA, one of the Society Islands in the 
S. Pacific Ocean, is about seven or eight leagues 
from the island of Huaheine, at s. a', by w. 
There are nine uninhabited islands a', of it. The 
s. end lies in lat. 16° 55' s. and long. 151"* 
20' u:l ^ 

ULLAGAS, a settlement of the province and 
conegimiaUo of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of the settlement of Coroma in the pro- 
viiice of Porco. 

ULLIJN, a settlement of the kingdom of 
Chile; situate e. of the volcano of Simari, or 

I'LSTER, a county of the province and co- 
lony of New York, in the United States of Ame- 
rica. [It contains all that part of the state of 
New York, bounded c. by the middle of Hud- 
son's River, s. by the countv of Orange, rr. by the 
state of Pennsylvania and the rr. branch ol' Dela- 
ware River, and «. by the county of Albany. In 
1790, it contained 29,397 inhabitants, including 
2,f)9() slaves. In I7<)(i, there were 4,l^if) of the 
inhabitants (jualiticd to be electors. It is divided 
K 2 


ft ! (• 


^ ^R 



4 U M A 

into 16 townships. Chief town, Kingston. A 
part of this county and that of Otsego, were 
erected into a separate county, January, 1797.] 

ULUA, San Juan de, an island of the N. 
Sea, on the coast of Nueva Espana, opposite 
Vera Cruz, and so close as to form a road which 
»erv s for a port to vessels which are accustomed 
to make themselves fast to some large blocks of 
brass which are opportunely placed here for that 

{lurpose. It has lor its defence and security a 
arge castle, furnished with more than 100 can- 
non ; and bej^ond this is another handsome bat- 
tery, which flanks and defends the tv.o channels 
to the right and left, and which lie to the n. and 
to the s. e. In 1682, this island was taken by 
.some pirates. It was discovered in 1318, b^' 
Don Juan de Grijalva. 

Ulua, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of Honduras. It is large and abundant, 
navigable for vessels of 200 tons, and on its shores 
are some small settlements of pacific Indians. It 
enters the sea in the Gulf of Honduras. 

ULU-MAYU, a settlement of the province 
and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of the settlement of Carhuamayn, in 
which there is a fort, with a troop, to restraui the 
incursions of the infidel Chunchos Indians, who 
border t^ie province on that side. 

[ULYSSES, one of the military townships in 
Onondago County, Ne^v York ; situate at the 
s. end of Cayuga Lake, having Hector on the w. 
and Dryden on the e. which last township is in- 
cluded within the jurisdiction of Ulysses, which 
was incorporated in 1794. In 1796, 38 of the 
inhabitants were electors.] 

UMACHIRI, a settlement of *he province and 
corregimiento of Lampa in Peru. 

UMACHUCO, San Roque de, a settlement 
of the province and corregitnienlo of Condesuyos 
de Arequipa, in the same kingdom as the former; 
annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Ca- 

UMAGATA, a settlement of the province and 
corregimiento of Arica, in the same kingdom; an- 
nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Copta. 

UMAGUA, or Omagua San Joaquin de, a 
settlement of the province and government of 
Mainiis in the kingdom of Quito. 

UMAMARCA, a large lake of the province 
and rorrro7/H/< '//o of On)asuyos in Peru, divided 
from that of Tiiicaca by the peninsula of Copa- 
cavann, leaving only a small strait. 

UMANATA,a siottiement of the province and 
rorregimiento of Larecaxa, in the same kingdom 


as the former lake ; annexed to the curacy of the 
settlement of Italaque. 

UMAUANE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia; 
situate in the country and territory of the Quiri- 
quiripas Indians. 

UMAYA, a large and abundant river of the 
province of Culiacan and kingdom of Nueva 
Vizcaya in N.America, which rises in the moun- 
tains of the sierra of Zopia, and disembogues it- 
self into tlje S. Sea, at the port of Navitoos. It 
a])ounds more in fish than any river in the king-- 
dom, particularly in robalos (a kind of trout), of 
which the fisheries are very considerable. On its 
shores near the sea, the salt is accustomed to ac- 
cumulate in such large heaps, as not to be af- 
fected or washed away by the violent showers. 
Further up its banks are various settlements of 
Mexican Indians, reduced to the faith by the re- 
ligious of St. Francis. 

[UMBAGOG, a large lake of New Hamp- 
shire, next in size to Lake Winipiseogee. It lies 
in Grafton County, and a small part of it in the 
district of Maine.] 

UMBRA, a small river of the province and 
corregimiento of Canta in Peru, which rises from 
tlie lake Purun, runs e. and enters the Pari. 

UMMEU, or Uu AM r.o, according to others, a 
settlement of the province and country of the 
Amazonas, or part of Guayana, belonging to the 
Portuguese; situate at the source of the river 

UMURANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians 
descended from the ancient Mainas, who live in 
woods between the river Chaml)ira to the e. the 
Pastaza to the zc. and the Maranon to the s. 
Many of them dwell at the source of the rivers 
Nucuray and Orito, or Lorito-yacu. They wan- 
der about through the woods, and maintain them- 
selves by the chase. 

UNA, a settlement of the province and cap- 
tainship of San Vicente in Brazil, on the coast 
between the bay of this name and the island of 
San Sebastian. 

[UNADILLA, a river of the state .,f New 
York, called also Tianaderba, runs s. and join- 
ing the main branch, forms Chenengo River.] 

[Unadilla, a township of New York, Ot- 
sego County, on the «. side of the main branch of 
Chenengo River. It is about 1 10 n>ilcs s. w. of 
Albany ; and in 1796, 502 of its inliabitants were 
electors. In the same year the townships of 
Suffrage, Otsego, and Burternuts, were taken 
from this township, and incorporated.] 

U N C 




of the 


vince and 
luialucia ; 
the Quiri- 

ircr of the 

of Niieva 

the inoun- 

bogues it- 

vitoos. It 
the king- 
trout), of 

lie. On its 

ined to ac- 

t to be af- 

it showers. 

tlements of 

I by the re- 

ew Hanip- 
pce. It lies 
)t' it in the 

rovincc and 
li rises from 
K Pari, 
to otliers, a 
ntry of the 
ging to the 
jf the river 

I of Indians 
who live in 
o the e. the 
in to the 5. 
)f the rivers 
They wan- 
lintain them- 

nce and cap- 
on the coast 
the island of 

ate wf New 
s. and join- 
o Uiver.] 
w York, Ot- 
ain branch of 
niles s. zc. of 
ibitants were 
townships of 
were taken 

rUNAKA, Mountain. See Tennessee.] 

L'NAMARCA, a settlement of the province 
and correfr'uniento of Andahuailas in Pern: an- 
nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pam- 

[UNA MI, a tribe of the Delaware Indians, 
considered to be the head of tliat nation.] 

UNARK, a settlement of (he province of Bar- 
celona and government of C'umana, in the new 
kingdom of Granada, one of the missions or re- 
duccions of Indians made by the observers of S. 
Francisco de Piriti'i. 

Unahe, another, in the same province and 
kingdom; situate in the serrania, and bein^g a re- 
duccion of the missions of the Arragonese Capu- 

Unare, a large and abundant river of the 
same province and kingdom, celebrated for the 
excellent cacao gathered in the estates on its 
banks. Some call it also Harinas : it rises in tlie 
mountains to the e. of Upar, runs n. n. e. in a ser- 

fentine course, and collecting the waters of the 
luere, disembogues itself into the sea near its 
capital. On its banks are various settlements, 
consisting of reduccions of tlie religious missiona- 
ries of Piritu. This river would be navigable 
for bilanders and packet boats, were it not for 
the bar at its entrance, which is in lat. 10" 4' «. 

[According to Depons, the L'nare divides the 
governments of Caracas and Cumana. It is na- 
vigable as far as the village of S. Antonio deCla- 
rinas, six leagues from the sea. Its course is 
about 40 leagues from «. to s.] 

Una HE, a small river of the same province 
and kingdom, which runs n. and enters the sea in 
the coast of Paria. 

Unaue, a small lake in the same province; 
situate on the sea-shore with the which it com- 
municates, and on the side of the river of its 

UNA VI, a small river of the same province 
and government as the former, which rises near 
that of Arebato, runs correspondently with it, 
and then unites itself with it. 

UNCAHUASI, a settlement of the province 
and corrcgimknto of Castro V^irreyna in Peru ; 
annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Jul- 
camarca, in (he province of Angaraes. 

UNCl'ICIA, a lake of the province of Quito 
and kingdom of Granada, to the s. of the settle- 
ment called Nombre de Jesus, and distant a little 
more than half a mile from the same. It has a 
short and narrow gut through which it runs into 
the Napo, and is fidl of islands, forming a laby- 
rinth of channels. In the same islands dwell 

some barbarian Indians of the Yetes nation, in 
lat. 1-27' 30" 5. 

L'NDAMEO, Santiago de, a head settle- 
ment of the district of the ulcaldia niaijor of Val- 
ladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoa- 
can ; situate in a high, stony, and desert plain, 
but on the «. side of which runs a crystal stream, 
with which the Indians irrigate some of their 
sowed land. Its population consists of 20 fami- 
lies of these, and six of Spaniards and Afiislees. 
In its district are various estates, in which dwell 
14 other families of Spaniards, 11 of Mustees, ami 
20 of Indians. It has a convent of the religious 
of St. Aiigustin. 

UN DA VI, a settlement of the province and 
conrgiiniento of Carangas in Peru, and of the 
archbishopric of Charcas; annexed to the curacy 
of the settlement of Chuquicota. 

UNE, a settlement of the corregimknto of 
Ubaque in the new kingdom of Granada. It is 
of a good temperature, and its situation is level 
and agreeable ; it yields in abundance the pro- 
ductions of a cold climate, and contains more 
than 100 housekeepers, and as many Indians. 
Eight leagues s. w. of .Santa Fe. 

UNGUI-YACU, a river of the province and 
corregimknto of Luya and Chillaos in Peru, which 
rises in the skrra, runs w, and enters the Ca- 

LNGUIGI.\, a river of the province and go- 
vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. 
It runs from whence the Coya enters the Yebi- 
neto, and changes its name to enter the Putu- 

UNINI, a river of the province and country 
of the Amazonas, in the territory possessed by 
the Portuguese. It runs e. between the rivers 
Negro and Marafion, and enters the former. 

UNITED STATES. An indepeadent re- 
public, formed by the union of the 13 English 
colonies of New Hampshire, Mas sachussetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, the three counties of Delaware, Pensyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia, the two Carolinas, 
and Georgia, separated from the dominion of 
the court of England, after a bloody war, which 
took place in l7Ci7, anil which arose from an act 
of parliament, imi)osing new duties upon glass, 
lead, colours, letter paper, and tea ; the which 
act the said Estates professed themselves inimi- 
cal to : accordingly, atTter five years altercation, 
England agreed to revoke part of the act. Judg- 
ing that to comply fidly with the desire of the 
United States, was" inconsistent with its dignity. 
It accordingly, in 1773, commanded the duties to 





,,»» -^ 

be taken oft' from tea ; but the Anioricaii colo- 
nists resolving; not to submit to what they con- 
sidered us a broach of tht-ir privilegRs, denied 
admittance to any tea that «as broiiijlit from 
Europe, notvvithstandinn; that this was an article 
amongst them in the greatest recjuest and most 
common use. The example was set by the city 
of Boston, the capital of New England, which 
declared as enemies to their country all those 
who should soil this article, bestowing great 
thanks and eulogiums upon many merchants 
W'ho refused to trade in it, and to others who 
disavowed the consignments of it actually made 
from their correspondents in England. The in- 
habitants publicly burnt what they had in their 
houses for private use, as likewise a quantity 
that was lying on board three ships lately ar- 
rived from Jiondon. The parliament taking of- 
fence at this resolution, declared the port of 
Boston to be inu state of blockade; and its com- 
merce, whether of an active or passive na- 
to be prohibited from the year 1774. 
, instead of calming the spirit of the Bos- 
tonians, irritated them still more; they called 
it an inhuman, barbarous, and bloody act, and 
excited the whole of their citizens to defend 
their liberty against the tyranny of England. 
To such a pitch did the enthusiasm rise that 
nothing but exhortations were heard in the tem- 
ples or the streets, and a placard was printed of 
the following pith^ and energetic tenor. " The 
severity of the British parliament against Boston 
ought to cause all the provinces of America to 
tremble ; since there now remains for them no 
choice between prisons, fire, and violent death, 
or the yoke of a mean and servile obedience. 
The epoch of a revolution has taken place; 
which, in its vast importance, will, eitlier by a 
happy or disgraceful termination, render us 
either a subject of infamy or admiratior to pos- 
terity. The solution of the grand problem now 
before us, is simply this : the choice between 
liberty or slavery ; on this choice depends the 
future happiness or misery of three millions of 
men, and of their posterity. Rise then, Ame- 
ricans ; never was the region that you inhabit 
overcast with clouds like these : ye are branded 
with the name of rebels, because ye have dared 
not to be slaves. .1 ustif^y your pretensions by 
your valour, or seal the loss by your blood. 
Now is it no time to wail, when the hand of 
your oppressor is already forging your chains : 
silence were now a fault, and peace itself were 
infamy. The support of the Republic's rights 
is the supreme law ; and he who shall deny to 

lend his utmost assistance in warding olT the 
dangers which are thus thronging around the 
shrine of American independence, let him be 
ranked amongst the vilest of her slaves." 

This impressive declamation, which was pub- 
lished in all the provinces, caused the inha- 
bitants to meet together, and to form a congress 
in Philadelphia, in September 1774. England, 
in the mean time, no less agitated by the de- 
bates and opinions of its parlmment, atler argu- 
ing, in many ways, upon the means best adapted 
to quiet the colonies, at last made choice of 
measures of force ; and, accordingly, sent Ge- 
neral Gage with some troops ; who having for- 
warded a detachment from Boston on the 18th 
April 177.5, for the purpose of destroying ant. 
burning the stores of arms and ammunition, 
which the Americans had collected together in 
Concord, was completely routed by the latter ; 
who, however, lost their comnmnder Warren, 
to whom they afterwards paid singular honours 
as having been the first victim who died in the 
cause of their liberty. This calamity was fol- 
lowed by many others of an unorganized war ; 
until that Congress nominated George Wash- 
ington, as their general, a native of Virginia, a 
man already renowned for his valour and sin- 
gular abilities, exhibited on various occasions. 
Delighted at his election, he marched for Mas- 
sachussetts, and obliged the royalists to shut 
themselves up in Boston, where, being perse- 
cuted by their enemies, and oppressed by hun- 
ger, by miseries, and by sickness, they were 
obliged to embark to the number of 6,000, find- 
ing an asylum in Nova Scotia and Florida : 
some however remained in England. Carleton 
dislodged from Canada the commissaries, who 
had gone to use persuasions with the city of 
Quebec. Clinton and Parker were driven back 
upon the coasts, as was also general Gage, who 
was supported by Howe, and both backed by 
the brother of the latter, who had under his 
command a fine squadron : but the incompara- 
ble Washington, unwilling to venture his im- 
portant objects, and the fate of his country on 
the event of a battle, contented himself with 
harassing the English troops, who, in 1777, 
foinul themselves engaged with the Americans, 
and had made themselves masters of Philadel- 
phia. But, a short time after, an army of six 
thousand veterans were found to s(d)mit and 
render up their arms at Saratoga to some la- 
bourers and rustics, without any military expe- 
rience, commanded by the fortunate (rates : 
but these different events subjected the colonies. 

f 9, ! 

; off the 

luml tliu 

him be 

vas pub- 
lic inbii- 
the de- 
ter argu- 
t adapted 
choice of 
sent Ge- 
ving for- 
the 18tli 
yinar ant. 
"fotlier in 
le latter; 
r honours 
ed in the 
was fol- 
zed war ; 
je Wash- 
irginia, a 
and sin- 
. for Mas- 
to shut 
ng perse- 
by hun- 
nov were 
000, find- 
Florida : 
iries, who 
he city of 
iven back 
iiigo, who 
lacked by 
under his 
his im- 
oinitry on 
nsclF M'ith 
in 1777, 
iiy of six 
)niit and 
some la- 
ary expe- 
■ Crates : 



in 1779 to the expenoe of ^.188,G70,,52.5 (Al(;odo 
should have said dollars, though even (hen the 
amount would be excessive by about 30,000,000 
of dollars); at the same time' all communication 
with Europe was prevented by the English squa- 
dron ; hut, obstinate in their resolutions, the 
Americans exclaimed, " The English name nmkes 
Hs odious to the whole world : let us solemnly 
abjure it. All men are our brothers, and we are 
the friends of all nations. Let then their ships 
enter our ports without fear of being insulted." 

Many of different nations then flocked to Ame- 
rica, and, amongst the rest, ninnbers of French ; 
but the greater part were arrested in their pas- 
sage by y\dmiral Howe. At last, a treaty of 
alliance was formed between America and France 
in 1778, and this power acknowledged the Ame- 
ricans to be independent of England ; upon which 
the latter declared war both against tlie French 
and the Spaniards ; at last, however, finding that 
the expectation and hopes of reducing the colonies 
diminished daily, she came to the resolution of 
sending commissioners, who proposed many mat- 
ters of conciliation, but all short of an acknow- 
ledgment of independence. These propositions 
were treated with contempt, until that England 
was, at last, under the necessity of acknowledging 
and declaring America to be an independent 
country in the peace of Paris of 1783; and this 
example was followed by all the powers of Eu- 
rope, who acknowledged the title of the L'nited 
States of An\erica ; the which, being composed of 
the thirteen provinces aforesaid, we treat of more 
fully under tlicir corresponding articles. 


Boumhries. — Grand divisions and slatistiml paiii- 
<iil(irs of each stale. — lAihcs and rivers. — Fare 
oft/ie couiitri/. — Mountains. — Soil and vcs^(t(dtle 
productions. — Vatura/ history/. — Population and 
territortj. — Government and constitution. — -^^ri- 
cufture and manujatiurcs. — Finance. — Trade. — 
MiHtari/slrvns;th. — Iieli<xion. — Ifistort/. — Ana- 
fj/sis of the licrlin and Milan decrees, and of the 
American scamin ; Nan -importation and em- 
hargo latis — Solices of tlie campaign in ISia 
and IHIS.— Table of post -^flices, SfC.— Post 
office regulations.— fuble^ofcoins,e.vcliange, 6^-c. 

Boundaries. —The actual extent of territory in 
thesp States is very difficult to be estimated. ' In 
17-)j their boundaries were or; the n.e. British 
.\nierica, or the provinces of Upper and Lower 

Canada and New Brunswick ; on the .». c. the 
Atlantic Ocean ; on the s. the Floridas ; c. and w, 
— and on the 70. the river Mississippi. 

Such are, with the increased extent to the rt'. 
occasioned by the acquisition of Louisiana, their 
boundaries it the present day. 'IMieir length, in 
1795, might In* thus averaged at 1250, and their 
breadth at 1040 miles, and they laid between lat. 
30° and 49" n. ; long. 8° e. and 24^ ic. from Phi- 
ladelphia, and long. G4^ and9()° u\ from London. 

Their acquisitions which, since that ji.'riod, 
have been merely to the jr affect, in consequence, 
their extent only in length, though, as correctly 
speaking, in breadth, the direction lieing longi- 
tudinal. The exact surface thus added it is 
almost impossible to calculate, since the bounda- 
ries of Louisiana are constantly shifting. In I7SS 
the number of square acres, included in these 
States, amounted to 283,800,000, of which about 
one million and a quarter were cultivated, and in 
1808 to 000,000,000, of which nearly t^vo mil- 
lions and an half were cultivated. 

In the treaty of peace, concluded in 1783, their 
limits were more particularly defined in the v (irds 
following : " And that all disputes which might 
arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of 
the said United States may be prevented, it is 
hereby agreed and declared, that the following 
are and shall be their boundaries, viz. From the 
11. ti\ angle of Nova Scotia, viz. that angle which 
is formed by a line drawn due w. from t)ie source 
of St. Croix lliver to the Highlands, along the 
said Higl'lands which divide those rivers that 
empty t'lemselves into the river St. Lawrence, 
from th"se which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, {• 
the nor .h- westernmost head of Connecticut river; 
thencf down alou"- the middle of that river to 
lat. 45° n. ; from thence by a line due w. on said 
lat. until it strikes the river Iroquois or Catara- 
f]ui ; thence along the middle of the said river 
int(» Lake Ontario ; through the middle of said 
lake, until it strikes the communication by water 
between that lake and Lake Erie ; thence along 
the middle of the said communication into Lake 
Erie, through the middle of the said lake, until it 
arrives at the water communication between that 
lake and Lake Huron : thence through the middle 
of the said lake to the water communication be- 
tween that lake and Lake Superior ; thence 
through Lake Superior,//. «»fthe Isles Rryal and 
Phillipeaux, to the Long Lake : thervf through 
the middle of the said Long Lake, and the water 
communication between it and the Lake of 
the Woods, to the .said Lake of the Woods:] 

iiaiiiiiffai ir 



r, J 

( thence t1ii-uii<>:li the snid lake to tlio iiioMt «. w. 
|Htiiit thci'oof, and from thoticc*, on a due w. 
course, to the river MiHsissippi ; thenre by a line 
to be drawn along the middle of the said River 
Mississippi, until it shall intersect the northern- 
most part of//, lat. 31°. 

" South, by a line to be drawn due c. from the 
determination of the line last-mentioned, in lat. 
31° «. of the equator, to the middle of the river 
Apalachichola, or Catahouche ; thence alonjj the 
middle thereof to its junction with the Flint 
River; thence straif^ht to the head of St. Mary's 
River; and thence down alonjo^ the middle of St. 
Mary's River to the Atlantic ()cean. 

" East, by a line to be drawn along the middle 
of the river St. Croix, from its mouth, in the Bay 
of Fundy, to its source, and from its source di- 
rectly n. to the aforesaid Miirhlaiids, which divide 
the rivers that full into the Atlantic Ocean from 
those which fall into the river St. Lawrence; com- 
prehendina; all islands within twenty leagues of 
any part of the shores of the United States, and 
lying between lines to lie drawn due e. from tlie 

Soints where the aforesaid Imundaries between 
lo\a Scotia on the one part, and East Florida 
on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of 
Fundv and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such 
islands as now are, or heretofore have been, with- 
'11 the limits of tlie said province of Nova Scotia." 
The territory of the United States, according 
to Mr. Hutchins, contained in 1790, by computa- 
tion, a million of square miles, in which are 

640,000,000 acres 
Deduct for water 5 1 ,000,000 

I 589,000,000 

Acres of land in the 
United States 
That part of the United States comprehended 
between the w. boundary line of Pennsylvania, 
on the e. ; the boundary line between Great Bri- 
tain and the United States, extending from the 
river St. Croix to the ». w, extremity of the Lake 
of the Woods, on the n. ; the river Mississippi to 
the mouth of the Ohio, on the w. ; and the river 
Ohio on the s. to the afore-mentioned bounds of 
Pennsylvania, contained, by computation, abi>ut 
411,000 square miles, in which are 

263,040,000 acres 
Deduct for water 43,040,000 

To be disposed of by 
order of Congress, 
whefj purchased of 
the Indians . . . 



The whole of this immcnflc extent of unappro* 
printed ic. territory, containing, as above stated, 
220,0(M),000 of acres, and several large tracts s. 
of the ()hio, (ceded by N.Carolina, S. Carolina, 
and (ieorgia, with certain reservations for the 
Indians and other purposes), have been, by the 
cession of some of the original Thirteen States, 
and by the treaty of peace, transferred to the 
federal government, and are pledged as a fund 
for sinking the debt of the United States. Of 
this territory the Indians now possess a very large 
proportion. Mr. Jefferson, in his report to con- 
gress, Nov. 8, 1791, describes the boundary line 
between the States and the Indians, as follows ; 
" Beginning at the mouth of the Cayahoga (which 
falls into the southernmost part of Lake Erie) 
and running up the river to the portage, between 
that and the Tuscaroro (or N. 1,.) branch of the 
Muskingum; then down the said branch to the 
forks, at the crossing place above Fort Lawrence; 
then w. towards the portage of the Great Miami 
to the main branch of that river; theiki down the 
Miami to the fork of that river, next below the 
old fort, which was taken by the French in 1752; 
thence due w. to the river De la Pause (a branch 
of the Wabash) and down that river to the Wa- 
bash." So far the line was precisely determined, 
and cleared of the claims of the Indians as far 
back as the year 1790. The tract comprehend- 
ing the whole country within the above described 
line, the Wabash, the Ohio, and the w. limits of 
Pennsylvania, contains about 55,000 square miles. 
With regard to the territory on the w. side of the 
Wabash, the title of the Indians to the lower 
country, between that river and the Illinois, was 
supposed to have been formerly extinguished by 
the F^rench, while in their possession. 
Estimate of the number of acres of water, n. andw. 

of the river Ohio, within the territori/ of the. 

United States. 


In Lake Superior 21,952,780 

Lake of the Woods 1,133,800 

Lake Rain, &c 165,200 

Red Lake 551,000 

Lake Michigan 10,368,000 

BayPuan 1,216,000 

Lake Huron 5,009,920 

Lake St. Clair 89,500 

Lake Erie, w. part . . . . . 2,252,800 

Sundry small lakes and rivers, as ) oq| qqq 

included in the year 1790 . ) ' 


it of unappro- 
abovc stated, 
laree tracts s. 
I, S. Carolina, 
iitions for the 
been, by the 
lirteen States, 
Hferred to the 
Iged as a fund 
sd States. Of 
ss a very large 
report to con- 
boundary line 
IS, as follows : 
lyahoga (which 
of Lake Erie) 
rtage, between 
l)ranch of the 
branch to the 
i"ort Lawrence; 
Great Miami 
theii down the 
next below the 
rench in 1752 ; 
'aiise (a branch 
iver to the Wa- 
ely determined, 
Indians as far 
ct comprehend- 
above described 
the w. limits of 
00 square miles, 
he w. side of the 
js to the lower 
the Illinois, was 
extinguished by 

''water, n.andw. 
territoTi/ of the. 


. . 21,952,780 

. . 1,133,800 

. . 165,200 

. . 551,000 

. . 10,368,000 

. . 1,216,000 

. . 5,009,920 

. . 89,500 


1/ iV I T E n S T A T E S. 

8, as) 


\ Esl'inKTtv ofllir ninnhir of Acres of H'aln 
the ThiiliDi I'tiilnl Slulcs. 

In tlif Lakes, iS:c. ns hcfuie men- 
tioiK il 

Ill I. like Eric. r.-. of 
♦ IicliiHM'Xtciulodrroin 
tl"' u. u'. ('(iriicr »)l' 
PciiiiMlviiiiiii, (liic ;/. 
(o (lie l)()ii!i(|iii> 1)0- 
Jmocii JIic Hiitish tci- 
lilorv and the riiitcd 

Ill Lake Ontario . 

Lake Cliampknin 

Chcsapcak iJay . 

Allu'iiiHilc F5ay . 

Dclauan- Bay . 

All the rivers uithiii 

the 13 States iiielii<|. 

iiii!' tile Ohio, as in (he 

\ear 1790 . . . 

13,010,000 Soiithon. States. 

1 J 0.000 






''■'V/'/w r.Marvlinui 

I Kentiickv 
{ N. Caroliiui 
S. Carolina 
< ('olnnil)ia 
In the (oilow iiig account ol'eaeli ol'tlKse state-, 
it iniiHt 1)0 observed, that the niineiiil and vege- 
table productions, inaniilartures, and evporls, are 
liir more niiineroiis than nhat are nienlioiied: tlie 
limits of each table allowing a notice onlv of the 
chief pn-diictioiis and staple coniinodilies of the 
country. .A more specific account may be found 
7,9()(),000 '" "'^'''' i^cparate articles. 

m 1- 1 ,. . . 51,000,000 

Jo which add for rivers, itr. in 

States siil)se(jiientlv embraced 

in the I'nion ..'.,.. ^,000,000 

Total acres of water at the present 

da y . 


Ormid Divisions and slalislical Pm/icii'drs of aidi 
The American repnhlie consists of (our grand 
divisions, denominated the imrt/imi, mirldlr. and 
soulhirn slates, and the tcrriloritd aoi; rtiwr, its- ■ 
the latter being so denominated as h:i\ in<v been 
organized since the eslahlishment of the onuiiial 
states, but now lormin;.' integral parts ol'^ the 

The names ofthe separate states oCthe federal 
republic are classsed as follows : 

Xew Mampshiro 
District of Maine, belong- 
ing to Massaclaisetls 
Hliode Island 
^Connect iciit 

New England, 


Northern States, 

Middle States. 

VOL. V. 

f New York 
I New Jerse> 
i Peiinsylvaiiia 
I Delaware 
I Oliio 

Sl(d!sliail P<uii(i(l,ijs of each Stair iti Ihr Aim- 
ridiii Uiiiuii, 

Nlw Evc.r.AM), oit NoiiriiKiiv Stati;-.. 

I'l iiiinnl. 
Length and breadth: I5S by 70 miles. 
I'ace of tiie eoinitiy : liillv and iiioniitainoii--. 
Divisions: I'i counties. If) towns. 
Principal rivers; White, Ulack, La Moelle. 

Mountains; Killingtoii, Mansfield, Camels 

Mineral productions; iron-ore, lead, pipe-clav, 

Vegetable productions; wheat, rye, corn, flax, 

Manufactures; iron, hollow ware, pot-ashes 

Exports; pot-ashes, provisions, horses, jriaiii 
lumber. ' 

Chief towns: Bennington, Burlington, Wind- 

Population ofthe State in ISIO: 217,913. 
Heligioii; Congregatioiialists, Baptists, Me- 

JVew Jlampsliire. 
Length and breadtli : l(jS by 90 miles. 
Face ofthe coiinlrv ; momrtainoiis. 
Div^isions: five counties, 'J U towns and loca- 




4 '' 


■ H ^ 

[Prinripal rivorHiCoiiiirrticiit, INfrniiniuk, I'is- 

.Moiiiitiiiiw. Wliilc, MiiiiailiKirk, Moosrliillotk. 

MiiiiTiil pi'otliD'tioiis ; topper, iioii, Itliick li'ixl, 

\ <i;(>)hI)I(' productions: whi'iit, corn, licinp, 
apnIcH, |)t'iir«, 

NliiiuirsicliircH ; iron, liat.'', HnnlV, rliocolale, 


I'iXportH ; lnnilu>r, oil, flax-sopd, live stock, pot- 

Cliicr towns : Portsmouth, Contonl, Kxi'tcr, 

Population of the state in ISJO; 'ilt,til. 

|{<'iin;ion • 

('oni<;rc^ationalists, l*resl)vt('rians, 


licnirtli and Inoadth ; 'iOO l»y I'iO niilos. 

l'ii(-(> ot'tlic country : lii^ldarils aiul plains. 

Divisions; six counties, ")() towns. 

Principal rivers: Penobscot, KiMUiebcck, An- 

IMountaiu" : liii^li lands. 

Mineral |>r()ductions ; mountain and bo:; ore, 
copperas, sulphur. 

A C^fiitable productions: hojjs, wheal, oats, 
spruci', <ir, rockweed. 

Manutacturcs : clothiu:'', and olhtM" necessaries 
of life. 

K\ports; lumber, salt provisions, pot-ash. 
Chief towns: Portland, York, VViscassett. 

)fthe Slate in IS 10; 'ii^S,70r>. 

'ongrej>;ali«)nalists, liaptists, INIe- 

Ponulatiou of theSlate in ISiO; 'ii^S,70r>. 
|{eii"ion: ( 



liCnjjtli and breadth : 170 by 94 miles. 

I'ace of the country : mountains aiul plains. 

I)ivisi(nis: 12 counties, 'i79 towns. 

Principal rivers ; Coiuu'cticut, 'rainiton, Mer- 

Mountains; Wachuset, Mount Tom, Saddle- 

Mineral |)roduclions: copper, iron, black lead, 
pyrites, asbestos. 

Vegetable productions; wheat, rye, hemp, flax, 
apples, peaches, ('<:c. 

Manufactures ; duck, pajjcr, cards, coidagc, 
sliips, spirits, glass. 

Kxports; lumber, fish, oil, provisions, live 
stoik, cordage, I'lc. 

Chief towns; lioston, SpringKeld, Worcester, 


Population of the state in ISIO; 472,040. 
Ueligiou : Congrcgationalists, Presbyterians, 
Haptists, Quakers, 

Rlioilf Tslitnd. 

liCUgtli and breadth: 47 by .'J7 mil«>s. 

I'ace of the c<nuitry ; hills an<l plains. 

Divisions ; (i\e counties, ."() towns. 

Principal rivers; Provitlence Taunton, Paw- 

Mountains; Mount Hope, Misery, Whestnne. 

Mineral productions; iron, copper, lime, 

Vegetable ]>roductions; grass, corn, rye, frnitn 
in nienty. 

Alanultictiu-ps ; cotton, linen, and tow cloth, 

Kxports; cattle, hnnber, fish, provisions, flax 

Chief towns; Newport, Providence, Kingston. 

Poimlation of the state iu IHIO; 7(i,nyi. 

Religion ; Daptists, Americans, Moravians, 


fjength and breadth ; 11)0 by 7'i miles. 

Kace of the country ; mountains, hills, and 

Divisions: eight counties, 100 towns. 

Principal rivers; Comiecticnt, llousutoiiic, 

Mountains: Long, Great Craig, Hemlock. 

Mineral productions; iron, lead, copper, talcs, 

Vegetable productions; India corn, oats, rye, 
buckwheat, ('•uits, hemp. 

IManufac' - ; cotton, glass, gunpowder, hol- 
low ware. 

Exports ...', Iimiber, provisions, hay. 

Chief towns ; Hartford, iSewhaven, New L<ni- 

Ponulation of the state in 1810; 261,942. 

lieligion; Cougregatioualists, Episcopalians, 

Middle States. 

\no York. 

Length and breadth ; ,'J,JO by .WO mik's. 

Face of the country; low and flat towards the 
sea, hilly in the interior. 

Divisions ; 3Q counties, 292 tow ns. 

Principal rivers; Hiulson, Mohawk, Seneca, 

Mountains: Kattskill,and part of the Allegany 

Mineral productions; lead, iron, and coal- 
mines, spar, magnez. 

N'egetable productions ; wheat, hemp, aspen, 
cedar, fruits.] 


toil, Paw- 

MT, liiiio, 

r^'c, fniitH 

tow cloth, 

inions, flax 

, KingNtoii. 




Iiills, and 


[iprr, talcH, 

, oatH, vyc, 

)wdor, liol- 

, hav. 
Now Loii- 


owaids the 

k, Scuccn. 

le Allogany 

and coal- 

inp, asppii, 

I) N 1 T i: I) S T A V E S. 


fM.\iiurarfiir('«; loufHiiijar, jjlass, ciidcn, iron, 
pancr, lurnilnri'. 

l']\poi'ts; every article ot'dorneslic and foreign 

(Iiiff towns ; New Vork, Alhanv, llii(lM)n, 

l'o|)uliili(Mi ot'lho stale in ISIO: «),)<),'J'i(). 

l{(Mi:;ion; lOpiHcopulians, I'resltyterians, Qiiu- 
Kers, .lews. 

S'lJi) Jcmnj. 

Kenylli and lireadtli ; !()() I)v h^2 n\'\\o^, 

Kac" ol'thi- connd'v : ilal, lo«, and niarshy. 

Divi'^ions ; U comities, *U Iomiis. 

Principal rivers; llackensack, Haiilan, and 

Moiiiitains; Neversink and Centre Hills. 

Mineral prodnctions ; iron und coal mines, 
<oppcr, lead. 

V e;[;clalile product ions ; apples, pears, peaches, 
corn, Itarlev, pines, (Irs. 

Maiiiil'aclnres : iron. Hour, nails, leather. 

lv\|)orts; iron castiiis>s, hollow ware, nails, 

Chief towns: 'I'lenton, Hnrlinnton, [Jrniis- 

l»oi)ulati(ni of':ie state in ISIO; aij,.j()2. 

Ueligion : Preshy terians, Armenians, Haplists. 

P( iDim/lvmiiii. 

ficnptth and hnadtli : 2SS by I'ltj mile*. 

Face of the c intrv ; low liiid Ilal towards the 
sea, hilly in the interior. 

Divisions : .X) comities, b'2'3 towns. 

Principal rivers; Delaware, Siisquehannah, Al- 

Mountains: Kittatinny, Tuscarora,{ireat War- 

Mineral productions; iron, copper, coal mines. 
Vegetahle productions; wheat, oats, tlax, rve, 

Manufactures ; iron, cabinet work, (Jiaidier 
salts, muskets. 

Exports; flour, and other domestic and foreiijn 

Chief towns; Philadelphia, Carlisle, Pillsbur^. 
Population of the state in ISIO: SIO.Ki.'J. 
Religion ; Presbyterians, Quakers, Jew s, Mo- 

Length and breadth ; 92 by '2\ miles. 
Face of the country ; low, swampy, and level. 
Divisions; three counties, 24f towns. 
Mountains; no mountains of any note. 
Mineral productions j boa- iron-ore, white 
clay, &c. 

V<'i>etable prodnctions : yvheat, rye, oats, ct)rn, 
flax, hemp, buckwheat. 

Maimfaclures : Hour, paper, sniilV, cotton. 
I'iXporls: wheat, flour, lumlier, snufl'. 
Cliieflouns: Wilmiiif'ton, Dover, Lewis. 
Population of the stnle in ISM); 72,(i7l 


I'ooulation ol the stnle in ISM); 72,(i7i. 
Hi'li^ion; Presbyterians, (Quakers, Fpisco 



Lenj-th and breadth : 220 by 200 miles. 

I 'ace of ihe country ; hills and plains. 

Diyisions; counties and towns. 

Principal rivers; Muskingum, Scioto, (ireal 

Mountains; hilly, but not mounlainoiis. 

Mineral productions ; iron ore, lead, coal, free- 
stone, white clay. 

Vegetable productions; wheal, hemp, flax, 
corn, grapes, I'tc. 

Maiiuliictures ; floiu-, clothing, and other ne- 

Fxjiorts: flour, corn, wheat, provisions. 

('hief towns; Chillicothe, Cincinnatns, Ma- 

Popniaticm of the state in ISIO; 2,'j0,7()0. 

Keligimi: Presbyterians, IJaplists, .\riiieniaii.«. 

Soi rinwiN St.\ti;s. 


Length and breadth :' 170 by id.") miles. 

Face of tlif conntry : hills and plains. 

Divisions; If) coiiiitiis and towns. 

Princi|)al rivers; Chesapeake, Potowniack, 

Mountains; blue ridge in the k. part of tlic 

Mineral productions: iron ore and coal mines. 

Vegetable productions; wheat, tobacco, heini), 
flax, fniil. ' '' 

Manufactures ; iron, holloyv ware, flour, to- 

Exports : pork, flour, tobacco, hemp, fruit, 

Chief towns; Haltimore, .Vnnapolis, George- 

Population of the state in ISIO; J80,,')Ifi. 

Ueligioii : lloman Catholics, liUtheraiis, Qua- 
kers, (Sjc. 


Lcngtii and breadth ;' US by 221 miles. 

Face of the country ; flat and low towards the 
coast, mountainous behind. 

Divisions ; 122 towns and comities.] 

! I' 

! 'I 
^ 111 





i i; 




! i 

iH ! 



I J N 1 r E J) S T A T 1-. S. 

[Principal rivers; Po'oMniiuk, llappulinniiock, 

Moii; tains: Bliio Kidi^c, Laurol, Alli-jjanv. 

Minora! productions; lead, copper, iron, coal, 
blacli lead, marble. 

V'ei>etahlc productions; tobacco, cotton, wl'oat, 
luMnp, corn. 

Manmactures ; lead and iron uorks, copper, 
some cloth. 

ICvports; tobacco is the chief article ofexport. 

Cliief towns; Hichniond, NorHdk, Peters- 

I'or.iilation of the state ill ISIO; n(iJ,0T9. 

lielii;'ioii ; Preslnterian"-;, IO|)iscopaliaiis, Me- 


licnijtli and breadth; ,'JJ() by IjO miles. 

I'aci- of tiie c()iintr\ : hills and plains. 

I)i> isions : I'J counties and towns. 

I'rinci|)al rivers; Ohio. Lickini^, Kentiickv, 

Mountains ; none of any particular note. 

Mineral preductions; sallpi'tre. iron, lead, 

\'ei;-etai)le productions; corn, hemp, wheat, 
coll'ee. p;(«pa\v trees, Nrc. 

Miinufactures ; lUtur, i;unpoH der, corda;;*', 
iron, ships, whiskey. 

I'iXports ; proN isions, Cv.c. con\ eyed down the 
Oiiio to Ne« Orh'ans. 

Chief towns; i'rankfort, Lexini>ton, liouis- 

Population of the state ill ISIO: l()(>,:)ll. 

Ueliijion : Presbyterians, Con2>-rep;atioiialists, 

\oiih Carolina. 

liens'th and br»'adlh : .'J7t1 by l()'2 miles. 

I "ace of the country ; (lat towards tlie coast, 
mountainous in the back country. 

Divisions: three districts, (jO coiinti(>s. 

Priujipal rivers; Uoaiioke, Pamlico, Neuse. 

Mountains: Apalachian, Allei>'aiiv, Tryon. 

Miiien.l productions: iron, coal; I'ohi has re- 
cently i)eeii found. 

vegetable productions ; wheat, cotton, hemp, 
corn, rice, toiiacco. 

Manufactiu-es ; paper, pitch, tar. oil, iron. 

I'i\|)()rts: lumi)er, na\al stores, tobacco, wheat, 

Chief towns; Hali'iyh, Newbern. Ivlenton. 

INtpulalion of (he stale in iSiO; .")().'>..Vi(), 

lielii>ioii: Coni>'rei>;atioiialists, Itaptists, Men- 

Smith Can)/ ilia. 

Leii<>th and breadth; t^ti7 by 190 miles. 

I'ace of the coiintrv; jjenoraliy flat, low, and 

l)i\i>ions; nine districts, '■JO parishes, 'iJ coun- 

Princijial rivers : I'.dislo, ."^antee, Pi-dee. 

Mountains: Apalaciiia, Tyron, lloi>'back, at 
the i'xtremity ol'tlw state. 

Mineral productions; j^old, lead, silver, cop- 
per, carnelion. 

Vei'etable productions; pines, oak, hickory, 
cotton, rice, ii»lii>o, corn. 

Manufactures: pitch, tar, i."^c. iron, cotton, 
and woollen clothiii>>'. 

Kxports; cotton and rice are the staple coin- 

Chief towns ; Charleston, Cohnnbia, Camden. 

Population of the state in iSit); lll,*)J;). 

lieli!>ion; i'resbyterians, Kpiscupalians, Hap- 


I,eni;th and breadth ; jtlO by '-V)0 miles. 

I ace of the country ; level and Hat upwards of 
I'JO mib's from the coast. 

Divisions; 'Jl counties, I'iO towns and districts. 

Priiu-ipal rivers: Sa\annali, A|)alacliicola, Al- 

Mountains: a part of the Apalachian and AN 
IfiiiiiM ridi;*'. 

Mineral productions; silver, lead, co|)per, ^.c. 

\ ei;etable productions; pine, cedar, palmetto, 
oak, cotton, rice, iiuli><'(i. 

Manufactures ; pitch, tar, i^c. leather, cotton, 
aiul woollen clothiiii;'. 

Exports; rice, cotton, tobacco, indiy;o, naval 

Chief towns; Savannah, Auj^usta, Louisville, 
St. Mary's. 

Pomi'latioii of the state in ISIO; 'J')'2,i3'J. 

Kelinioii; Presb>teiians, Methodists, .lews, 

Tciirsscc ( Jf'tsi and I'lisi ), 

l,enj-th and breadth; I'JO l>\ MO miles, 

I'ac" of tlie couiiti'v : luoimlains and plains. 

I)i\ isions: three ilistricts, IS counties. 

Principal rivers ; 'rennessee, Cuinberlaiul, 

Mountains: Cumberland, Clinch, and liald 

.Min«'ral |)rodiictions ; saltpetre, irtui, ochre, 
copperas, \c. 

\ ej;(>tal)le pniductions ; cotton, ttibacco, cotlee, 
hemp, corn, inili>>'o. 

Mantilactures ; lloiir, cotton, auil woollen 
cloths, iron, i.'<:c. | 

I I- I 

, low, anti 

s, "23 coiiii- 

Dgbiuk, a< 

ilver, cop- 

k, hickory, 

til, cotton, 

itaple coin- 

, Canulon. 

iaiis, IJap- 

upwards of 

111 districts. 
Iiicola, Al- 
lan and -Al- 

•o|)p»'r, i<:c. 
', piilnictto, 

icr, cotton, 

lif!;o, naval 


ists, .foMS, 

(I plains. 



and liald 

roll, ocluc, 
acco, colil'c, 
111 woulU'ii 




I Imports; doniostic produce, Curs, ginseng, 

I'h'wi' towns; Knoxvillo, Naslnillo, .lonos- 

IV>j>iii;i(i(.n «;tlic state in ISIO; i?(i!,7y7. 

Kcliuion ; Pri'shytt-rians, Baptists, TimkiMs, 


O if ((ins. 

r,on!;lli and hreadtli ; niicertain. 

I'fut' ol'tlic country -. open and tortile. 

l)i>isioiis: counties ;»iid towns. 

I'ririci|)iil rivers: Mixsi'^sippi and Ohio. 

Monntains ; none ot'consmpience. 

[Mineral productions; saltpetre, salt sprinos, 
lead, iron, copj)er. 

Vei-etable productions; indijj;o, cotton, rice, 

Mannlactures : cotton mills, siijrar hakin"-. 

Kxports; siij>ar, cotton, indii^o, lead, luniher, 

("Iiieftowii : 

l*opulation ofthe state in ISIO: 70,566. 

lieli!;ioii : in an unsettled state. 


I.en!>th and breadth : .'JM) by '2')Q miles. 

I'ace of the countrv : mountains and plains. 

Divisions; three counties and towns. 

I'rincipal rivers; Mississippi, Yazoo, Tom- 

IMoiintains: Alh-jrany ranj^e. 

Mineral productions'; jvolil, silver, lead, cop- 
per, precious stones. 

Vei^elable |)nMluctions; most of the tropical 
fruits, rice, cotton, indigo. 

Mannlactures; Hour, provisions, and domestic 

Kxports; flour, provisions, furs, rice, cotton, 

Chief town: Natchez. 

Population of the state in ISIO; i0,3[)'2. 

Kelij,noii; in a Hud iiatini-- state. 

T-enuth and breadth : :;|,) by .*J00 miles. 
I'ace ofthe countrv : hills and plains. 
ni\i-i(ius; counties and tnwns. 
Principal riAers: Waba- ^askaskia, Illinois. 
Moiinlains: Illinois ami W .ib .sh Hills. 
Mineral productions; silver, lead, iron, coal, 
maible, salt. 

Venctable productions ; wheat, corn, rye, hemp, 
flax, niustaid, apple trees. 

Manufactures; flour, clothiii>r, and domestic 

K\j)orts : wheal, flour, corn, salt provisions. 

riiief towns: Vinceniies, Kaskaskia, Clarkes- 

Population ofthe state in ISIO; ','l,.'^»'>0 
HeliVion : Armenians, Meiinonists, Methodists 


liCUifth and breadth; uncertain. 

I'ace of the countrv; nearly the .same as Vir- 

Divisions; towns and counties. 

Principal ri>er; Patowmack. 

Mountains; Ulue liidjre. 

Mineral productions; iron-ore and copper. 

Veirelable productions ; tobacco, cotton, wheat, 

Manufactures; iron wares. 

Kxports : tobacco. 

Chief town ; (leorj^^etown. 

Population ofthe state in ISIO; 2\,0'23. 

Iteligion ; various persuasions. 

TiOnnrfh and breadth ; 1,400 by I, MO miles. 
I'ace ofthe country; level aild flat, with vast 
prairic::, or meadows'. 


Diyisions: towns, villajjes, and parishes. 
Principal rivers; Mississippi, Missouri, 

Mountains ; none of any consequence. 
Mineral productions; .saltpetre, .salt sprin>vs, 
lead, iron, copper. " 

yen;etabl(> productions; oak, pine, cedars, 
fruits, sujrjii-, cotton, furs. 

Manufactures ; cotton mills, suffar-bakinir. 
Nejrro clothiii!'-. 

l':xports : sujrar, cotton, indigo, lead, lumber, 

Chii<f town : New Orleans, 
Ponulalion of thestate in ISIO; yO,S.l.'i. 
Heli-rion; Woman Catholic, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, .lews. "^ ' 

Length and breadth; uncertain, 
l-'aceofthe countrv ; woody, hilly, and marshy. 
Divisions: ton lis and counties. ' 
Priiici|)al rivers ; Meaiiie and St. .losei)li. 
Mountains ; 
Mineral productions: coals. 

Vegetable productions; wheat, fruit, tobacco, 
mediciiuil plants. ) ' 


' 1 J 

i 4 


■ !!■( 

1 ' 




•' R ! 

^ :1 ■ 

> • 






^ V 



' 'I ' I ', 



[Manufactures ; 
Exports ; 

Chief town; Cahokia. 
Population of the state in 1810; 12,282. 
Religion ; formerly Catholics, now mostly sa- 

Length and breadth ; 240 by I JO miles. 

Face of the country ; hills and plains. 

Divisions ; counties and towns. 

Principal rivers; Mariamne, Grand, Huron. 

Mountains ; hilly land, which runs ii. and s. 

Mineral productions : loud, coal mines, salt- 

Vegetable productions ; corn, wheat, hemp, 
grasses, hickory. 

Manufactures; flour, clothing, and articles of 
domestic use. 

Exports ; corn, flour, salt provisions. 

Chief town ; Detroit. 

Pooulation of the state in 1810: 1,7(52. 

Religion : Cungregationalif^ts, Moravians, Ar- 
menians.;es and Rivers. — There is nothing in 
other paris of the .<^l<)be, which resembles the 
prodigious cliaiii of lakes in this part of the 
world. They may properly be termed inland 
seas of fresh water : and even those of the se- 
cond or third class in magnitude are of larger 
circuit than the greatest lake in the eastern con- 
tinent. Some of the most ». lakes belong- 
ing to the United States, have never been 
surveyed, or even visited by the white people ; 
of course we have no description of them which 
can be relied on as accurate. Others have been 
partially surveyed, and their relative situation 
determined. The best account of them which 
we have been able to procure, will be seen under 
their respective articles. The largest rivers that 
border upon or pass through the United States, 
are Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennesse, on the w. 
side of the Alleghany Mountains ; and the Ala- 
tamaha. Savannah, Santee, Cape Fear, Roanoke, 
•Fames, Patowmac, Susquehannah, Delaware,!! ud- 
son, Connecticut, Merrimack, Piscataqua, An- 
droscoggin, Kennebeck, and Penobscot, whose 
general courses are from /'. zc. and «. to s. e. and 
s. and which empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The 
names of the most remarkable lakes are, Supe- 
rior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, Cham- 
plaine, George, Memphremagog, Winipiscogee, 
and I'mbagog. The most remarkable swamps 
are Otianuaphenogaw, or Eknanfanoka, nearly 
.'J(X) miles mcircumlerence, in the State of Georgia ; 

the two Dismals in North Carolina, of immense 
extent, each containing a large lake in its centre ; 
and UuRaloe Swamp, in the w. id. parts of Penn- 
sylvania. For a description of which we luubt 
also refer to their respective articles. 

Face of the counlri/.—'i\\e tract of country 
belonging to the United States is happily \u- 
riegated with plains and mountains, hills and 
vallies. Some parts are rocky, particularly New 
England, the «. part of New York and Ne\/ 
Jersey, and a broad space, including the several 
ridges of the long range of mountains which run 
*. v.\ through Pennsylvania, Virginia, North 
Carolina, and part of Georgia, dividing the 
waters which flow into the Atlantic from those 
which fall into the Mississppi. In the parts e. 
of the Allegany mountains, in the Southern 
States, the country for several 100 miles in length, 
and 60 or 70, and sometimes more, in breadth, is 
level and entirely free from stone. It has been 
a ([uestion agitated i)y the curious, whether the 
extensive tract of low Hat country, which fronts 
the several states s. of New York, and extends 
back to the hills, has remained in its present 
form and situation ever since the flood : or whe- 
tlier it has been made by the particles of earth 
w hicli have i)cen washed down from the adjacent 
mountains, and by the accumulation of soil from 
the decay of vegetable substances ; or by earth 
washed out of the bay of Mexico by the Gulf 
Stream, and lodged on the coast : or by the re- 
cess of the ocean, occasioned by a change in 
some other parts of the earth. Several pheno- 
mena deserve consideration in forming an v\n- 
nion on this question. 

1. It is a fact, well known to every person of 
observation wliohasli\edin,or (ravelled tlutiugh, 
the Southern States, that marine shells and other 
substances which are peculiar to the sea shore, are 
almost invarial)ly found by digging 18 or 20 feet 
below the surface of the earth. In sinking a well 
many miles from the sea, w as found, at the depl h of 
20 feet, every appearance of a salt marsh, that 
is, marsh grass, marsh mud, and brackish water. 
In all this flat country, until you come to the 
hilly land, wherever you dig a well, you And 
the water, at a certain depth, fresh and tolerable 
good : but if you exceed that depth two or 
three feet, you come to a saltish or brackish 
water that is scarcely drinkable, and the earth 
dug up resembles, in appearance and smell, that 
which is dug up «n the edges of the salt 

2. On and near the margin of the rivers are 
frequently found sand hills, wiiieh appear to have] 





ts cciitic ; 

i ol' 1*01111- 

[ we luubt 

( country 
appily va- 

hills and 
ilarly New 
and Ne\. 
he several 
uhicli run 
ia, N orth 
riding the 
Voin those 
le parts e. 

< ill length, 
breadth, is 

has been 
hether the 
hich fronts 
nd extends 
its present 
\ : or whe- 
es of earth 
he adjacent 
)f soil from 
ir by earth 

tile Culf 
by tlic re- 

chaiiire in 
ral pheno- 
iig iin opi- 

porson of 
i<d throiii;li, 
s and otiier 
a sliore, arc 
i. or 20 feet 
kiiij>' a well 
iiarsh, tliat 
kish water. 
OHIO to tlie 
1, you find 
id toleraldc 
)th two or 
)r l)rackish 

the earth 
smell, that 
f the salt 

rivers are 
■ar to have] 

fbeen drifted into ridjyes by the force of water. 
At the bottom of some of the banks in the rivers, 
io or W feet 'low the surface of the earth, are 
washed oiit 1. the solid ground, logs, branches, 
and leaves of ..^os; and the whole bank, from 
liottom to top, appears streaked with layers of 
logs, leaves, and sand. These appearances are 
seen far up the rivers, from 80 to an 100 miles 
from the scb, where, when the rivers are low, the 
hanks are from 15 to 20 feet high. As you pro- 
ceed down the rivers towards the sea, the banks 
decrease in height, but still are formed of layers 
of sand, leaves, and logs, some of which are en- 
tirely sound, and appear to have been suddenly 
covered to a considerable depth. 

3. It has been observed, that the rivers in 
the Southern States frequently vary their chan- 
nels ; that the swamps and low grounds are con- 
stantly filling up, and that the land, in many 
places, annually infringes upon the ocean. It isan 
authenticated tact, that no longer ago than 1771, 
at Cape Lookout, on the coast of North Carolina, 
in about lat. 34"^ bO', there was an excellent har- 
bour, rapacious enough to receive 100 sail of 
shipping at a time, in a good depth of water : it 
is now entirely filled up, and is solid ground. 
Instances of this kind are frequent along the 

It is observable, likewise, that there is a gra- 
dual descent of al)out 800 feet, by nieasurcment, 
from tlie foot of the mountains to the sea board. 
This descent continues, as is demonstrated by 
soundings, far into the sea. 

4. It is worthy of observation, that the soil 
on the banks of the rivers is proportionably 
coarse or fine according to its distance from the 
mountains. When you first leave the mountains, 
and for a considerable distance, it is observable, 
that the soil is coarse, with a large mixture of 
sand and shining heavy particles. As you pro- 
ceed toward the sea, the soil is less coarse, and 
so on : in proportion as you advance, the soil is 
finer and finer, until finally is deposited a soil so 
fine, that it consolidates iiito perfect clay ; but a 
clay of a peculiar quality, for a great part of it 
has intermixed with it reddish streaks and veins, 
like a species of ochre, brought probably from 
the lied Lands which lie up towards the moun- 
tains. This clay, when dug up and exposed to 
the weather, will dissolve into a fine mould, 
without the least mixture of sand or any gritty 
sui)stance whatever. Now we know that run- 
ning waters, when turbid, will deposit, first, the 
coarsest and heaviest particles, mediately, those 
of the several intermediate degrees of iiiieness, 

and ultimately, those which are the most light 
and subtle ; and such in fact is the general qua- 
lity of the soil on the banks of the southern 

5. It is a well known fact, that on the banks 
of Savannah river, about 90 miles from the sea 

and 150 or 200, as the river 
very remarkable collection of 

in a direct line, 
runs, there is a 

oyster shells of an uncommon size. They run in 
a H. e, and s. u\ direction, nearly parallel to the 
sea coast, in three distinct ridges, which together 
occupy a space of seven miles in breadth. The 
ridges commence at Savannah river, and have 
been traced as far s. as the n. branches of the 
Alatamaha river. They are found in such quan- 
tities, as that the indigo planters carry them 
away in large boat loads, for the purpose of 
making lime water, to be used in the manufac- 
ture oi indigo. There arc thousands and thou- 
sands of tons still remaining. The question is, 
how came they here ? It cannot be supposed that 
they were carried by land. Neither is it pro- 
bable that they were conveyed in canoes, or 
boats, to such a distance from the place where 
oysters are now found. The uncivilized natives, 
agreeably to their roving manner of living, 
would rather have removed to the sea shore, 
than have been at such immense labour in pro- 
curing oysters. Besides, the difficulties of con- 
veying them would have been insurmountable. 
They would not only have had a strong current 
in the river against them, an obstacle which 
would not have been easily overcome by the In- 
dians, who have ever had a great aversion to 
labour ; but could they have surmounted this 
difficulty, oysters conveyed such a distance, either 
l)y land or water, in so warm a climate, would 
have spoiled on the passage, and have become 
useless. The circumstance of these shells being 
found in such quantities, at so great a distance 
from the sea, can be rationally accounted for in 
no other way, than by supposing that the sea 
shore was formerly near this bed of shells, and 
that the ocean has since, by the operation of cer- 
tain causes not yet fully investigated, receded. 
These phenomena, it is presumed, will authorize 
this conclusion, that a great part of the flat coun- 
try which spreads e. of the Allegany mountains, 
had, in some past period, a superincumbent sea; 
or rather, that the constant accretion of soil from 
the various causes before h;!'ted at, has forced it 
to retire. 

Mountains. — The tract of the country r. of 
Hudson's river, comprehending part of the .State 
of New York, the four New Lnglaud States,] 





. r 




I < t I if 

^'1 1 


UNIT i: u S T A 1' li 8. 

I tiiiii Vormont, is rougli, liillyi and in some parts 
mountainous. TIicsi' mountains air niori- parti- 
cularly il'-snihrd inulcr Now Kn^land. In all 
parts of tlif w«nld,and partifularly on tliis ,v. lon- 
linrnt, it is obsorvahlf, that hh you depart fn.m 
tiio ocean, or from a river, the land gradually 
rises : and tlie lieif^lit of land, in common, is 
about enuallv distant from tlie Mater on either 
side. 'I he Andes, in South America, form the 
heijfht of land lu'tween the Atlantic and Pacific 
«)ceans. The liij{h lands between the district of 
IVIaine and the province of l,ower Canada, «li- 
\ ide the rivers which fall into thi^St. I/awrence, 
//. and into the Atlantic, s. The Creen M<)nn- 
tains, in A'ermont, divide the waters which 1I<im 
( . into Connecticut river from those which full 
li'. into Tiuke Champlain, liake Ceorj^e, and 
Hudson's river. 

Ilelween tlu- Atlantic, the Mississippi, ami the 
lakes, rinis a louf> ranjie of mountains, ma(l«> up 
of a <;reat nnnd)er of ri(li>es. These mountains 
extend h. r. and v. ;,•. nearly parallel to the sea 
coast, about !)(I0 miles in bM)i>th, and from (iO to 
l."JO and 'JCO miles in bnadih. I\lr. I'xaus ob- 
serves, uilli respect to thai part of these mountains 
which he tnueilcd o\er. \i/. in the back part of 
IVnnsvlvauia. that scarcely one acre in ten is 
ca|)alile of culture. This, liowever, is not the 
case in all parts of this rauj^e. Numerous tracts 
of fine arable and jira/inj; land iuteruMie be- 
tween the ridj-es. The dilVerent ridges «hich 
compose this immeuso ranjic of mountains, liaxe 
diflerent nanus in dilVerent Stales. 

As voti adxance from the .\llautic, the lirsl 
ridge in IVnnsvlvauia, Virjjinia. and North Ca- 
rtdina. is the lllue Kidsre. or South iVIountain, 
which is from I. 'JO to 'J(K) miles from the sea. 
Uetween this and the North Mountain spreads 
a large fertile vale: next lies the Allegauv 
ridge: next bevoud this is the Long Hidge, 
called the Laurel Mi)uiitains, in a spur of which, 
about hit. j(v . is a spring of water h^) feet 
deep, very cold, and, it is said, as blue as in- 
digo. \'\om these seyeral ridges proceed iii- 
mimcrable iiam«'Iess I)ranches or spurs. The 
Killatiuuv mouiilaiii runs through the ii. parts 
of New .Ier->'v and IVniisvlvaiiia. All these 
ridges, except the Allegany, are separated by 
ri\ers, which api)ear to liaye forced their pas- 
sages tliroiigh '•olid rocks. 

The priiuipal ridge is the Allegany, which has 
been (lesiri|iti\ oly called the Back-bone of the 
I niled Stale;. Ti\e giueral name ft)r these 
mountains, taken collecliv(>lv. seems not yet to 
!«ne btCM dtt( rminrd. Mr. Evans calls them the 

Endless Mountains: others have called tliem k\\c 
.Appalachian Mountains, from a tribe <if IndiauM 
wlio live on a river which proc<;edH from this 
muuntain, called the Appalachicola. lint the 
most, common namt! is the .Allegany Mountains, 
NO called, either fr«Hn the principal ridge of the 
range, or from their running nearly parallel to 
the Allegany or Ohio ri\(.>r: which, iVoiu its 
head waters, till it empties into the IVIississi|>pi, 
is known and called by the naiu<< of Alleganv 
river, by the Seneca and other tribes of the six 
nations, who onct; inhabited it. These luoiin- 
taiiis are not confusedly scattered and broken, 
rising here and there into high peaks, overtop- 
ping each other, but stretch along in '..nitiirnt 
ridges, scarc<'ly half a mih' high. They spread 
as you proceed ,v. and some of t';;'!i» terminate 
in liigh perpendicular blull's. Olhi-rs gradually 
subside into a level ctunitry, yiviug ris(< to the 
rivers which run v. into the (<ulf of iNlexico. 

They alVord many curious phenomena, from 
yyhicli naturalists haye derluc(>d many theories 
of the earth. Some of them have been whimsi- 
cal enough. Afr. Kvans supposes that the most 
obvious of theories which liay(> been formed of 
the earth is, that it was originally made of the 
ruins of another. " Hones and shells which 
escaped the iate of softer animal substances, yve 
find mixed yvith tli(< (dd materials, and elegantly 
preserycd in the loose stones and rocky bases of 
the highest of these hills." AVilli deli-rence, 
however, to Mr. I'i\ans's opinion, these appear- 
ances hay ('been much more rationally accounted 
for by supposing the reality of the flood, of 
which Moses has given us an account. Mr. 
liVaiis thinks lliis too yical a miracl(> to oiitaiii 
belief. \\<\\ >vliellier i> it a greater miracle for 
the Creator to alter a globe of earth by a de- 
luge, when made, or to ciHale one new iVoni the 
ruins of anolhei' .- The fornu'r cer'-.july isnol less 
credil)l<> than the latter, 'i'lu-se moiMitaius," says 
our author. " existed in their present elevati'il 
height before the deluge, but not so bare t>f soil 
as now." Mow Mr. I'jvans came to bi.' so cir- 
cumstantially acipiainled yyitli tiu'M" pretended 
liicis, is diflicuit to determiiu'. unless we sup- 
nose him to havelieenan Antediliiyian, aiirl to 
nave surveyed them accurately belon; the con- 
vulsions of the deluge: and until y\e can hv 
fully assiircil of this, we must be excused if not 
assenting to liis o|)inion, and in adhering to the 
old philosophy of Moses and his advocates. We 
have every reas(Ui to believe thai the primitive 
• state of the earth yvas totally metamorphosed by 
the first couvidsioii of nature at the time of tlie'l 


■ I ■ 




tlifin (lir 

r iii(iianx 

iVoin this 

J{ii( the 

ji-j- ol' till* 
anilh-l ((> 
IVoin its 
oi'lliv six 

•wo lllOUIl- 

(I broken, 
, ovcilop- 
II '.'•nil'onn 
u'V sprciu! 
'\<v t(» the 

leiia, IVom 
V theories 
>ii wliiinsi- 
i( the most 
Iui'iikhI ol' 
m\v of the 
ells which 
■ilaiu'os, wc 
(I oh'sjaiitiv 
l\V bases ol" 
sc a|)|)oar- 
llooil, of 
>iiiil. Mr. 
to obtain 
uinu-lo lor 
by a (le- 
u' Iroin the 
V is not less 
tains," says 
it ('i('vat(>(I 
bare ol'soil 
bi" so cir- 
^s ur siip- 

[tll. illlll to 

1' the con- 
«o fan be 
iisi'd it' not 
rini; to the 
oiates. We 
>rphost'd by 
inic of the 1 

[dclufyo ; t'int the fountaiiiB of the treat deep 
wore indeed broken up, and that the variouH 
strata of the earth were dissevered, and thrown 
into every possible dep^ree of confnsion and dis- 
order, lience those vast piles of nioinitains 
which lift their crap^J <=''fl« *" *''»^ clouds, were 
probably thrown together from the floating ruins 
of the earth : and this conjecture is remarkably 
conlirmed bj the vast nundior of fossils and 
other marine exuviie which are found imbeded 
on the tops of mountains, in the interior parts 
of continents remote from the sea, in all parts 
of the world hitherto explored. The various 
circumstances attending these marine bodies leave 
us to conclude, that they wore actually fjene- 
rated, lived, and died in the very beds wherein 
they wore found, and therefore these beds must 
have oriirinally been at the bottom of the ocean, 
though now in many instances elevated several 
miles »bove its surface. Hence it appears that 
mountains and continents were not primary pro- 
ductions of nature, but of a very distant period of 
time from the creation of the world ; a time 
lonff enough for the strata to have acnuired 
their greatest degree of cohesion and hardness; 
and ^r the testaceous matter of marine shells 
to become changed to a stony substance ; for in 
the fissures of the limestone and other strata, 
fragments of the same shell have been frequently 
found adhering to each side of the cleft, in the very 
state in which they were originally broken ; so 
that if the several parts were brought together, 
they would apparently tally with each other 
exactly. A very considerable time therefore 
must have elapsed between the chaotic state of 
the earth and the deluge, which agrees with the 
account of Moses, who makes it a little upwards 
of 1,600 years. These observations are in- 
tended to shew, in one instance out of many 
others, the agreement between revelation and rea- 
son, between the account which Moses gives us 
of the creation and deluge, and the present ap- 
pearances of nature. Those who wish to have 
this agreement more fully and satisfactorily 
stated, are referred to a very learned and inge- 
nious " Inquiry into the original state and Ktr- 
niation of the earth," b^ John Whitehurst, 
F.R.S. to whom we are indebted for some of 
the foregoing observations. 

Soil and Vegetable Productions. 

In the United States are to be found every 

species of soil that the earth aifords. In (me 

part of them or another, they produce all the 

various kinds of fruits, grain, pulse, and hortu- 

line plants and roots, which are found in Europe, 
and nave been thence transplanted to America. 
Resides these, a great variety of native vege- 
able product imiH. 

The natural history of the American States, 
particularly of New England, in yet in its in- 
fancy. Several ingenious foreigners, skilled in 
botaiiv, have visited the Southern and some of 
the \liddle States, and Canada, and these States 
have also had ingenious botanists of their own, 
who have made considerable progress in describing 
the productions of those parts of America whicli 
they have visited ; but New EnG;land seems not 
to nave engaged the attention either of foreign 
or American botanists. There was never an 
attem|)t to describe botanical ly, the vegetable 

B reductions of the Eastern States, till the Rev. 
Ir. Cutler, of Ipswich, turned his attention to 
the subject. The result of his first inquiries 
was published in the first volume of the " Me- 
moirs of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences." To his liberal and generous commu- 
nications, we are principally indebted for our 
account of the vegotalile productions of the 
Eastern and Middle Slates. 

N. B. The following catalogues are all incom- 
plete, and designed only to give general ideas. 
They contain, however, more correct information 
concerning the Natural History of New England, 
than has yet been published. A specific descrip- 
tion of the principal grains, fruits, trees, insects, 
birds, animals, &c. will be found under their 
proper heads in the Appendix to this work. 


Grain cultivated in the Eastern and Middle 
Indian corn (Zeamays) a native grain of North 
America. The varieties of this grain, occasioned 
by a difference in soil, cultivation, and climate, 
are almost endless. Winter and summer rye, 
(srrafr cereale, hi/hcriium et vrrum,) the only 
species cultivate<) by the farmers. The winter 
rye succeeds best in ground newly cleared, but 
summer rye is frequently sown in old towns, 
where the land has oeen long under cultivation. 
The winter and siimmor rye are the same spe- 
cies, forming two varieties ; but the winter and 
summer wheat are two distinct species. Several 
species of barley are cultivated, the most com- 
mon is the six ranked ( llordcum hcxastkhon,) 
and the two ranked cy/orrfrMOT tUstichon.) The 
wheat principally cultivated are the winter and] 

• *li 

■■■i ' f*(:^\:.f-" 




■ ! i 



4 ; .1 »' . 


Ill i 




[fiummer ( Trklium hi/hcrmtm eta-slitum.) — OatH 
(Arena sativa.) — Buck-wheat ( Poli/gonum fa- 

In the Southern States, as far n. as Virginia, 
where the lands are suitable, besides the grain 
already mentioned, they cultivate rice. This 
grain was brought into Carolina first hy Sir Na- 
thaniel Johnson, in 1688 ; and afterwards more 
and of a different kind, probably a variety, was 
imported by a ship from Ma<lagascar, in 1696 : 
till which time it was not much cultivated. It 
succeeds well also on the Ohio river, where it is 
planted both on the high and low grounds, and in 
the same fields with Indian corn and other grain. 
A i^entleman who had planted it several years 
in liis garden, informed Dr. Cutler that it yielded 
at the rate of 80 bushels an acre. At Marietta, 
it has answered the most sanguine expectations 
of the ini'abitants, producing equal to any other 
grain, without being at any time overflowed with 
water. The Doctor himself saw it growing in a 
very flourishing state, on high land, but it had 
not, at the season he saw it, began to bloom. It 
was said not to be of the same species of Caro- 
lina rice. It is probably the wild rice, which 
we are informed grows in plenty, in some of the 
interior parts of N. America, and is the most 
valuable of all the spontaneous productions of 
the country. In Pennsylvania grows a sort 
of grain called, by the Germans, Spelts, which 
resembles wheat ; and is a very valuable grain. 

Cultivated Grasses in the Eastern and Middle 

All the grasses, cultivated in the Middle and 
New England States, are found growing indi- 
genous. It is not improbable, however, that 
some of them may be imturalized exotics. The 
following are the principal grasses sown in our 
cultivated ground, or in any way propagated 
for seed and hay. 

Herd's Grass or Fox Tail, (Alopecunis pra- 
tcmis,) this is reckoned the best grass we have, 
is a native, and supposed to be peculiar to this 
country. Blue Grass C Alopecurus geniculalus.) 
— Many species of Bent (Agrostis,) particularly 
the Rhode Island Bent (Agroslus intcrrupta.) — 
The small and great English Grass ( Hon tri- 
lialis et pratcnsis.) — Wire Grass ( Poacowprcssa. ) 
— Fowl Meadow Grass (Pon aviarin, spicii/is sitb- 
hiflorh.)— Red and white clover (TriJ'oliiim pru- 
tfnse ct repens.) 

The grasses of Virginia, according to Mr. Jef- 
ferson, are Lucerne, St. Foin, Burnet, Timothy, 

Ray, and Orchard grass, red, white, aud yellow 
clover; Greenswerd, Blue grass and Crabgrass. 
South of Virginia very little attention is paid to 
the cultivation of grasses. The winters are so 
mild, that the cattle find a tolerable supply of 
food in the woods. 

Native Grasses in New England. 

Besides the cultivated grasses, the States of 
New England abound with a great variety which 
are found growing in their native soils and 
situations, many of which have not been de- 
scribed by any botanical writers. The small ex- 
l)eriment8 which have been made, sufficiently 
evince that several of them make excellent hay. 
They might be greatly improved by cultivation, 
and are highly worthy the attention of our 
farmers. Those which are found most common 
are the following ; viz. 

The vernal grass ( Authoxunthum odoratum.) — 
Timothy, or bulbus Cat's-tail grass (Phleum 
prateme.J — Several species of Panic grass ("Pa- 
(nicum — Several species of Bent (AgrosthJ — 
Hair grass (Aira uquatkaj — Numerous species 
of Port.— Quaking Grass, (Briza) several spe- 
cies — Cock's-foot Grass (Dacti/Hs glomerataj — 
Millet f Milium effitsum) — Fescue Grass (Fes- 
tttco) many species — Oat Grass ('Arena spicataj 
• — Reed Grass (ArundoJ several species. — Brome 
Grass (Bromtis squarrosus) — Lime Grass (Ely- 
mushy strix) — Barley Grass { Hordeum pratensej 
— Dog's or couch Grass (Triticum repens.) — 
Many species of Rush Grass (Juncus.) — Nu- 
merous species of Carex, in fresh and salt 
marshy ground. Several species of Beard Grass 
(AndropogonJ — Sofl Grass (Holcus lanatus et 
odoratus.J Besides these, there are many va- 
luable grasses, which, at present, are non-de- 

Wild Fruits in New England. 
Black Currant (Ribes nigrum) — Gooseberry 
f Kibes gfossularia) — Prickly Gooseberry (Ribes 
cunosbati) — Two species of Grapes — the Black 
Grape ( Vitis hibrusca,) and Fox Grape f Vitis 
vulpina.j Of these two species we have many 
varieties, dilfering only m size, colour, and 
tnnte. An excellent wine, and in large quan- 
tities, has lately been made by the French peo- 
ple, at their new settlement on the Ohio river, 
from the native grapes, without any kind of cul- 
tivation. They collected the grapes promis- 
cuously from all the varieties growing in that 
country. By separating them, wines of different, 
and no doubt some of them, of a much better] 






[quality, mij?bt have been made. The native 
grape is propagated with great ease ; its growth 
18 luxuriant, overspreading the highest trees in 
the forests, and by proper attention would afford 
an ample supply of wines, in the northern as well 
as southern States. The principal difficulty 
seems to be the want of a proper knowledge of 
the process in making wine, and preparing it for 
use. Barberry Bush (Berheris vulgaris) — Whor- 
tleberrj (Vaccinitim ligustrinum) — Blueberry 
fVaccinium corj/mbosumj — White Whortleberry 
(Vaccinium album) — Indian Gooseberry f Facet- 
nium frondosum) — Long-leaved Whortleberry 
f Vaccinium stnmineum) — Craneberry ( Vaccinium 
oxi/couos) — Yellow Plum (Prunus americana) — 
Beach Plum (Prunus maratima) — Large Black 
Cherry (Prunus nigra) — Purple Cherry (Prunus 
virginiana) — Wild Red Cherry (Prunus rubra) 
— Dwarf or Choak Cherry (Prunus canadensis) — 
Mountain Cherry (Prunus montana)— Service- 
Tree (Mespilus canadensis) — Brambleberry (Rh- 
bus occidentfdis) — Sawteat Blackljerry, or Bum- 
blekites (Rubus frulicosus) — Briar Blackberry 
(Rubus moluccanits) — Dewberry (Rubus hispi-) 
dus) — Common Raspberry (Rubus idteus) — 
Smooth-stalked Raspberry (Rubus canadensis J — 
Superb Raspberry (Rubus odoratus) — Straw- 
berry (Fragaria vesca.) The native strawberry 
is much improved by cultivation, and produces 
a larger and better-flavoured fruit than the 
exotic. — Mulberry (Morus nigra.) 

For information on this article, respecting the 
Southern States, the reader may consult what 
Catesby, Clayton, Jefferson, and Bartram have 
written upon it. 

Nut Fruit. 

White Oak (Quercus alba)—ReA Oak (Quer- 
cus rubra) and several other species with smaller 
fruit. — Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) — White 
Walnut, Butternut, or Oilnut (Juglans cathar- 
//fflyl— White or Round Nut Hiccory (Juglans 
alba) — Shag-bark Hiccory (Juglans cineria) — 
Chesnut (Fagus castanea) — Chinquipin, or Dwarf 
Chesnut (Fagus pt/mila) — Beecn Nut (Fagus 
siylvatica) — Hazle Nut (Corj/lus avallana)— Fil- 
bert (Corylus cornuta.) 

We may here mention the Paccan, or Illinois 
Nut (Juglans alba, foliolis lanceolatis, acuminatis, 
scrralis, tomentosis,fruclu minore, ovato, compresso, 
r/.r insrulpto, dulci, putamine, tenerrimo. Jeffer- 
son.) This nut is about the size of a large, long 
acorn, and of an oval form, the shell is easily 
cracked, and the kernel shaped like that of a wal- 
nut. The trees which bear this fruit grow, na- 

turally, on the Mississippi and its branches, lat. 
s. 40° M. They grow well when planted in the 
Southern Atlantic States. 

Medicinal Plants in New England. 
Among the native and uncultivated plants of 
New England, the following have lieen employed 
for medicinal purposes. Water Horehound 
(Lucopus virginica) — Blue Flag (Tris virginica) 
— Skunk Cabbage (Arum Americanum. Catesb. 
and Dracontiuni fcetidum. Linn.) — Partridge- 
berry (MilcheUa repens) — Great and Marsh 
Plaintain (Planlago major et maratima) — Witch 
Hazel ( Ilamamelis virginica) — Hound's Tongue 
(Cunoglossum officinale) — Comfrey ( Si/mplnytum 
officin.) — Bear's-ear Sanicle (Cortusa gmelini) 
— Appleperu (Datura strammonium) — Bitter- 
sweet ( Solanum dulca-mare) — Tivertwig, or Ame- 
rican Mazerion (Ctlastrus scandens) — ^Elni (Ul- 
mus americana) — Great Laserwort and Wild An- 
gelica ( Lmerpitium tribolum, et latifolium) — An- 
gelica, or American Masterwort (Angelica liicida) 
— Water Elder ( Viburnum opulus) — Elder ( Sam- 
bucus nigra) — Chickweed (Alsina media) — Petti- 
morrcl, or Life of Man (Aralia racemosa) — Sar- 
saparilla ( Aralia nudicaulis?) — Marsh Rosemary 
(Statice limonium) — Sundew (Drosera rotundifo- 
lia) — Solomon's Seal ( Corrcallaria stellata?) — 
Adder's Tongue (Convallarin bijoliu) —Vnicorn 
(Alttris farinosa) — Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) 
— Several species of Dock ( Rumex) — I'istort 
(Polygonum bistorta )~Sp\co Wood, or Fever- 
bush ( Laurus benzoin ) — Sassafras ( Lnurus sassa- 
fras) — Consumption Root ( Pi/rola rotundifolia) 
— Rheumatism Weed (Pyrofa minor) —Mouse 
Ear (Cerastium viscosum) — Gargit, or Skoke 
(Phytolacca decandria) — Wild Hyssop (Ly thrum 
hysopis ) — A gri mony (Agrimonia rupatoria ) — 
Common Avens, or Herb Bennet ( Geum Virg.) 
— Water Avens, or Throat Root ( Geum rivale ') — 
Blood Root, or Puccoon ( Sanguinario canadensis ) 
— Celandine ( Chelidonium majus ) — Yellow Water 
Lily ( Numphcea lutea) — Pond Lily (Nymphcea 
alba) — Golden Thread, or Mouth Root V.V/£;r/- 
la'() — Liverwort (Anemone hepatica) — Crowsfoot 
(Ranunculus Pennsylv.)-r-(liCYn\a.nAer (Teucrum 
Virg.) — Catmint, or Catnip ( Nepeta cataria) — 
Head Betony ( Betonica officinalis) — Horscmint, 
Spearmint, Watermint, and Penniroyal (MnUha 
spicata, viridis, aquatica, et pulegium) — Cirround 
Ivy, or Gill go over the ground ( Gliromn brde- 
racea) — Hedge Nettle ( Stacliys sulvatica i — Hore- 
hound (Marrubium rM/i>-rt>r)— INtotherwort ( Tuco- 
norus cardiaca) — Wild Sfarjorum (Origanum vul- 
gare) — Wild Lavendar ( Trichostemaf) — Wood] 

i 1 




tBctonv ( Phlicuhrh canademh ) — Shepherd's 
'urse, «)r Pouch ( T/ilopspi f>itrsa fuisloris } — Water 
Cresses ( Sisi/iiihriitiii nasturliiim) — (raiieshill 
((uroniiim Hiacrorhizmii )—Mi\rHh Mallow (/If- 
thn'a officin.) — Mallow (Malva roliindifoliu) — 
Siiccorv (Crrnh barhata) — Hiirdock (Actiuni 
lappa) — F3evil s Hit ( Scrralii/a aniara) — The root 
resembles <lie European Devil's Bit ( Srahivsa 
succisa) from which circumstance the Englisli 
name has probably been applied to this plant. — 
Tansev ( Tamnrtinii viilgare) — Wormwood (Ar- 
teinisia ahsitit/iiani ) — Lite Kverlnstinir (Giiapha- 
liiiiu oilorathshiium / ) — Coltsfoot ( Tussilasro J'ur- 
I'aia) — (loldeu Hod (Sofidairo ranad.) — l5lecau>- 
pane { Inula hrUitiiiin) — IVTayweed {Anthciiiis 
cotitia ) — Yarrow ( Achillea iiiilicj'olia ) — American 
Pride ( I^ihclia cardinalis) Three other species of 
Lob<>lia ( lA)l)(lia dorhnamia, kahtiii, ct spliilifira ) 
— Dratron Hoot (Arum Virs;.) — Stin^iu|; Nettle 
(Vrtica /mw)— White Walnut, Butter Nut, «»r 
Oil Nut (Juglaus frt//w///r«) - Swamp Willow 
( Sali.r cinvrca/) — Sweet (Jale ( Mi/rica gale) — 
White Hellebore, or Pokeroot ( Vtratrum album) 
— Moouwort ( Osmuuda lunaria) — l''emale Fern 
(Pit fix caudala) — Hearts Tonsyue ( Asphnium 
scolopcndrium ) — Spleenwort (Asplniium salicifo- 
lium) — Black Maidenhair (Asplenuim adiaulum.) 
To the above we may add, Arsniart ( Polj/gouum 
Soffilatum. Linn.) 

Amon;;; a great variety of other medicinal plants 
in the sent hern and middle States are Pink Hoot, an 
excellent vermifuge — Seinm (Cassia ligustrina) 
Clivers, or Cioose-grass (Galium spurium) — 
Palma Christi ( liicimis) from which the castor 
oil is expressed — Several species of Mallow — 
Indian Physic (Spiraa trifoliata) — Enphorbial 
IpecacuanliH' — Pleurisy Hoot (Aschpias derum- 
Ixns) — Virginia Snake Root ( Arisloloclita serpin- 
taria) — Black Snake Hoot < Arla-a raccmosa) — 
Seneca Hattlosiiake Root f Poti/gala Senega) — 
Valerian ( Valeriana hniista radiata) — Clinseng 
(Panax ijuinquefolium ) — Angelica (Angelica si/l- 
vestris) — (Jatropha urens.) 

Flowering Trees and Shrubs in the I'nited 

Globe Flower (Crphalanthus oeeidenlalis ) — 
Pigeonberry (Cissus sici/oides) — Virginian Dog- 
wood (CiUtius florida) — Conel (Cornus canaden- 
sis)— lioA-ftowerod Honeysuckle {Azalea nudi- 
/7<»rff^ —White American Honeysuckle (Azalea 
viscosn ' — American Tea (Ceanolhus amerieanas ) 
— (^herry Honeysuckle (Lonieera dieiiilla ) — 
Vii-giuia Scarlet floneysiickle ( f-onicera virgi- 
iiiana ) — Dwarf Clierrv Honevstickle f Lonieera 

canadensis) — Evergreen Spindle Tree (Eunny' 
mus scniperxirens ) — Virginian Itea (Ilea virgi- 
nica) — Stag's-horn Sumach (Ithus fjyphinumj— 
Black Haw (Viburnum prunifoliuin) — Black- 
berried F'jlder (Sambueus nigra) — Red-berried 
I'ilder (Sambucus canadensis I — Scarlet-flowered 
Horse Chesiuit ( /Eseulus pavia ) — ,hiAi\* Tree 
(Cercis canadensis) — (Jreat Ijairrel ( Kalmia lati- 
folia) — Dwarf liaurel (Kalmia augustifolia) — 
Tiiyme-leaved Marsh Cistus (Ledum lln/mifo- 
lium ) — American Senna ( Ithodora canadensis J — 
Rose Bay Tree ( Itliododendrum maximum) — 
White Pepper Bush (Andromeda arborea ) —^WvA- 
bud Andromeda (Andromeda racrmosa) — Bog- 
Evergreen (Andromeda rali/culalaj — Carolina 
Hed-nud (Andromeda nilida > — Carolina Iron- 
wood Tree (Andromeda plamata) — (^aroliniaii 
Syrianga ( Pliiladelphus inodorusj — Sorbus Tree 
(Sorbus aucuparia) — Mountain Ash ( Sorbus anic- 
rieanaJ—Sovy'wi' Tree ( JStespilus canadensis) — 
Medlar Tre«' , Mespilus nivea) — Sweet-scented 
Crab-apple Tree ( Pt/rus coronaria) — Meadow 
Sweet (Snira-a salieifolia) — Queen of the Mea- 
dows (Spira-a lomrntosa I — Canadian Splra'a 
(Spira'a lij/pericifolia ) — Wild I{ose (Rosa Caro- 
lina) — Peiinsylviinian Swamp Hose ( Ifosa palus- 
tris) — Sunern Haspberi"y (/tubus odoratus)-— 
Carolian Fotliergilla ( I'olhergilla gardeni ) — Tu- 
lip Tree (lAriodcndrum lulipifern) — Evergreen 
Tulip 'I'ree (Magnolia granelifloraj — Climbing 
Trumpet Flower ( Bignonia radicans) — Virginian 
Stewartia (Stcicartia malacodendrou ) — Franklin 
'I'ree ( Franklinia alalamaha ) — Locust Tree ( Ro- 
binia pseud acacia ' — Rose-flowered liocust Tree 
(liobinia rosea) — Swamp Willow ( Salix cineria? i 
— Hcd-flowered Maple (Acer rubrum.J 

Forest Trees. 
Were we possessed of accurate materials tor 
the purpose, it would far exceed the limits of a 
work embracing such a variety of subjects, to give 
a complete catalogue of the trees of this country. 
From the foregoing catalogues the reader must 
necessarily conclude that they are very numerous. 
And it ought to be observed, that almost all of 
them, for some purpose or other, have been used 
as timl)er. Some of the most useful species of 
trees, however, must not be omitted, and are the 
fitllowing: Ei.m (Ulmus americana) of this tree 
there is but one species, of which there are two 
varieties, tlie white and the red. — Wii.dCheruy; 
many species, highly valued for cabinet work. — 
liOCiTST ( RoOinia psiudo-acacia) of quick growth, 
g-ood for fuel, and excellent for posts to set in the 
ground, and trunncls for ships. — Biiicii ; sevoi-ul] 

U ^M T E 1) STATES. 


• (Euoni/- 
llra riif^i' 
) — Blark- 
luliis Ti-fp 
(afiiiia Itili- 
Hsiifotia ) — 
71 thiyniifo- 
naditisisj — 
i.rhnunij — 
'•raj — Wed' 
>sn ) — B(»{»- 

— Caruliim 
iliiiii li'oii- 

(jibuH Tree 
Sorbus (ime- 
tiadciislsj — 

— Meadow 
f the Meu- 
ian Spira*a 
( Rosa raro- 
liosa palus' 
odoratifsj — 
— Climbing 



t Tree r Ro- 

locust Tree 

lixchieria? > 


laterials tor 

limits of a 

ects, to give 

his coiintry. 

reader must 

V numerous. 

most all ot' 

e been used 

\\ species of 

and are the 

of this tree 

lere are t«o 


net work. — 

nick growth, 

to set in the 

CH ; sevei'ul] 



[species, I. While ( Brtula aiha ) '2. Black fnetiita 
tiifrraj 'J. He«l or Yellow flklii/a teiitaJ—OAh ; 
sfvi'ral species, I. Black ( Qmrnis iiit^rrj i. Bed 
(QiiircHs rubra) three varieties. J .VVliite fQiur- 
CHS alba) 4. Hhrub, or CJround Oak ( Qmrrtis 
pamila) 5. Chesnut Oak (Qiterrus primisj (i. 
Live Oak (Qurrcus svttipvrvhrns — Qutrriis Vir- 
flliiiiam, Millar.) 7, Black Jack Oak (Qiurcus 
aiptalita, Clai/ton.J The two last are peculiar to 
the soul hern Stales. — C'li eh n i) t ( Fu/^as castama) 
cliied^ used for fencing. — Bba(:ii (Taf!;iis si/lvn- 
tica) three varieties. — Pink (Pimisj seven spe- 
cies, I. White ■' Pinus slrobm) the prince of the 
American loresls, in size, age, and nwijestv of 
appearaiue. It is ibund in the greatest ubiui- 
dance in Maine, New Hampshire, and V^ermont 
— excellent for nias's, bowsprits, and yards for 
ships.- a. YeiiwV. ; Pinus pintaj its plank and 
boards are used for the floors of houses and the 
decks of ships. — 3. Black, or Pitch Pine ( Pinus 
Ittda) when burnt in kilns it makes Ihe best of 
charcoal ; its knots and roots being full of the 
terebinthine oil, when kindled, atford a brighter 
liglilthaucandles; its soot is collected and used for 
lampblack. It grows sparingly in New England 
and the middle Slates, but in the greatest plenty 
in Ihe southern States, between the sea-coast and 
the mountains. FVom it they make tar in large 
quaiitilies. — 4. The Larch ( Pinus larix) Its tur- 
pentine is said to be the same with Ihe Burgiuidy 
pilch. Besides these, naturalists reckon the Fir 
(Pinus balsam fa) — Spruce (Pinus cantulensis) — • 
YlcmXock ( Pinus abits) — An no a VitjE ( Thuya 
occidtrilalis) the same as what is called WiiiTi: 
Cebar.— Juniper, orllEDCEnAR (.luniptrus 
virginica) It produces the Jnniper-I)erry. — 
WiiiTF. Cedah, of the southern Stateti {Cupnssus 
tbijoides) diiferent from the white cedar of the 
northern States. — Cypress (Cuprtssus disticha) 
Found only in the southern States ; used for 
shingles and other purposes ; grows in swamps 
very large. — White Willow ( Salix albaj the 
bark of its root is an excellent substitute for the 
Peruvian bark. — Asii ( Fraxinus ainerivumi) two 
species, Black, or Swamp Ash, and White Ash. — 
Mai'Le, three species; 1. White (AarnegundoJ 
much used in cabinet work — 2. Bed fAvcr ru- 
brinn>—3. Black Rock, or Sugar Maple (Aicr 
succharinum) Its sap has a saccharine (luality ; 
and, when refined and hardened by boiluig and 
bilking, makes a well-tasted and wholesome 
sugar, the manufacture of which has greatly in- 
creased in the eastern and middle Stsites, within 
a few years past. 

J here is lu the United States an infinitude of 

trees of less note, and many, probably, equally 
noticeable with those enumerated, for a catalogue 
and descriptions of which we must refer Ihe rea- 
der loCatesby's Natural History — Dr. ('laylon'u 
I'lora Virginica— Mr. Jefferson's Notes on Vir- 
ginia—Mr. Burlram's Travels through N. anil 
S. Carolina, \'c. — Dr. Cutler's Paper in the Me- 
nii»irs of Ihe American Academy — and Dr. Belk- 
nap's History of New Hampshire, Vol. III. 

Exotic Fruits. 

Of these, apples are the most common in Ihe 
United States. They grow in the greatest plenty 
and variety in the eastern and niiddle Slates : and 
the cyder, which is expressed from them, nIVonU 
the most common and wholesome lioiior that is 
drank by the inhabitants. The ( rab Apple 
( Pj/rus coronaria) though not an exotic, on ac- 
count of its lieiiig a genuine but distinct specieii 
of the apple, ought to be mentioned in this con- 
nection. It grows in all parts of N. America, 
which have been explored, from the Atlantic as 
far w as the Mississippi. Its blossoms are re- 
markably fragniiit ; its fruit small, possessing, 
perhaps, of all vegetables, the keenest acid. The 
cyder made of this fruit is admired by connois- 
seurs : it makes excellent vinegar. The Euro- 
pean Crab y\ pple is very diflerent from ours. 
The other exotic fruits are pears, peaches, 
quinces, mulberries, plums, cherries, currants, 
barberries, of all which, e\c(>pt (piiuces and bar- 
berries, w»« have many species and varieties. 
These, wilii a few apricots and nectarines, flou- 
rish in the eastern Slates, and are in perfection 
in the middle States. 

The exotic fruits of the southern States, besides 
those already mentioned, are figs, oranges, and 

Pulse and Hoiluline Plants and Boots. 
Besides those transplanted from Europe to 
America, of which we have nil the various kinds 
that Europe produces, the following are natives 
of this country, Potatoes ( Solanuni tuberosum) — 
Ground Nuts, a sort of potatoe, probably a spe- 
cies, highly relished by some people — Tobacco 
I \iiolianaJ — P»n\\Ains (C'ucurbitapepo) — Cyin- 
lings (Cucurbita vprrMrosay — Scjuashes (Cucur' 
bita nidopcpoj — Cantelope melons, beans, peas, 
hops. Probably others. » 

The territory of the Cnited States contains 
about one-fourth of the quadrupeds of the known 
world. Some of them are common to N. Ame-1 



' • * li- 

: ' tl:.; 

IJ N I T li I) S T A T E S. 

frica, and to th(>Eiiropi>uii uiiil Asiudcnartri of the 
Eastern Coiitinniit ; utiiors are poculiar to the 
rountrv of which \\v treat. All thone tlwt are 
coiiinion to both contiiieiitN, are ('ouikI in the n. 
(Hirts of them. Compurini^ individiiaJK of the 
same npecies, inhabiting the difl'erent continents, 
some are perfectly Himilar ; between others, there 
in some dilVerence in size, colonr, or other cir- 
cumstances ; in some few instances the European 
animal is larger than the American; in others, 
the reverse is true. A similar variety, arisini; 
from t!ie tem|>orature of tk' climate, quantity of 
food furnished in the parts they inhabit, degree 
of sati'ty, &c. takes place between individuals of 
the same species, in dift'erent parts of thin conti- 
nent. Animals in America which have been 
hunted for their flesh or fur, such an the moose, 
deer, beaver, &c. have become less in size since 
the arrival of the Europeans. 

But our information on this subject is not suf- 
ficient to authorize many observations. It is 
very prolm!>le that some of the quadrup<'ds arc 
utterly unknown ; others are known only by 
common report, from hunters and others, and 
tl»erefort> could not be scientifically described ; 
and, with respect to many others, the multiplying 
and misapplying names has produced great un- 
certainty and confusion. 

The Rev. Dr. Cutler has given us the following 
catahiguc of animals, with theii Linnaean names 
annexed : 

Seal Plioca vitiilina. 

Wolf - - - . Canis lupus. 

■ - Canis alopex? 

■ - Canis. 
- - Felis lynx. 

■ - N'iverra putnrius. 

■ - IVIustella lutni.' 

■ - Mustela. 

Red Fox - - 

Crey I 'ox - - 

Wildcat - - 

Skunk - - - 

Otter - - - 

Martin - - - 

^Veasel - - - 

Ermine - - - 

Bear - - - 

Racoon - - 

Wood Chuck - 

Mole - - - 

Shrew Mouse - 

Ground ditto - 

Field ditto - - 

Porcupine - - 

Hare - - . 

Ralihit - - - 

Beaver - - - 

Musquash - - 

Mink - - - 

Mustela martes? 

Mustela erminea. 

Ursus arctos. 

Ursus lotor. 

Ursus luscus. 

( IJ rsi vel mustelae species.) 

Tolpa europea. 

Sorex cristatus. 

Sorex murinus. 

Sorex araneus. 

Hystrix dorsata. 

Lepus timidus? 

Lepus cuniculus. 

Castor fiber. 

Castor zibethecus. 

Black Hat - - 
Black Squirrel 

flrey ditto - - 

IUhI' ditto - - 

StriiM'd ditto - 

Flymg ditto - 

Moose - - - 

Deer - - - 

Mh« — 















Mamillary biped 
Bat Vespertilio murinus. 

The following is a catalogue of the quadruped 
animals within the United States. A description 
of them will l)e found, under their proper heads, 
in the Appendix to this Dictionary. Those to 
which an asterism * is prefixed, are fur animals ; 
whose skins are sometimes dressed in allum, with 
the hair on, and worn in dress, or whose fur or 
soft hair is used for various manuiactural pur- 


Mam mouth 













Red Deer 

Fallow Deer 


* Opossum 

* Woodchuck 
Fox Sauirrel 
Grey Squirrel 
Red Squirrel 






Striped Scpiirrel 





Flying Squirrel 


Field Mouse 

Wood Rat 

Shrew Mouse 

Purple Mole 

Black Mole 

Water Kat 




Mountain Cat 








Several catalogues of the birds in the Southern 
and Middle States have been published by dif- 
ferent authors; and one of those in New Hamp- 
shire, by Dr. Belknap ; but no general catalogue 
off the birds in the American States has yet ap- 
peared. The following Catalogue, which claims 
to be the most full and complete of any yet pub-] 

' 4 




)nor heads, 
Those to 
ir animals ; 
lUuin, with 
host? fur or 
Ltural pur- 







in Cat 

le Southern 
hed by dif- 
•Jew llamp- 
nl catalo^e 
has yet ap- 
irhich claims 
ly yet pub-] 

riiHh«d,thouffh far from perfection, lian brcii ca 
fully selected fi-oni Bartram's Trtnr/s, .hffirsn 
No'trs OH Viri:;inia, Utfhiai>'s J/islo 
HuKipshive, and a Miinuseripl fiinii 
Cutler. Ihirlnms Ciitti/oiriu; nn fn 

riiHlu>d,thouffh far Irom perlection, nan Deeiieare- 
fully selected fi-oni Bartram's Trtnr/s, .IrU'risoH's 
IS'ohs on yirs;ini(i, Ui/hiai>'s J/isloru of iWew 

niiHlied by Dr. 
far as it ex- 
tends, npiieiirx (o be (lie uiost accurate and com- 
plete, and bin mode ofarrani^ement the most na- 
tural aiul intelliffible : We have therefore adopted 
it, and inserted liis notes and references. 

The birds to whose names in this Catalogue, 
these marks (* + :J || f ) are prefixed, are land 
birds, which, accordiiisj^ to tiartrani, arc seen in 
Pennsylvania, Marvland, Virsinia, N. and S. 
Carolina, (Jeor^ia and Kloriiia, from the Hea- 
coast to. to the Appalachian Mountains, viz. 

(*) Thene arrive in Fennsylvania in the sprinir, 
from I lie v., and after buildinir their nests and 
rcariu/if their young, return s. in autumn. 

(+) These arrive in Pennsylvania in autumn, 
from the ii. where some of them continue during 

the winter, others continue their jotirnev as far 
v. as Florida. They return ti. in the spring, pr«>- 
biibly lo breed and rear (heir young. 

(|) These arrive in (he spring, in Carolina and 
I'lorida, from (he .«. : breed and rear (heir young, 
and return ai^uin to the ,«. at (he approach of 
win(er. These never migrate so far «. as Penn- 

( II ) 'I'hese are natives of Carolina, (Jeorgia, 
and Florida ; wlieie they breed and continue (he 
year roinid. 

(f) These breed and continue the year round 
in Pennsylvania. 

(§) These are found in New England. 

** Kite hawks are characterised by havinj; 
long sharp-|>oin(ed wings; being of swill High.': 
siiiling without flapping their wings : having long 
light bodies, and feeding out of their claws on 
the wing. 

Popular Names. Bartntni's Designation. 

The Owl. .Strix. 

+ Orcat White Owl - -....-- Strix arcliciis, corpore toto niveo. 

f Great Horned Owl - - - - - - . Strix pytliaules, corpore riiso. 

t Great Horned White Owl ..... Strix niaxiniiiH, corpore niveo. 

§ Horned Owl Strix bubo .' Peck. 

II Whooting Owl Strix acclamator, corpore griseo. 

+ Sharp Winged or Speckled Owl - - - .{ •^•••ix perigrinator, corpore vcrsicolore. 

' " ' «■ Strix ahico. Cutler. Uclknap. 

f Little Screech Owl Sirix asio, corpore ferruginio. 

^ Barn Owl Strix passeii. Cuder. Belknap. 

The Vulture. Vultur. 

II Turkey Buzzard Vultur aura. 

II White Tailed Vulture Vultur sacra. 

II Black Vulture, or Carrion Crow - . - - Vultur atratus. 

Eagle and Hawk. Fnlco. 

f Great Grey Eagle Faico regalis. 

1 Bald Eatle FaIco leucoceplialus. 

* Fishing Eagle FaIco piscatorius. 

f Great Eagle Hawk ["alco Anuilinus, cauda leiTuginio. 

f Hen Hawk F„|eo gallinarius. 

1 Chicken Hawk FaIco pularius. 

* P'S«oi> Hawk Falco columbariiis. 

1 Black Hawk K„|co niger. 

* Marsh Hawk l,'a|co ranivoriis. 

* Sparrow Hawk, or least Hawk .... Falco sparveniuH. 

% Brown Eagle - Falco fulviis. Belknap. 

% Large Brown Hawk Kaico hudsonius ? Uelknap. 

^ n-»u » "?"■* I''»'^" subbuteo. Peck. 

^ n-A i!'*'*^^ *""'"» •'"•iiPti"*. I't'ik- 

^UirdHawk Lanius Canadensis. Belknap. Cutlcr.l 


t ?■ 


I- rl 

> IV 


•21 U N r T K 1) STATES. 

Popular Yrtwifj. •■ liartmm'* Dni^tiolion. 

KiU' Hawk.** MilvuH. 

[II Forked Tail Hnwk, or Kile Fnico fiircatim. 

II Sh«rn..,l Winar.;.! Hawk, of a nale sky-blno } ,.-„,, ,.^„eu„. 

colour, tiu> tip ol the wiiigH Mack - - -J " 

II Sharp Winged Hawk, of a dark or dusky [ ,,,^, ,„,,eeruIeuH. 

blue colour ) 

II Parrot of (Carolina, or Parrakoet - • - PHitticuH CarolinienNix. 

The Crow kind. Corvus. 

* The Raven Corvus carnivorus. 

II (Jreat Sea-wide Crow, or Rook .... CorvuH maritimuH. 

f Common Crow ....-...- Corvus frupfivoruR. 

% Royston Crow Corvus cornix. Cutler. 

f Blue .lay - Corvus cristatus, pica glandaria. 

I Little .lav of Florida Corvus Floridanus, pica glandaria minor. 

Purple .Fackdaw, or Crow Blackbird - - Gracula quiscula. 

* Lesser Purple Jackdaw Gracula purpurea. 

* Cuckow of Carolina - - Cuculus Caroliniensis. 

Whet Saw -"" Cuculus — Carver. 

Woodpeckers. Picus. 

II Greatest Crested Woodpecker, havinir a ) „. . . ,. 

" white back . . -^ .'. . . .; P'cus principalis. 

* Great Red Crested, Black Woodpecker - Picus pileatus. 

* Read fleaded Woodpecker Picus erythrocephalus. 

* (jold Winged Woodpecker ..... Picus auratus. 

f Red Bellied Woodpecker Picus Carolinus. 

f Least Spotted Woodpecker .... - Picus pubesccns. 

V Hairy, Speckled and Crested Woodpecker Picus villoius. 

1 Yellow Uellied Woodpecker ..... Picus varius. 

§ Swallow Woodpecker Picus hirundinaceus. Cutler. 

^ Speckled Woodpecker - Picus maculosiis. Cutler. 

I Nuthatch Sitta capite nigro. Catesby. 

t Small Nuthatch Sitta capite fusco. Catesby. 

+ Little Brown variegated Creeper ... Certhia riifa. 

* Pine Oeeper ..----.--- Certhia pinus. 

* Blue and White, pied Creeper ... - Certhia picta. 

* Great Crested King Fisher - - . - . Alcedo alcyon. 

* Humming Bird . ..--.-.. Trochylus colubris. 

* Little Grey Butcher Bird of Pennsylvania - Lanius griseus. 

* liittle Black Capped Butcher ----- Lanius garrulus. 

* King Bird ..---. Lanius tyrannus. 

* Pewit, or Black Cap Flv Catcher - - - Muscicapa nunciola. 

* Great Crestod Yellow Bellied Fly Catcher Muscicapa cristata. 

* Lesser Pewit, or Brown and Greenish Fly> ,, . „ 

Catcher - .j Muscicapa rapax. 

* Little Olive-coloured Fly Catcher . - - Muscicapa subviridis. 

* Little Domestic Fly Catcher, or Green Wren Muscicapa cantacrix. 

* Red-eyed Fly Catcher ..----. Muscicapa sylvicola. 

* Turtle Dove of Carolina - ----- Columba Caroliniensis. 

II Ground Dove - - -._---- Columba passerina. 
+ Wild Pigeon ---_.---.. Columba inigratoria. 

* Great Meadow Lark . - ..... Alauda magna. 

t Sky Lark - -- Alauda campestris, gutture flavo.j 

i M 



UNI T i: I) s r \ T i: s. 2.', 

Popii/iir Xiinics. Ill, III, mi's f),sis:nfi/i,»i. 

* fiittli' HroMii liiiik - . - ■Maiidii iiii;;ia(i)i'i.i, t'(ir|)()ic liitii i(>i'ni;;inio. 

|{<(l-«inj{('(ISiarliiij{ — Marsh Hliuk Hinl. or ) ... ,. 

U«-<l-uiiiK.'(l Hlii.k Hir.l J ^tiinuH innr,.,' alls siiiuTiio nilx'iidl.iis. CuU'hI.v. 

f llohiii Ucil Hrras(. I'iclil I'aro .... TiinliM mii,niiloriiis. 

' lMi\-rt)lniir«'(l 'riiniHli 'riinliis iiilus. 

* Mockina: Hiid - Tiirdiis poly^loUos. 

* Wood 'riirusli ... - Tdi-diis iiiclodoH. 

* Least (ioldoii Crown TIhiihIi - - - . . 'I'lirdiis miuimus. vorlico aiirio. 

^ ('loss Hill ------ Jioxiu riiivi rostra ? Ii(>lkiui|). I 

^ Clicrrv Hird Aiiipclis ((urriilns. ('iitU'r. 

* Ualtiiiiorc Uird, or Hani; Nest . - . - Orioliis Ilaltiiiiorc. 

* (i(d(lliiu-li, or lottMMis Minor Orioliis s|iiiriiis. 

- Sand Hill Wed liird orCaroliini - - - . lMi>rii!a llaiiiiniila. 

* SiiinnuT ili'd Bird ---..... iVIoriila Marilaiidiin 
' WlloM-hroasted Chat . - . ... (Jarrnliis aiistiulis. 

•^ Cat Uird, or Chicken Uird . . - - . / |iiuar lividiis, iipico nis-ra. 

I IMiisniapa vcrtuv iiijrro. Catcsltv. 
*I trowii Hud, orCvdur Bird Ain|M'lis fjaniiliis. 

(jiiA.viNoiionH 'rniiiF.s. 

H Wild Turkey -----.-. / Meloa^ris Anioriauins. 

• I (rallopavo sylvestns. Catcshy. 

f PhoaHnnt of I'ennsvlvaniii, or Partrid^-c of) »- . . " 

NtMv Knirlaiid ------..- 3 I «'trao tympanus. 

f Mountain Cork, or GrouH PtariiiiL'aii. (Mit-l „, ^ , 

c/iiff.) .-'-.. . I T Hrao lasopus. 

f Quail, or Partridoo ----.-.. Tetrao minor, s. coturiiix. 

f Bed Kiid— Vii.>inia Ni!>htin<ralo. - - - lioximardinalis. 

+ Cross Beak . - . . Loxia rostro lorsicuto. 

* Blue Cross Beak |,„xia oaMulea. 

* Uice Bird— Boblincoln KinlM<ri/a oryzivoiii. 

t Blue or Slate-coloured Rico Bird - - . - lOiiiheri/a livida. 

* •*'*'d R'ce Bird Kinlieri/a varia. 

X Painted Finch, or Nonpareil Liiiaria ciris 

% Red Linnet Taiiajvra rubra. 

^ ?.'",*'..('"'.'"'*,/., J-iiuiria cvanea. 

U (loldhnch. Yellow Bird (O/Z/rr.) or Let-/ Cardiiolus Americanus 

tuceBird «■ Frinjrilla tristis. Linn. 

+ Lesser Goldfinch Carduelus pinns. 

t Least finch Ciirdiiehis piisiliH. 

* Towhe Bird, Pewee, Cheeweeh . - . . | |;''"K'i''' erythronhthalma. 
,„,,,., i Passer iiij^ris ociilis riibris. Cadsbv. 
; ^"':p'*" i.'"!^'' ----- Krini-illa purpurea. 

i ;F'"g^.'>'^ Frin»illa. Cutler. 

J Hemp Bird Frinjrilla canabiiia. 

I W.ntei- Sparrow - - . - Fringilla «rim"a. Cutler. 

t Red, Pox-coloured, Ground or HcdjieSiKu-? , 

row ----.._...'..(■ ''I'lugiiia nihi. 

+ Large, Brown, White-throated Sparrow - Friiifrjlla fusca. 

t I^'ttle House Sparrow, or Chippiiifr Bird - Passer domesticiis. 

! '^^^[' 5?»r';"J'^ - Passer palustris. 

^ l^'ttle jH led Sparrow - Passer iiffrestis. 

+ .Snow Bird -..--... p.,sH..,- nivalis. 

May Bird - - - Calandra pratensis. I 

vol,. V. ' ■' 

it -u 

.:. I 

u I 

2fi U N 1 T E 1> S T A T E S. 

PopuUir Names. Barirani's Dtui ^nation. 

^ Uc(l-« inf^r«l Starling, or Corn Tluof - - Sturiius predulorins. 

< /I n- J f Sturnus HtcrcomriuH. 

^ \ rasser iiiscus. tatosbv. 

niii « 111- 1 . T M«»taciUa sialis. 

*| Riibiciila Americana ctrrulca. Cattwby 

^ Water \Vap;taiI --------- Motacilla fluviatilis. 

' ITonse Wroii - .--.--.-- Motacilla domeRlica (rojiuliis riifun). 

1! * Marsh Wren - -------- Motacilla palustris (ri'gulus minor.) 

* ( I real Wren of Carolina ; bodv dark brown, ) \m t •^\ n \- • , i ™.,.. \ 
throat and breast palo clay colour - - \ Motacilla Carol.n.ana (regulus n.agnus.) 

% (ilrane Bird -- -------- Motacilla ictoroccphala. Cutler. 

' Little Bluish (irt-v Wren - ----- Reg^ulus griscus. 

* (lolden Crown Wren - - ----- Rcgulus cristatus. 

t Wuhy Crown Wren (Edtcards) - - - - Regulus cristatus, Alter verticc rnbini colori?; 

* Olive-coloured, Yellow-throated Wren - - Regulus peregrinus, gutture tlavo. 

* Red Start -.-----•--. Ruticilla Americana. 

* Yellow-hooded Titmouse ------ Luscinia, 8. philoinela Americana. 

* Bluish (irev-crcsted Titmouse - - - - Parun cristatus. 
*I Black Cap Titir.ouse - -..-.. Parus Europous. 

* Summer Yellow Bird - - ----- Parun luteus. 

* Yellow Rump ---- .---._ Parus cedrus, uropygio flavo. 
<; Tom Teet ----._-_.-- Parus atricapillus. Cutler. 

' Various coloured Little Finch Creeper - - Parus varius. 

' Little Chocolate-breast Titmouse - . - Parus peregrinus. 

* Yellp'v Red Poll -------.- Parus aureus, vert ice nibro. 

* Green Black-throated Fly Catcher - - - Parus viridis, gutture nigro. 

* (aolden-winged Fly Catcher ----- Parus alis aureis. 

* Blue-wingeu Yellow Bird ------ Parus aureus alis cwrulcis. 

■ Yello' -throated (Veeper ------ Pnrus griccus gutture luteo. 

* House Swallow, or Chinniey Swallow - • Hirundo pelasgia, Cauda uculeata. 
' Great Purple Martin ------- 11 irundo purpurea. 

■ Bank Martin, or Swallow ------ Hirundo riparia, vertice purpurea. 

is White-bellied Martin - ------ Hirundo. — 

i Barn Swallow ---------- Hirundo subis. Cutler. 

■ ^'sucker*' -"' ['•'';• '^';'";Y''*°«': "I; ^•°«*} Caprimulgus luciiugus. 

AVhip-poo,-will - f ;>rim"|ffU8 minor Amerininus. Catesby. 

' ■ \ I aprnnulgus buropeus. Lutler. 

* Night Hawk -.-- Caprimulgus Americanus. Cutler. 

AMPiiinioi's or Aor atic Birds, or siic/i m oblain their food from andrcsidc in the u'aler. 

The Crane. Grus. 

!I Great Whooping Crane \ ^'"'^ ^}^m^^^r, vertice papilloso nirporc nlveo, 

' r t> ^ reniigibus nigris. 

i Great Savanna Crane ----... (iruspratensis,corpon*cinereo, vertice papilloso. 

The Heron. Ardeu. 

1 Great Bluish Grey-crested Heron . . - Ardea Herodias. 

* (ireat White River Heron Ardea immaculatn. 

^ Crane - --- Arden Canadensis. Cutler. 

* Little White Heron - Ardea alba minor. 

S Stork ..---.-- Ardea ciconia. Cutler. 

f Little-crested Purple, or Blue Heron - - Ardea purpurea cristuta. | 









•poTO nivco, 
ce papilloso. 


t ^pprlvlod-crestpd Heron, or (^rali CatcluM- - Anion n.aciilatn nistata. 
" iVTarsh nittorn, or Imliuii lf(>ii - . . . | Aniea iiimtaiis. 

* i\ n- I t^ .^ . ^ Ardeu stellaris .Ainoricuiia. <'aitwliv 

j&Ks^.lJt,; : : : : ^ttlSzTar""" '- 

* Lessor Green Rittprn ... * i ■ . 

; ..0... Br». „ „„.!X„, Bi.„„ -.-.•: {*' ;:^™" -"- 

* ^|)oon liill; seen as far n. as tlip river Ala-/ „ . 

(aniaha -.-..-t • «tuJP« "j'U"- 

The Wood Pelican. fi>„. , , 

Wood Pelican - - m ,., , , . Inntalns. 

X White r„rle« J" ' « "^ Kn^ulator. 

i Dusky and White Curle,v - - . ." .' .' J! "'t.'; IIh 1! ' 

« Great red-breasted (Jodwit" -" " " ' S""'*^"!""' «»>« varia. 

H The greater God« t - - pectore rnso. 

11 rUMlSharkVorlCiStrim. : " N..n,en,us imericana. 

t (Jreat Sea-coast Cnrle\v' - ; " ' ' ' ^'■•"en|u« fluvialis. 

M.esser Field Curleu " g ' magnus nifns. 

U Sea-side lesser Curlew - - ' " ' ^ """">!»« n.""*"- campestri>. 

* Great Red Woodcock - - -'.""' S."l!I"""V'"*r«««- , 
Wood Snipe- ... ^'««px Americana nifa. 

* Meadow .<nipe - - " J''" »l>ax ledoa. Cntlor. 

* Red co.»s -tooted Trine - - .' ' ' " 5«?'«l>«x mmor arvonsis. 
^ White-throated, C'ootrfootcd Trin^ " * " t"^" ''"'"• 
MJIackCa,,,CooUiTriur '^ ■ " " ,],'!"»« ^"'•T*'". S""'"*^ albo. 
fS^,ottedlHn«. Hockbrd^ - - - - I n"S:a vert.ce nV". 

f r-^ttle Po„,I sSiipe . - . - - . 1 rinjra n.aculata. 

f Little Rrown Pool Snipe "- '. "- j""^'" ?'"''"''• 

H Little Trinus of the sea-shore S..n.l" i 'a ' T ^ ^' ""'• 
OxKve- ""»»« snore Sand birds, I rln^:a (larva. 

§ Hnmilitv --"-"""""""- J'!"ff« f "licaria .' Cutler 
* Turnstone, or IXitrill" -" \' ' ' ' ' '"'.S* '"t^proH ? Cutler. 

+ Wild Swhn - - " " " ■ j''"'"'"^*"" Americana. 

y Canadian (Joose --.;""""■ V*^""^*'''■"^ 

+ IHtio-winiyed (J«os« - A»«er Canadensis. 

+ Laushiuft (loose - - Anser aleis ca-rulcis. 

+ White Hiant (Joose - Anscr fiisciis inaciilatU8 

M;reatpart,-coiouredHrant,;rGi;yG„:.,; A^ SS; ^^E,:!!^;^ '«"'" "'^"'• 

+ (Jreat Wild Duck. Duck and Mallard - ^ '^TXT.^*'"."*" ""•'""■' "'»':'* •"* '"""'"" »'"^'" 

mallard - Nplendentis, dorsum gnsoo liisciiin, pe. tore ni- 
f (neat Black Duck - ^ . i«8ceiite, speculum violacrum. ' 

Mlull Neck, or UulFalo Ilead'ouind../ * ' ^ ""%"'?"» "»"''"»«• 
+ Blue Bill ^iuindar - . Acas bucepaln. 

f Black White-laced' Duck" :"""'" \^n"« ««''>ceruleH. 
OVoodDiick - - - - . Anas leucocephala. 

+ Spris-tail Duck --.""'•■ ) '""* wWea. 

• - Auas caudacutu.'l 

r '.' 





t ' 



' i i 
; I 





Popular Names. Bartranis Designatioti. 

I + Little Brown and White Duck - . - - Anas rustira. 

' N'aiioiis coloured Duck, his breast and neck 7 * • • v i i 

.1 • . I -.1 I ■ ft I f Anas principalis, niaculata. 

as tliou<rn ornamented nith chains o( beads) ■ ■ ' 

I Little IJ'ackand White Duck, called Butter \ « 

« 1 _ .... J Anas minor picta. 

Sea Duck Anas mollissima. Cutler. 

Sea Pigeon - -.----.--. Anas histrionica ? Cutler. 

.Old Wife - C Anas Hvemalis Peck. 

i Anas strepera ? tutler. 
f Bhie-winsyed Shoveller ------- Anas Aniericanus lato rostro. Catesbv- 

V Dipper Anas albeola. Cutler. 

Teal. Querquidula-. 

" Stunmcr Diifk - - ---..-. Anas sponsa. 

niue-Hini>ed Teal - - --..-. Anasdiscors. 

Least {jie<'n-\vinn;ed Teal ... - Anas niii^atoria. 

Whislliuij; Duck ----.---. Aims listulosa. 

(ireat I'ishing Duck - - ----- Merg^us major pectore rulo. 

Uound-crested Duck - - ----.. Mergus cucultatus. 

Eel Crow ----..-.-.- Colvinbus niin;ratorius. 

Great Black Cormonint of Florida, having: a ( r< i i i^i ■ i .... 
,, , " i ( (>lvml)us Moridanus. 

rod beak - - --.-----(_ 

Snake Bird of Florida ------- Colvmbus colubrinus. Cauda elongata. 

fiieat Black and White Pied Diver, or Loon Colvmbus miisicus. 

Larije Spotted Loon, or Great Speckled 7 Colvmbus (ilacialis. Peck. 

Diver - -.--.-----5 Colvmbus arcticus. 

Little-eared Brown Dobchick ----- Colvmbus auritu< et cormitus. 

Little-crested Brown DolM'liick - - - - Colvmbus minor liisciis. 

i Dt>bcliick, or Notail 

S Cream-coloured Sheldrake - 

=! Hed-bellied Sheldrake - - 

^ Pved Sheldrak« 

Colvmbus podiceps. Peck. 


erijus mergan 

icr? Cutler. 

Mergiis serrator .' Cutler. 
iMerauH castor ? Cutler. 

uin - - 

AVater lien 

A I 

ea imixMinis. 

ea arclica ; 






: T 



Aleatonla. Peck. 
Procellaria pelagica. Peck 

Bird - Pha'toii a'lheriu^' 

(Jreat White fJull 
(Jreat Gre\ iiuU - 

iarus aiDer 
jarus "-riseus. 

liittle White Uiver (Itdl liarus alba minor. 

Mackarel (Jull - - .--...- J^arus ridibundus. Cull 


Fishing (iull ------.-- 

Sea Swallow, or Noddv - - - - - 

Sea Sucker --------- 

Pintado Bird . - _ , Petrella pintado. 

Thoriiback - - - . K 

Sterna miniita. Ciitle 
Sterna stolida. 
Petromyzoii inarinus. 




onica : 


f Shear Water, or Bazor Mill Bvnchops niger. 

Frigate, or Man ol'Wi'.r Bird 

Pelicanus aquilii^^ 

Booby - ----..-.-.. Pelicanus siila. 

Shag - - ---.-.._.. Pelicanus graculus. Cutler. 

Pelican of the Mississippi, whose pouch holds -t n i 

two ov three quarts - - . - . 
American Sea Pelican - 


licanus. — 

Onocratalus Americanus. 




■ r 

UNITE l> S T A T E S i'» 

Popii/or \ni)us. ' Bartroin's Dcsi^mtliun 

The IMovor Kind. Cliaradiius 

I * Kildoe, or rimttoring Plover riuiriuhiuH vociteriis. 

* Great Spotted Plover -------- ("liaradruis maiulatns. 

* Little Sea-side llinjy-neck Plover - - - ("liaradriiis minor. 

' Will Willet,^ir Oyster CatclKi- - - - - llemato|nis (.slrealc'ins. 

II (Jroat IJIiie, or Slate-coloiire.l Coot ■ - - rnlini I'ioridana. gh 

^ White-hoad Coot - ------- Anas .s|)(r(al»ilis. Cutler 

» Broun Coot - --------- Anas fiiM-a. Cntl.-r. 

* Soree. Brown Kail. Wid-^eon . - - - {{alius \ irifiniiniii-;. 

i Little dark Bliu- Water liail ----- Uallus a(|uatiiiis jiiiiu.r. 

* (Jreater Brown Kail - Kalltis riilii.^. 

II Blue or Slate-coloured Water Hail ol'Florida Ka'.iiH ;ii:ij;>r s'.ihieruleii-. 

^ IVei) -..----. Kallu- Ciiroiiui'.s. Culler. 

* r!..niin:vo: ^vvn ahout (Ije point of Florida: ) pi,„,„icoMl,-n- ruber. 

rareK as lar «. a- SI. Au;^usliiie - - "i 

Besides these, the following; have not been de- Aniphibions Heptiles. 

scribed or classed, unless, under dilFerent names, Amoiii>; these are the Mud Tortoise, or Turtle 

they aie contained in the above cataloiyue. (Tcstudo dcnliculaluj — Speckled Land Tortoise 

Sheldrach, or Canvas Back .^fow Bird f Tcstudo C'aro/ina. J— Great Soft-shelled Tortoise 

Ball Coot Jilue Peter of ]<'lorida (Testudo tiaso ci/lindmcea elonsc(do. 

Water Witch Water Wnjytail hinirido. Hartram.J When full grown it weighs 

Water Pheasant Wakon Bird. from JO to 40 pounds, e.xtremely fat and delicious 

Tlie birds of America, says Catesby, generally food. — (ireat Land Tortoise, called Gopher, its 

exceed those of Europe in' the beauty of their upper shell is about 18 inches long, and from 10 

plumage, i)ut are much inferior to them in the to 12 broad : found .v. of Savanna River. 
nielo(U of tlieir notes. Two species of fresh water tortoises inhabit 

Tiic iiiiddli- States, including Virginia, appear the tide water rivers in the Southern States, one 
to be the climates, in N..\merica, wliere tiie is large, weighing from 10 to J ^ pounds; the back 
griatc-t iiuiiilc. r and variety of birds of passage shell nearly of an oval form: the other species 
celebrate (heir nuptials and rear their olVspring, small: but both arc esteemed delicious food, 
witli whicli they annually return to umre .v. re- Of the frog kind ( liatura > avi' many species, 
gions. Most of the liirds here are birds of pas- The Toad ( Rami husn/ ) several species, the red, 
sage from the \. The eagle, the pheasant, grous. brown, and black. The former are the largest : 
and partridge of Pennsylvania, several i^pecies of the latter the smallest. — Pond I'rog ( Jfa/ut ocfl- 
woodpeckers, the crow, blue jay, robin. U) laid ) — Green Kouutain Frog ( liuiia rsiulimlu) — 
wren, several spoi'ies of sparrows or snow birds, 'Iree Frog ( liann imiiuhUa) — Bull I'rog (liana 
and the swallow, are perhajjs uearlv all the land lioans.) Besides these are the «lusky brown- 
birds that (;j^)htiuue the year round to the ii. of spotted frog of Carolina, eight or nine inches 
Virginia. long from the iu)se to the extremity of the toes: 

\ ery ivw tribes ol' i)irds build or rear tlieir their voice resend)les the grunting of a swine. 

yoniig in lite >. or maritime parts of N'irginia. in The bell frog, so called because their voice is 

Carolina. (Jeoiaia. and Florida: vet all those fancied to be exactly like that of a loud cow bell, 

numerous trilx--. particularly of the sotl-billed \ beautiful green frog, whose noise is like the 

kin(J, which breeil in Pennsylvania, pass, in the barking of little dogs, or the yelping of ))upi'ies. 

spring season, through these regions in a i^^w A less green frog, vv Iiose notes resemble those of 

weeks tinu', making i)ul very short stages by tiic young chickens. Little grey-speckled frog, 

way- and again, but few of them winter there on which u.akes a uoi-^e like the striking of two 

their return ,v. pebbles together tnider the surface of the v»ater. 

It is not known how far te tiie .v. they continue There is yet an extremely diminutive sptcies of 

tlieir rout, during their absence from the northern frogs, called by some Savaniuih Crickets, whose 

and middle States. notes are not unlike the chattering of >ouiigl)ir(U j 

I. I 



[or crickets. Thev are found in great multitudes 
after plentiful raii.j. Of lizards also there are 
many species. See article Lacert£, in the 
General Appendix to this Dictionary. 

Amphibious Serpents. 
The characters by which amphibious serpents 

arc distinguished are tliesr, the belly is furnished 
with scuta, and the t&il has both scuta and scales. 
Of these reptiles, the following arc found in the 
United States : they are specifically described in 
the Appendix to this Dictionary. See article 


\i t 


i it 


Rattle Snake ----------- Crotalus horridus. 

Yellow Rattle Snake ----..--% 

Small Rattle Snake - """r ^''°*"^' species. 

Bastard Rattle Snake } 

Moccasin Snake -""•"-■---lr'iu-__ 
Grey-spotted Moccasin Snake of Carolina - -y ** " '' 
Water Viper, with a sharp thorn tail - - - Coluber punctatus. 
Black Viper ----------- Coluber prester. 

Brown Viper ------ Coluber luridus. 

White-bodied, Brown-eyed Snake - - - - Cdluber atropos. 

Black Snake, with linear rings Coluber leberis. 

A Snake with 152 scutae and 135 scutellae - • Coluber dispas. 
Bluish-green Snake, with a stretched-out tri- ) Coluber raycterizans. 

angular snout, or Hognose Snake - - - C ^ 

Copper-bellied Snake --.----- Coluber erythrogaster. 

Black Snake ----------- Coluber constrictor. 

White-neck Black Snake --.-.-- Coluber. — 
Small Brown Adder -.-.-.-- Coluber striatulus. 
House Adder ---------- Coluber punctatis. 

Water Adder ----------- Coluber. — 

Brown Snake .-.-..--.-. Coluber sipedon. 
Little Brown-bead Snake --....- Coluber annulatus. 

Coach-whip Snake --------- Coluber flagellum. 

Corn 3nake ----------- Coluber fulvius. 

Green Snake ----------- Coluber aestivus. 

Wampum Snake ---------- Coluber fasciatus. 

Ribbon Snake --------- 

Pine, Horn, or Bull Snake, with a horny spear? 

in his tail ----------^ 

Joint Snake ----------- 

Garter Snake ---------.- 

Striped Snake - --------- Anguis eryx ? 

Chicken Snake .---->---. Anguis maculata ? 

Glass Snake -..--.--... Anguis ventralis. 
Brownish-spotted Snake ------- Anguis reticulata. 

Yellowish-white Snake -------- Anguis lumbricalis. 

Hissing Snake ---------- 

Ring Snake ----------- 

Two-headed Snake 

Fishes form the fourth class of animals in the into Cetaceous, Cartilaginous, and Bony. The 
Linnsan system. Mr. Pennant, in his British arrangement of the following catalogue of fishes 
Zoology, distributes fish into three divisions, is nearly agreeable with Mr. Pennant's judicioun 
vnniprenending six orders. His divisions are, divisions :J 

f s 


IS furnished 
and scales. 
)und in the 
[escribed in 
See article 



[Cetaceous Fish. 
The Whale (Bal£na. See Appendix.) 
Dolphin Por|)esse Grampus 

Beluga. (See Appendix.) 






Brown-spotted Gar 

Lump Fish 

Cartilaginous Fish. 

Pipe Fish 

Golden Bream, or Sun 

Fish . 

Red-bellied Bream 
Silver, orWhite Bream 
Yellow Bream 
Black, or Blue Bream. 


Snake Fish 



Frost Fish 


Small Pollock 





Bony Fish. 


Red Perch 
White Perch 
Yellow Perch 
Sea Perch 
Sen Bass 
Striped Bass 


Conger Eel 



Horse Mackarel 

Blue Mackarel 

Speckled Mackarel 


Salmon Trout 



Pike, or Pickerel 





Pond Fish 

Toad Fish 






Cat Fish 


Week Fish 

Kin-' Fish 



White Fish 

Tide Black Fish 

Rock Black Fish 

Blue Fish (Begallo) 

Sheep's Head 

Red Drum 

Black Drum 

Branded Drum 

Sheep's-head Drum 






Flying Fish. 


The amphibious 1 >bster is found in the small 
brooks and swamps in the back parts of N. Ca- 
rolina. In its head is found thj eye-stone. 

Bony. The 
igue of fishes 
nt's judicioun 

Tk r II • Insects. 

1 he following catalogues of insects and vermes, descriptions, are taken from Dr. Belknan's His- 
except some small additions and the annexed tory o? New Hampshire, vo™. in!p?R 83 

Horned Beetle Scarabseus simson. 

Khmn^i/f ScarabffiusCarolinus. 

JnXniSu Scarabffiusstercorarius. 

cSfdenBeede' Scaraba^us horticola ? 

--.. Scarabffius lanigerus.— Several new species, and 

Stair Rpptlo , others that have not been arranged. 

H-hrIoii Lucanus cervus. ^ 

Fluted BeeUe Lucanus interruptus. 

Dermestes lardarius. 

Water Flea - Dermestes typographus. 

FeldBee'le - - . Gvnnus natator. 

Ladv Fl ------ Silplia vespiUo. 

^ ^ Coccinella 3— pustulata.— Several species. 

Wheat Flv - - , . Chrysomela.— Many species. 
Weevil ----.._ """iju-- 

Snouted Weevil - - . . ' ' B'-»<^»'»« P'«'- 

Goat Chaffer- ... - - - - . Curculio quercus.-Many species. 

Fire Fly - . Cerambyx conarius.— Many species. 

Skipper Lampyris lucida.— Several species. 

GloTworm" '.'.'.':'' EJater oculatus.-ManY species. 

Canthaiides - - ----- Cicindela Carolina.— One or two other species. 

Water BeeUe - - ""Prestrismariana.— Two or three other species. 

Uytiscus piceus.J 


•»> '! 



* y 


D^tisciis niari^inaliH. 

DytiscuH striutus. — Several other species. 

Black Beetle ------ Curahiis Aiiiericuiius. — Numerous species. 

Blossom Eater .----.,-.- Mcloe nigra. 

' Staphyliiius maxillosiis. 

I'orsii Ilia. — Two species. 
C'ockroacli ------.._.- Ulattu Americana, (non iiuligenus.) 

Grasshopper - . . ^ .. 

Cricket - --... . > Grillus. — Numerous species. 

Locust -- _-.) ' 

Mole Cricket Grillus gryllotalpa. 

BaftEet- '- I -"-■-:.': ■ ;} Cicada—Many species. 
Large and Small ----------. 

Water Fly ------------( Notanecta. — Several species. 

Boat Fly" S 

Bug .--.-----.-_. Cinex. — Numerous species. 

Louse, on cabbages -.--.---. Aphis brassica;. 

Louse, on leaves of trees and plants - - - Aphis. — Numerous species. 

Bug, on plants and trees -.-..-_ Cnermes. — Many species. 

Butterfly Papilio. J Nmnerous^ species, and several non 

Night Flutterer -----..--- Sphinx. 

Owl Moth ------------ Many new species. 

Moth, or Miller --------.. I'alxna. — Numerous species. 

Apple Moth, or Canker-worm ----- Phalainu wauai-ia ? 

Dragon Fly ------..--.),.,„, „ , 

Adder Fly i Libellula.— Several species. 

Hemcrobius pectinicornis. — Several speciesi. 
Oak-apple Fly - -'-- - _ - - - - Cynips. — Several species. 
.Saw I'Jy ------------ 'fenniredo betulie. 

Hornet- '..'.... ^ J Vespa.— Many species. 

WmLT. '. '. '. '. : : : : : : :}Aspis.-Several species. 
Ant -------------- Formica. — Several species. 

n*^, .<]f'*"""""""'""l Musca.— Numerous species 

Horse Fly -....- 'I'abanus. — Several species. 

Mosquito, or Musketoe ------. Culex pipiens. 

Stiiigimi; Fly Conops calcitrans. 

Snow Flea .-----..... Podura nivalis. 

Father Long Legs --.--.-.. Phalangium. — Several species. ' " 

Spider -- --- Aranea. — Many species. 

Crab -------------- 

Lobster ---------.-.J 

Shrimp ----.--. ..-.l Cancer. — Many species. ' • 

Hermit Crab C . . 

Slender Crab -----.-..--J v' 

King Crab, or Horse Shoe - Monoculus polyphemus. 

Monoculus piscinus. 

Cray Fish ------- ■»■'•: 

Amphibious Lobster ---..--- ," 

Monoculus pulex. 

Monoculus quadricornis.] 





several non 

1 species. 



[Sea Clam Holothuria phantaphus. 

Squid Sepia media. 

Sepia loliffo. 

Sea Lungs Medusa pilearis. 

Star Fish, or Finger Fish Asterias.— Three or four species. 

Sea Egg ..--.------- Echinus. — Several species. 

Barnacle .----••----- Lepas anatifera. 

Hog Clam Mya arenaria. 

Razor-shell Clam Solen ensis. 

Long-shell Clam -... Solen radiatis. 

Oyster -.-- Ostrea -. 

\Iuscle ------------- Mytilus edulis. 

Cockle ->---------.- Nerita littoralis ? 

Limpets -- Patella fusca. 

Si>nd-shell Clam -- Sabella granulata. 

Seu Anemone --.-----•-- Anemone marina (locomotiva.) 

The Wlieat Fly, commonly, but improperly contained but a few thousand civilized inha- 

callcd titc Ilesnian Fly, which has, of late years, bitants ; and that now, the same country contains 

proved so destructive to the wheat in various upwards of seven millions, 

parts of the United States, has generally been But the causes of this vast increase of nuni- 

supposed to have been imported from Europe, bers seem not to be equally well understood. It 

This opinion, however, seems not to be well is believed that many persons still suppose the 

founded. Count Ginnanni, of Ravenna, in a late population of America to be chiefly indebted for 

lenrne(l Treatise on the Diseases of Wheat in its its growth to emigrations from other countries ; 

{rrowiiig State between Seed Time and Harvest, and that it must become stationary when they 

las given an account of more than 50 diflerent cease to take place. Some facts and calculations 

insects that infest the Italian wheat, and yet the will be here set down, to ascertain the ratio of 

wheat fly found here is not delineated nor de- the natural increase of the inhabitants of Ame- 

scribed. There is reason, therefore, to doubt its rica, and to shew that the great progress of 

existence in the 5. of Europe. Sir Joseph Banks wealth and population in that country is chiefly 

said it did not exist in England ; nor could he derived from internal causes, and of course less 

collect any account of it in Germany. This de- liable to interruption from without, 

structive insect is probably a non-dfescript, and The highest estimate that is recollected of the 

peculiar to the United States. It is said to have number of inhabitants removing to America in 

no deleterious effect on the yellow-bearded wheat any one year, supposes the number to be 10,000 

of that country. (Cooper's Inform.) If the same number had re- 

The Ink or Cuttle Fish is a curiosity. It is moved every year since the first settlement of 
furnished with a cyst of black liquor, which is a the country, it would make the whole up to 1790 
tolerable substitute for ink. This it emits, when about 1,600,000. But it is to be remarked that 
pursued by its enemies. The moment this liquor this estimate was made for a period when emi- 
ts emitted, the water becomes like a thick black grations were unusually numerous ; that during 
cloud in the eyes of its pursuer, and it improves the many years of war which have taken place, 
this opportunity to make its escape. This cyst they have been very few ; and that in former 
of liquor appears designed by Providence solely years, when the number of emigrants was coin- 
for the purpose of personal defence, and is cer- plained of as an evil, it was not reckoned so 
tainly a most apt and curious contrivance. The nigh. (Douglas's Summary, vol. ii. p. a2C.) We 
whafcmcn call those fish Squids, and say that may therefore suppose, that 5,000 persons per 
they are eaten in abundance by some species of annum is a liberal allowance for the average 
whales. number of persons removing to America since 

Population and Territori/. — It is well known its first settlement. This, in the vear 1790, 

that, about a century ago, the country which would amount to 800,000 persons, 

now composes the United States of America, At the end of 1790, and beginning of 1791,] 

VOL. v. F 




' i, 

b: ' ■ 

f^ ;lfi 

f: I 

! tl 

[there were eniiniernted in the General (\in«us, 
the number of ,'J,f)f).'J,4l'2 iiihuhitantH. Ah some 
placen were not eninnerated at all, and from 
otherH no return \\nn made, there can he little 
doubt but the artual number then waH somethini; 
more than 4,(M)0,()00. Supposinn; them to have 
inrreased, so as to double their numliers onee 
in W years ; then, in the several preceding pe- 
riods of 20 years, since the year 1630, the num- 
bers would stand thus : 

At the end of 1790 - - 1,000,000 
1770 - - 2,000.000 
I7,iO - - 1,000,000 
I7.'J0 - - r)(M),(MK) 
1710 - - 2.50,000 
1090 - - 123,000 
1()70 - - (»2,500 
1650 - - 31,850 

1630 - - 15,625 

— but ns this last date reaches back to the infancy 
of the (irst settlements in N. America, it can 
hardly be supposed that th"y contained so many 
as I j,000 iiiliabitants. It follows, therefore, that 
they mtisl have doubled their numbers oftener 
than unce in 20 years ; that is, that they must 
have increased faster than 5 per cent, com- 
pounding the increase with the principal at the 
end of every 20 years. 

To determine now far this ratio of increase is 
justified by other facts, a comparison of the num- 
ber of inhabitants has been tmiwn from authen- 
tic resources for the follow ing periods, according 
to which the total number appeared to have been 
in the year 

1750 - - 1,179,259 

I77i - - 2,141,307 

1782 - - 2,389,300 

1790 - - 4,000,000 

From this it will be seen, that 

taking the difference between 

the number of 1790 - - 

and the number of 1782 - - 

- 4,000,000 

- 2,389,300 

Which is - - - - 1,610,700 

And deducting from this,for 
emigrants, viz. 10,(X)0, 
emigrants, per annum, 
for nine years - - - - 90,000 

Increase of ditto, at 5 per 
cent, for four years and a 
half 20,050 

There has been a natural increase in 
nine} ears, of 

110 250 

1 ,500,450 

Which, calculated upon the number of inhabi- 
tants returned in 1782, gives the astonishing na- 
tural iiu-rease of nearly seven per centT per 

l''rom these statements compared with each 
other, it also appears thai in the year 1790. the 
actual increase ot inhabitantsinthelJnitedStates, 
beyond the numberever imported, must have been 
.3,200,000, <»r after the nu>sl lilM?ral allowances, 
at least three millions. 'I'hat the whole rate of 
increase u|)on the numbers at any given period 
has been nuvre than live per cent. : and deduct- 
ing for emigrations, that it has been equal to 
about five per cent, tor any 20 years successively, 
or three and a half per cent, compound increase 
for any period that liad then yet (>lapsed. 

Hut it may l)e expected, that no inference as 
to the future po|)ulation of .America can be de- 
rived from these facts, liecause as the country 
l»ecomes more thickly settled, the increase will 
be slower. We have an opportunity of exa- 
mining what weight the objectutu possesses. 

The I'^asteru States are the uu)st thickly inha- 
bited. The greater part of the emigrations from 
them, have been either to other folates in Nen 
li^ugland, or to the State of New York. 

fn 1750, New England and New York to- 
gether contained - - 444,000 

1790, Ditto 1,348,942 

Having more than trebled their numbers in 
40 years, ami increa.^ed, during all that period, 
at the rate of more than five per cent, upon their 
original number : and in the compound ratio of 
nearly three per cent. And as n>any more per'- 
sous have emigrated from these States than have 
come into them from abroad, all this, and some- 
tliiiig more, was their natural increase. 

In 1750, Massachusetts contained 32 persons, 
and in 

1790, about 60 persons to each square mile. 

1750, Connecticut contained 20 persons, 
and in 

1790, about .50 persons to the square mile. 

1750, Rhode Island contained about 23, 
and in 

1790, about 52 inhabitants per square mile ; 
so that besides the numerous emigrants these 
States have sent forth, they have more than 
doubled their numbers in 40 years, and nearly 
trebled them since they contained 20 persons to 
each square mile. 

Mr. Jefferson has taken some pains to prove 
that the inhabitants of Virginia double their 
numbers once in 27 years and a quarter. He 
also proves, by an ingeniouij calculation, that] 



r of iiihnl)!- 
tiUHliiiiir nii- 
r centr per 

I with each 
nr 1790, Ihe 

hole rate of 
wivpn period 
and (leduct- 
en equal to 
nnd increuHe 

inference as 
t can be do- 

the country 
increase will 
nity of exa- 
thickly inha- 
irrations from 
States in New 
ew York to- 

- 441,000 

- 1,348,942 

■ numbers in 

II that period, 
nt. upon their 
onnd ratio of 
iiny more pef'- 
ates than have 
his, and some- 

•d 3'i persons, 

^h square mile. 
I 20 persons, 

e square mile, 
net! about '23, 

er square mile ; 
miij^rants these 
ive more than 
irs, and nearly 
I '20 persons to 

pains to prove 
a double their 
ii quarter. He 
ulation, that] 

[In J782, (he numbers in Virginia were 567,(il4 
17UG, the same country (uurt of 
which made the State of 
Kentucky) contained - - 881,!^87 
GiviufT an increase of4-r"'V, or very nearly ti\c 
per cent, and doubling their iiumberR, not in 27 
years and a quarter, as Mr. Jefl'erson endea- 
vonretl to prove, but in less than 21 years. 

Virginia (exclusive of Kentucky) adde<l about 
180,000 to its numbers, betweenl782 ami 1790, 
th(> |>eriod when the numerous emigrations tu 
Kentucky caused so great a drain upon its po- 
In 1780, the number of militia, r^, 
Rid»-e, in Virginia, was 
I , which, multiplied by four, 
^ives for the nundier of 
iiiliabitants - . . . - 
In 1790, the same county contained 
Those counties having more than trebled their 
numbers in (en years. 

it is to be observed that these facts (and many 
more of a similar tendency might be adduced) 

of nine 


arc drawn from (he former and least prosprrouH 
state of America, and from periods which went 
either absolutely those of public calamity, or, at 
best, were not (liose «>f national prosperity ; yet, 
it is apprehended, they sufliciently prove that 
the inhabitants of the t'nitcd States had, up to 
the year 1796, increased at least as fast as ut the 
compound ratio of three und a half per cent. ; 
and (his independently of any effect from the re- 
moval thither of foreigners! 'I'hey must have 
contained, at this pcrioil, 8,000,000 of people to 
have equalled the avenige of New Englanu, and 
55,000,(KX) to have e.']ualled the rate of popula- 
tion in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

There are as yet no symptoms of this ratio 
of increase being \ory materially diminished. 
The population, by the* Census of 1810, amounted 
to 7,238,421, iK'ing not quite double of the Cen- 
sus of 1790. The quota returned at each |)eriod 
by the individual States, will afford matter of 
curious irivestigation to the more speculative 
enquirer, we therefore subjoin] 



I Li 




) » 

^. i^ 


{The CENSUS of the UNITED STATES of N. AMERICA for the Yean 1790 md 1810; 
dhtinguishiug tne Population of each State, and the Increase experienced by each, within the 
Period of W Years. 


Virginia - - - 
New York - - 
Massachusetts 7. 
Maine- - - j 
N. Carolina •• - 
S. Carolina - - 
Kentucky - - 
Maryland - - 
Connecticut - - 
Tenesse, West - 
, East - 

Goorpia - - - 

New Jersey - - 

Ohio - - - . 

Vermont - - - 
New Hampshire 

Rhode Island - 

Delaware - - 

Southern, Midlind, 
Northern Slatea, «c 
Territorial Uovcm- 









Territorial Governments, 

Orleans -----.-. 

Mississippi ....... 

Indiana ----..-. 

Columbia --..... 

Louisiana ....... 

Illinois •.-.... 


- - S. 

- - M. 

. - M. 

- - N. 
. - N. 

- - N. 

- - M. 




. - 241 




77,200 { 




160,360 \ 


IncrcaM in itO 






















* Of wboin about 70U,0U0 were slaves. 

It should be ubservnl, that the Importation of Africans teased by law on the 1st of 
Janu.iry, IttOtt. 

In the year 1796 some very ingenious calcula- 
tions were made, purporting to show that the 
whole territory of the tiniteu States, taken at an 
average of 1000 miles square, would be peopled 
about the year 1834, and that the population 
would then amount to 18,406,150 souls. It was 
also argued that the population of 1796 would, 
upon the data of its doubling once in 20 years, if 
applied to the settlement of new lands then re- 
maining unoccupied to the amount of 431,662,336 
acres, at the rate of 20 persons to each square 
mile, or 32 acres each person, occupy the lands 
of the United States in the above-mentioned year 
1834, and that the value of every acre would 

gradually increase from one dollar to 14 dollars, 
or three guineas sterling, up to the period when 
the full settlement would take place. 

The only objection to these calculations is that 
the increase of population, during the last 20 
years, up to 1810, has not kept pace with that of 
earlier periods, and that the data on which they 
were founded were consequently incorrect. The 
period therefore, in which the whole of these 
States will be settled, must be considerably later 
than what has been proposed. Illustrative of 
those calculations were drawn up the following 
tables, which are forthwitli presented to the rea- 
der's inspection.] 


and 1810; 
wil/im the 

«in no 








the Number of 1'ihMtanU m 1796, the Acres of Land then remaining unoccupied, the 
average Increase of Inhabitants, and the gradual anh final Occupation of Lands. 


Niinber ofin- 

Acrn of land 

occuplfd by (he 


Acrei nf land 

reniainiu( un- 


1 Year's increafie 

10 do. 

10 do. 

10 do. 

7 do. 

about 1834. 













The rullowing calculation is founded upon 
these principles, viz. 

Ist. It is Niipposed that the inhabitants oi the 
United States increase in the compound ratio of 
3i percent. 

2d. It appears that at the end of the year 1796, 
the number of inhabitants in the United States, 
was about 4,916,802. 

3d. It appears that the quantity of vacant 
lands in the United States was in that year about 
431,662,336 acres. 

it'*\''j^//**"'"'9".*"'*» *'•*'■« w*"* ♦»«••" in the 
United States, f,139 persona to each 100,000 
acres ot new lands. 

5th. It is supposed that new lands, on an 
average, were worth one dollar per acre; and 
that lands inhabited at the rate 0^20 persons to 
the square mile, were worth 14 dollars, or three 
guineas per acre. The following therefore, isj 

V on the 1st of 

14 dollars, 
eriod when 

ions is that 
the last 20 
vith that of 
which they 
rect. The 
le of these 
!rably later 
istrative of 
e following 
to the rea- 


,* •■ ! 


'VAHUi 11. 

[S/ii uinii; thr iiinntsitis; Vdlur of mil/ 100,000 //crrv '/<//,<// tqiiul lit tin Avvras;v) upon tfir Priiicipfi 
thill I III' //«•> / Y/.«' «;/' I , I .W Prisons iiiifffit III- iipp/iif/ ti) thr .Srtl/niirnt nf lfi< III, unit ffuit «« iiiuc/i /oinf 
iis tlinj SI nil il III ifir rati of-ii) Pinotis to tliv s/iiiiirr ^fi/r, u^iis worth 14 Dollnri per .Inr. 

Liiiiil'. Anil, mrii- 


Niiinltrr iif 

|iiimI b» (hr iii- 

Viiliii' iif KNMKNI 


ir |lfr 

'\'\w >niii<' ill 



crriiki' lit iiihubl. 

Arris mill wnr. 




























1 16,640 































































































































UNIT i: I) S T A T i: S. 










fit wa« not irilrnilnl hy Uiis Mtntonu'iit Jo <-<iii- 
\rv till- iil<-i> thill thi- i-JM- in llic uiliit> oC hiiv 
|)iiifi<-'iliir Iriut <it* land woiilil Im> in (ho fxiirt 
|)rii|)<irli<Hi hrro nicnlionrd. In nian\ important 
MHtaiiKw in .\nii>rira it haxlHMMigrcaIrr, in others* 
jtcrliiiiis Ir-*"!. 

lint it «H- iiitcndnl to hIiimv, IIuiI llin inrroHHC 
in till' \mImi' ol'Aiiioriran huuN ua-', in i(M iiatnir, 
likf llial ol' «-iHn|Hiiind inlt'i-fst : and that an- 
Mimiiiif llir ralid oC'JJ per ct'iil. tor th«' inrn'aM- 
III' iiilial'ilaiitM, llif (ri'iicral rise n\ tli«> viiln<> ol' 
propt'ilv rosnltinK tlMTolroni, was wry I'ar alMni- 
tlic protit ol' capital in an^ ot'llu> ordinnrv tvavn 
ofon- !o\iii;; it. 

Till- loMc^l priro at whicli ("onRioss at tliul p«'- 
riod olViTt'd IhikU for miIc was at two dollar'* nn- 
niTc. 'I'lii' ^ri'»t incrcaxi' ot'rapital in AniiMica, 
to^ctlKT witli tlio invf'MtniontH wliirli Kiiropoans 
have made in lands, liavi* siiirtM-onsidfraMy raised 
thoir \alni'. Indeed, tlii> disposal ol'territorv an 

iiiiallv foii-'titiilcs a most iiimortant liraiuli oi'thi' 
Ameriran revrnno; iis may l»o s«'i'n nndor articli' 
I'' IN wtr. 

(iovrrtmnit.—VntW Ilip4tli ol'.fnly, 1770, (lie 
present I'nitcil States were Hritish rolonies. On 
that nienioralde day, the representatives of the 
I'niled Slates of America, in ('on|;i'esHHsseiiil>led, 
made a solemn declanition, in which thev as- 
sijriu.(| their reasons f»»r withdrnwini; (heir al- 
leiriance t'roin the Kin^i^ of (ireat Hritnin. Ap- 
pealinn; to the Supreme .Indjre oC the world Cor 
the rectitude of their intentions, they did, in the 
name nnd hy the unthority of the f^ood people ol* 
the colonies, solmi'ily pnhliHh and declare, that 
these I'nited Colonies were, nnd of rijjht onsjlit 
(o he, I'Vee and lndenenden( S(a(ps; that they 
wore absolved from all ulle^ianco to the Hrilislii 
crown, and that nil political connection between 
them and Great Britain was, and ought to be, 
totally dissolved ; nnd that as Free and [nde- 
peiident States, they had full power to levy war, 
conclude peace, contract alliances, catabliuli com- 
merce, and do all other acts and thinjjs which 
Independant States may of rijjht do. For the 
Hupport of this lieclaration, with n firm reliance 
on the protection of <livine I'nividence, tliedele- 
jrates then in Con^jress, 5'i in number, mutually 
pledjred to each other their lives, their fortunes, 
aiul their sacred honour. 

At the same time they published articles of 
Confederation and Perpetual Union between the 
Slates, in which they took the style of " The 
I'nited States of America," and "aijrced, that 
each State should retain its sovereiifntv, free- 

dom, and indepemlrnce, and every pimer, juri*. 
diction, and ritfht, not expresnU delegated to 
Compress liv the Confederation. \\y these arli 
licli's, (he 'rhir(een riii(ed Stale-< several! \ en- 
tered into n linn leaufue of friendship with eai'li 
oilier tor their common defence, (lie heciirily ol' 
their liberties, and their mntiial and f;ineral uel- 
(ar«>, and bound theiiiMelves to insist each oilier 
ai^ainst all lorce olVered to, or attacks that miKhl 
be made upon all, or any of them, on arcouiil of 
reliifion, sovereignly, commerce, or any other 
pretence whatever, lint for the more convenient 
managemenl of the general interests of I he 
I'nited Stales, it was determined, (hat Delegates 
should be annually appointed, in such manner as 
the Legislatiir*' of each State siioiild direct, to 
meet in Congress the lirst Monday in November 
of ev«'ry vear, with a power reserved to earli 
State to recal its Delegates, or any of them, al 
any time within the year, and to send others in 
their stead for the remainder of (he y«<ar. No 
Slate was to be represented in Congress by les'^ 
(hail (wo, or more (haii Heven mumlM'is : and no 
person could be a delegate for more than tlirer 
years, in any term of six yrnrH, nnr wus aiiv 
person, iioing a delegate, capable of holding any 
ofiici; under the United Slates, for which he, or 
any other f«>r his benefit, should receive uny 
salary, fees, or emolument of any kind. In de- 
termining questions in Congress, each State was 
to have one vote. Kvery Slate was bound to 
abide by the determinations of Congress in all 
iiuestions which were submitted to tliem by the 
Confederal ion. The articles of Confederution 
were to be invariably observed by every State, 
and the Union to be perpetual : nor was any al- 
teration at any time liereailer to be made in any 
of the articles, unless such alterations be agreed 
to ill Congress, and be afterwards contirnied by 
the legislatures of every State. The articles t)f 
C«)iile(leration were ratified by Congress, .July 
9th, 1778. 

These articles of Coiifedemtion being found 
inadequate to the purposes of a federal govern- 
ment, for reasons hereafter mentioned, delegates 
were chosen in each of the United States, to 
meet and fix upon the necessary amendments. 
They accordingly met in convention at Pliila- 
(lelphia, in the summer of 1787, and agreed to 
propose the constitution for the considenition of 
their constituents, which will presently be re- 

The expense of all the several departments ol 
the General Representative (iovernment of the 
United States of America was, upon itii first ) 







I furmation, 294,558 doUurs, wliicli, nt 4.«. 6</. per 
dollar, is £60,275. ll.v. sterling, and was thus 

Fjpeme of the E.reciilne Departmenl. 
'riic office of the Presidency, at which 

the President received nothing jg. .«. 

for himself 5,(ji?5 

Vice President 1,1^5 

Chief Justice 900 

Five Associate Justices ... J,9y7 10 
Nineteen Judges of Districts and At. 

torney General 6,873 15 

Legis/alive Depurlment. 
Men.bers of Congress, at six dollars 
( jg 1 . 7s. per day) their Secretaries, 
Clerks, Chaplains, Messengers, 
Doorkeepers, »tc. ..... yj,5j5 

Trcmun/ Drpnrfiiiait. 
Secretary, Assistant. ('om|)troller. 
Auditor, Treasurer, UegisUu- and 
Loan Office Keeper, in each State, 
tof^pthpp with kill ilif necessary 
Clerks, Office Keepers, &c. - "- 12,825 

Dcparlimnt of State, including Fo- 

rtign yJff'airs. 
Secretary, Clerks, &C.&C. . - - - 1,406 5 

Department of War. 
Secretary, Clerks, Paymasters. Coni- 

missioiiors. Sec. 1,462 10 

Commissioners for settling old Ac- 
The whole Board, Clerks, &c. . - 2,598 15 

lnci(knt;d and contingent F.xpenses. 
For l''irc«-wood, Stationarv, Print- 
in?. &c. 1 . - . 4,006 16 

Total . . £66,275 II 

Besides the above, the Congress were (shortly 
after) oldiged to keep 6,000 militia in pay, in 
addiiit It to a regiment of foot and a battalion of 
artillery, which it always kept, and that in. 
crenseil the expenses of the War Department to 
S90,000 dollars, or £87,795 sterling. This ex- 
pense V. <is chiefly on account of the wars with 
the liidians. 

The salaries of the principal officers, as well 
as the nature of appointments, have experienced 


a considerable increase since the first establish- 
ment, as will appear by the following list. 


The President receives per annum - 25.000 

Vice President 10,000 

Secretary of State 5,000 

Secretary of the Treasury - - - - 5,0(K) 

Secretary of the War Department - - 4,5(X) 

Secretary of the Navy .... - 4,500 

Comptroller of the Tix'asury - - - 3,500 

Treasurer J,()00 

Attorney (leneral 3,000 

Auditor of the Treasury .... 3,(XX) 

Postmaster (teiieral 3,(KK) 

Itegister of the Treasury - - . - 2,400 

Accountant of the War Department - 2,000 

Ditto of the Navy Department - . 2,000 

Assistant Postmaster General ... 1,700 

Total - . 77,600 

The present expenses of government arc pro- 
bably much less, in proportion to wealth and 
numliers, than those of any nation in Europe, 
They amount nevertheless to six millions of dol- 
lars., though the two or three last years of war 
have swelted that, which is considered the cur- 
rent amount, in a ratio far exceeding even the 
in)mense increase between the years 1776 and 
1812. — See Statement of the Revenue and Ex. 
penditure of the United States. Finance. 

Constitution. — We, the People of the United 
States, ill order to form a more perfect uni«)n, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, 
provide for common tlefence, promote the general 
welfare, and secuie the blessings of liberty to our- 
selves and our po> Verity, do ordain and establish 
this constitution for the CiiitedStates of America. 

Article I. — Sect. 1. All legislative powers 
herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of 
the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall 
be composed of members chosen every second 
year by the people of the several States, and 
the electors in eacl. State shall have the ualifi- 
catiens requisite for electors of the m«)st nu- 
merous branch of the State legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall 
not have attained to the age of 25 years ; and 
been seven years a citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabit, 
ant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be ap- 
portioned among the several States which 'Uayj 

V ! 




'8t establish- 
e Vwt. 


I - a5.()oo 

- - I0,00() 

- - 5,000 

. - r>,{M)o 
- - 4,r>oo 

. - 4,jOO 

- - 3,500 

- - 3,000 
. - 3,000 

- - 3,(X)0 

. . a.4()0 




ent - 

- . 77,()00 

ncnt arc pro- 
[1 wealth and 
m ill Europe, 
lillions of dol- 
years of war 
I'ered the cur- 
ding even the 
>ani 1776 and 
!iiuc and Ex- 

9f the United 

Krfoct union, 


•te the jjoneral 

liberty to our- 

and establish 

■8 of America. 

lative powers 

Congress of 

ist of a Senate 

[ntatives shall 
every second 
il States, and 

the ualifi- 
Ihe inost nu- 

li>e who shall 
l> years : and 
Jnited States, 

an inhabit- 
|be chosen. 

shall be ap- 
is which .nay 1 

The inchuletl within this I'nion, according to their 
respcitive unmbers, which shall lie determined 
bv adding to the whole number of free pei-soiH, 
imiiidiiig those bound to service for a term of 
>ears, aiul excluding Indian- not taxed, three- 
fiflhs of all other persons. The actual eniime- 
ration shall be made witliin three years after the 
first meeting of the Congress of the United 
States, and witliin every subserjuent term of 
ten years, in such manner as they shall by law 
direct. The nnmlier of representatives shall not 
exceed «>ne for every 30,(M)0 ; but each State 
shall have at least one representative ; and, until 
such enumeration shall be made, the State of 
New Hampshire shall Im« entitled to choose 
three; iMassacliusetts, ei^ht : Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; 
New York, six ; New Jersey, four; l*enn''v!.a- 
nia, eight; Delaware, one ; Maryland, si.i ; Vir- 
irjiiia, ten : North Carolina, five; .'<outh Caro- 
lina, five : and (Jeorgia, three. 

When ».icaiicies happen in the representation 
from any Stale, the executive authority thereof 
shall issue writs of election to till such va- 

The House of Renrpsentnlivcs shall choose 
their Speaker, and oilier ollicers ; and shall have 
the sole power of impeachment. 

.Sect. 3. The Senate of the I'nited States shall 
be composed of two senators from each State, 
cluisen by llie legislature thereof, for six years; 
and each senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately atler they shall be assembled, in 
consc(|iu>iice «»f the first election, they shall be 
divideil as e((ually as may be into three classes. 
The of Hie senators of the first class shall 
be vacaleil at the expiration of the second year; 
of the second class at the expiration of the* 
lourlli year ; and of the third class at the (expi- 
ration of the sixth year, so that one-third may 
he chosen every second year; and if vacancies 
happen by resignation, <»r otherwise, during the 
recess of tlie legislature of any State, the exe- 
cutive thereof may make temporary appoint - 
ineiits iinlil the next meeting of the legislature, 
which shall tluMi fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a senator who shall not 
lia\e attained to the age of 30 years, and been 
nine yeaisa citizen of the I 'nitetl States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that 
Slate for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President tif the I'liited States shall 
he President of the Senate, but shall have no 
vole, unless they lie ecpially divided. 

The SiMiale -hull <li<Kise their other ollicers, 
vol.. V 

and also a President pro trmpore in the absence 
of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole jjower to trv 
all impeachments. When sitting for that our 
pose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When 
the President of the United States is tried, tin 
chief justice shall preside : and no person shall 
be convicted without the concurrence of l«o 
thirds of the members present. 

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not 
extend further than to removal from office, anil 
dis(pialiKcation to hold and enjoy any offi<t> ol" 
honour, trust, or profit, under the United Slates : 
but the party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and suhject to indictincnt, trial, jiidgmeul. 
and punishment, according to law. 

Sect. 4. The times, places, and manner of hold 
ing elections for senators and representatives, 
shall be prescribed in each State by the legisla 
ture there«»f ; but the Congress may at any time 
by law make or alter such regulation«, except a- 
to the place > of choosing senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least <ince in 
every year, and such meeting shall be on llie'\1onday in December, unless they shall li\ 
law appoint a dilferent day. 

Sect. ;». Each house shall be the Judge of tin- 
elections, returns, and (pialilications of ils own 
members, and a majority of each sliall coiislitiite 
a quoriiiii lodo biisines; but a smaller nnmliei 
may adjourn from day to day, and may be aii- 
thorixed to compel the attendance of absent 
members, in such a manner, and under such pe- 
nalties, as each house may provide. 

Each house may (Jet"riniiie the rules t»f it- 
proceedings, punish its members for disorderU 
behaviour ; tuiil, with the coiicunence of two- 
thirds, expel a nieniber. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its pro- 
ceedings, and from time to time piiblisli the 
same, excepting such parts as may in their judg- 
ment require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of 
(he members of either house on any (piestion 
shall, at (he desire of one-tinii of those present, 
be entered on the Journal. 

Neither house, during the session of ('on 
gress, shall, without the consent of the oilier, 
adjourn for more than thr(*e days, nor to aiiv 
other place than that in which the t\\»> houses 
shall be sitting. 

Sect. (i. The Senators and UepresiMitalives 
shall receive a (oiiipeiisiilioii for their services, 
to be a^'cerlaiiied by law, and paid out of the 
Iteastiiv of the I iiilcd Slates. Tlu'v -hall, in! 





'i . ij 

■i-i f 

?l ' 



I all cases, except treason, felony, and broach of 
(lie peace, be privileged troni arreRt during their 
attendance at the session of their respective 
houses, and in going to and returning from tlie 
Mime; and for any speech or del>atc in either 
house, they shall not be questioned in any other 

No senator or representative shall, diu-ing the 
lime for which he was elected, be appointed t<» 
any civil oiBce under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the 
emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time ; and no person holding any 
office under the United States shall be a mem- 
l)er of cither house during his continuance in 

Sect. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall ori- 
ginate in the House of Representatives ; but the 
Senate may propose or concur with amendments, 
as on other bills. 

I''very bill which shall have passed the House 
of Ueproscntatives and the Senate, shall, before 
it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
of the United States: if he approve, he shall 
sign it : but if not, he shall return it, with his 
objedions, to that house in which it shall have 
originated, who shall enter the objections at 
large on I heir journal, and proceed to le-consider 
it. If, atler such re-consideratio i, two-thirds of 
Ihal house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the objections, to the other 
house, by which it shall likewise !ie re-consider- 
ed, and if approved by two-tlirds of that house, 
it sliall l>ecome a law. Hut in all such cases 
the votes of both houses shall be iletermincd by 
veils and nays, and the names of the persons 
voting lor and against the bill shall be entered 
«)n the journal of each house respectively. If 
any liill shall not be returned by the President 
within 10 days, (Sundays excepted) ai\er it shall 
ha\ e been presented to him, the same shall be a 
law. ill like manner as if he had signed it, 
unless tlie Congress, by their adjournment, pre- 
\int its return, in which case it shall not be a 

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the 
concurrence of tlu' Senate and House of Hepre- 
s.>ntatives may be necessary (except an a (|ues- 
tidii of iuljouriiment) shall be presented to the 
President of the United States: and before the 
same sliail take etVect, shall be approved by him; 
or, being disapprov»'(l by him, shall be re-passed 
by tw(i-t!iirds of the Senate and House of Ue- 
pres! iilalives, according to the rules and liini- 
tatidits piescrilied in the case of a bill. 

Sect. 8. The Congress shall have power 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, ami 
excises ; to pay the debts and provide for the 
common dcteuce and general welfare of the 
United States; but all duties, imposts, and ex- 
cises, shall be uniform throughout the lUiited 
States : 

To borrow money on the credit of the United 
States : 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, 
and among the several States, and with the 
Indian tribes : 

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, 
and uniform la s on the subject of bankruptcies 
throughout the United States : 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, 
and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of 
weights and measures : 

To provide for the punishment of counter- 
feiting the securities and current coin of the 
United States : 

To establish post offices and post roads : 

To promote tlie progress of science and useful 
arts, by securing for limited times, to authors 
and inventors, the exclusive right to their respec- 
tive writings and discoveries : 

T«) constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme 
court : 

To define and punish piracies and felonies 
committed on the high seas, and oifences against 
the law of nations : 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and 
reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on 
land and water : 

To raise and support armies, but no appro- 

Iiriation of money to that use shall be for a 
onger term than two years : 

To provide and maintain a navy : 

To make rules for the government and regu- 
lation of the land and naval forces : 

To provide for calling forth the militia to exe- 
cute the laws of the union, suppress insurrec- 
tions, and repel invasions : 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disci- 
plining the militia, and for governing such part 
of them as may be employed in the service of 
the United States, reserving to the States re- 
spectively the ai>|)ointinent of the officers, and 
the authority o( training the militia according 
to th« discipline prescribed by Congress : 

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases 
whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding 10 
miles square) as may by cession of particilar 
States, and the acceptanc of ('ongress, become 
the seat of government of the United Slates ;j 

; it 




postH, nnii 
UP for the 
re of tlie 
;s, and ox- 
hc I'nitcd 

the United 

jn nations. 
1 with tlie 


ue thereof, 
itandard of 

of countcr- 
:oin of the 

•oads : 
? and uspfid 
to authors 
iheir respec- 

the supreme 

nd felonies 
nccs against 

narque and 
captures on 

no appro- 
ill l>c for a 

lit and regu- 

klitia to exe- 
Iss insurrec- 

, and disci- 
^ such part 
ic service of 
States re- 
>flicers, and 
ess : 

all cases 

xceediufi 10 

part ic 'liar 

SH, l)»'conu> 

vd Slates ; I 



land to exercise like authority over all places 
purchased l)^ the consent of the lecislature of 
the Slate in wliich the same shall be, for the 
erection of forts, magazines, nrsP""'^, dock ^-ards, 
ami other needful l)uildiii;;s :— And 

To make all laws which shall be necessary 
and proper for carrying into execution the fore- 
sjoinS powers, and all other powers vested l)y 
This constitution in the government of the 
I'nited States, or in any department or officer 

Sect. 9. The mi<;ration or importation of such 
persons as any of the States now existing shall 
think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by 
the Congress prior to the year ISOht, but a tax or 
duty may be imposed on such importation, not 
exceeding 10 dollars tor each person. 

The privilege of the writ of fiabras corpus 
sliall not be suspe. Jed, unless when in cases of 
rebellion or invasion the public safety may re- 
quire it. 

No bill ofattainder, or ex post facto law, shall 
be passe<l. 

No capitation, or other direct tax, shall bo 
laid, unless in proportion to the census or enu- 
meration liereiid)elbre directed to be taken. 

No tax or duly shall l)e laid on articles ex- 
ported from any State. No preiereiu-e shall be 
given by any regulation ofcomnu-rce or revenue 
to tlie pOrls of one State over those of another: 
nor shall vessels bound to or from one State, be 
obliged toenier, clear, or pay duties in another. 

>f(> money shall l»e drawn from the treasury, 
but in consecjuence of appropriations made l)y 
lav. : iind a n-gular statement and account of 
tl>e nil ipis and expenditures of all public money 
shall be published from time to lime. 

No lille of iu>l)ilily shall be granted by the 
Tiiited States. And no person holding any 
office of prcn".} <)r trust under them, shall, with- 
out (he consent of Congress, accept of any 
present, emoUnnent, office, or title of any kind 
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign 

Sect. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, 
alliance, or confederation ; grant letters ol" 
marque and reprisal : coin money ; emit hills of 
credit; make any thing but gold and siivr coin 
a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill of 
attainder, rx post f'tuto law, or law im])airi!:g the 
obligation ol contracts, or grunt any title of 

No State shall, without the consent of the 
Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports 
or exports, except what may Ih' absolutely ne- 

cessary for executing its inspection laws ; and 
the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid 
by any State on imports or exports, snail be for 
the use of the Treasury of the United States ; 
and all such laws shall be subject to the revision 
and controul of the Congress. No State ahall, 
without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time 
of peace, enter into any agreement or compact 
witn another State, or with a foreign nower, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaaed, or in 
such imminent danger as will not admit of 

Art. II. — Sect. I. The executive power shall 
be vested in a President of the United States of 
America, lie shall hold his office during the 
term of four years, and, together with the Vice 
President, chosen for the same term, be elected 
as follows : 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as 
the legislature thereot^ may direct, a number of 
electors, equal to the whole number of senators 
and representatives to which the State may lie 
intitlen in the Ccmgress : but no senator or re- 
presentative, or person holding an office of trust 
or |)rolit under tne United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an elector. 

The electors shall meet in their respective 
States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of 
whom one at least shall not be an inliabitant of 
the same State with themselves. And they shall 
make a list of all the persons voted for, and of 
the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to 
the seat of the government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The 
President of the Senate shall, in the presence of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, open 
all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The person having the greatest niini- 
l)er of votes shall be the President, if such num- 
ber be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed ; and if there be more than 
one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Represen- 
tatives shall immediately choose by ballot one 
of them for President; and if no person have a 
majority, then from the live highest on the list, 
the said House shall in like manner choose the 
President. Hut in choosing the President, the 
votes shall be taken by States, the representa- 
tions from each State having one vote ; a quorum 
for this purpose shall consist of a member or 
members from two-thirds of the States, and a 
majority of all the States sliuU be necessary to j 

N I T E 1) S T A T E S. 


ta rlioicc. In every case, after the clu)ict' uftlie 
'resident, the person linvinsf the greatest nnm- 
her of \utes of the electors shall he the Vice 
President. Uut if there should remain two or 
more who have cqnal votes, the Senate shall 
choose from them by ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the time of 
choosing the electors, and the day on which h-y 
shall give their votes : which day shull be the 
same throughout the (Jnited Sta> s. 

No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a 
citi/en of the United States at the time of the 
ado|:iion of this constitution, shall be eligible to 
the office of Piesident : neither shall any person 
be eligib'.e to tnat office who shall not have 
attained to the age of .'jj years, and been 14 years 
a resident within the United States. 

in case of the removal of the President from 
office, or of his death, resignation, or inability 
to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
o(ru'< , the same shall devolve on the Vice Presi- 
dent, and the Congress may by law provide for 
(lie rase of removal, death, resignation, or in- 
ability, both of the President and Vice Presi- 
dent, d(*claring what o^iicer shall then act as 
President, and such officer shall act accordingly, 
until (lie (lisabili'y be removed, or a President 
shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive 
for his services a compensation, which shall 
neither be increased or diminished during the 
neriod for which he shall have been elected, and 
lie shall not recei\e within that pt-riod any oilier 
eni(ilniiu>nt from the United States, or aiiv of 

Ilelore lie enters on the execution of his 
office, he shall take the following oath or affir- 
mation : 

' I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 1 will 
faithfully execute the office of President ol 
the Inited States, and will, to the best of 
my ability, preserve, protect, and defend (he 
constitution of the I oiled States.' 

Sect. '■J. The President shall be commander in 
chief of the army and navy of the L'nited States, 
and of the militia of the several States, when 
culled into the actual service of the United 
States ; he may reouiie the opinion, in writing, 
of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the 
duties of their respective offices, and he shall 
have poner to grant reprieves and pardons for 
offVuccs against the Inited States, except in 
cases of impeachment. 

He shull liave power, by and with the advice 

and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, pro- 
vided two-thirds of the senators present ctuiciir; 
and he shall nominate, and b\ and with the 
advice and consent oi the Senate, shall appoint 
ambassadors, other public ministers, and con- 
suls, judges of the supreme court, an' all othiT 
officers of the U^nited Slates, \viios(> ipixiiiit- 
ments are not htMeiii otluMtvisi* |)ro\idi>d for, 
Kud which shall be e>(ablislie(l by law. Hut tin* 
Congress may by law vest the appointment of 
such inferior officers, as tliev tiiink proper, in the 
President alom , in the courts of law, or in t!:t> 
heads of departments. 

'J'hc President shall liave power to till up all 
vacancies that may happen during tiie recess of 
thcSenate,by granting commissions, which shall 
expire at the end of their next session. 

feect. 3, He shall from time to time give to 
the Congress information of the state of the 
union, and recommend to their causideration 
such measures as he shall judge necessary and 
expedient ; he may, on extraordinary occasions, 
convene both houses, or either of them ; and in 
case of disagreement between them, with respect 
to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn 
them to such time as he shall think proper ; he 
shall receive ambassadors, and other public mi- 
nisters ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all 
the oiric'ers of the United States. 

Sect. 4. The President, Vice President, and 
all civil officers of the United States, shall be 
removed from office on impeachment for, and 
couvictio.i of, treason, bribery, or other high 
criiiK's and misdemeanors. 

Art. ill. — Sect. I. The judicial power of the 
United States shall be vested in one supreme 
court, and in such inferior courts as the Con- 
gress niav from time to time ordain and '.-sta- 
blish. The judges, both of the supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hoUl >heir offices during 
good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, re- 
ceive for their services a co'upensation, w hicli 
shall not be diminished during their continuance 
in office. 

Sect. y. The judicial power shall extend to all 
cases, in law and e<piity, arising under this con- 
stitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their authority ; to all cases affecting ambassa- 
dors, other pidilic ministers, and consuls ; to all 
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to 
controversies to which the United States shall 
be a |)arly ; to controversies between two or 
more States, between a State and citizens of J 



leiities, pro- 
stMil ccHicnr; 
1(1 with tli«' 
hall anpoiul 
•s, antl c»»i:- 
\n.' all oHu'i- 
)S(' ippoiiit- 
)i(>vi(li'il t'tir, 
iw. Hilt thi" 
poiiitmriit ol" 
iropiT, ill th«' 
i\v, or ill tl:t' 

• to till up all 

the lecesH ol" 

s, which shall 


tiiuo '^ivo to 

!,lat«' of the 
iiowssary and 
ai-y occa!<ioiis, 
tlieiii ; and in 
II, with rcHpcct 

iniiy adjourn 
ik proper ; he 
her piildic ini- 
t the laws be 
oinniission all 

President, and 

tates, shall be 

inient for, and 

or other hif^h 

1 power of the 
n one supreme 
ts as the Con- 
dain and '-sta- 
c supreme Vind 
• offices durinsf 
ated times, re- 
>nsation, which 
eir coiitinnance 

all extend to all 
under this con- 
tcd States, and 
le made, under 
•ctins ambassa- 

consuls ; to all 
jurisdiction ; to 
ed States shall 
letween two or 

nd citizens of J 

fiMiother State, between citizens of difl'erent 
Stales, between citizens of the same State claim- 
ini{ iaiuls under {grants of ditlerent States, and 
betwe(?n a State, or the citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, citizeiiti, or subjects. 

Ill all cases atVectiuj;' ambas8adors,oiher public 
iniiusters, and consuls, and tlios:> in which a 
Slate shall b«' party, the supreme roiirt shall 
have orii^iiial jiirisdu-lion. In all the other cases 
before mentioned, the Huprcme ccurt shall have 
appellate jurisdiction, both an to law and fact, 
\iith siicliexceptioiis, and under such reirulations, 
as the ("on^resc shall make. 

'I'lie trial of all crimes, except in cases of im- 
peachment, shall be by jury ; and such tri I 
shall be held in the State where the said crime 
shall have been committed ; but w hen not coiii- 
niitted within any State, the trial shall he at 
such |)lac<' or places as the Congress may by 
law have directed. 

Sect. .'J. '1" reason iigaiiist tlie ( nited States 
shall consist only in lexyiiuj; war against them, 
or ill iidlieriiig to tlieir eiieiMies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be con\icted of 
treiison unless on the testimouv of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

Tlu' Congress shall lia\e power to declare the 
puiiislim'iit of treason, hut no attainder of trea- 
son shall W(jrk cori'ii|)lioii of lilood, or for- 
feiture, except during t!ie lile of the person at- 

Art. IV. Sect. I. Full faith and credit shall 
be gi\eii in each State to the public acts, re- 
«'ortis, and jiulii'ial |iroceediiigs of every other 
State. And the Congress iiui\, by general laws, 
prescribe the uianiier in t\ liicii such acts, re- 
cords, and |)roceediiigs. shall be proved, and the 
effect tiiereof. 

Sect. 'J. Tlie citizi'iis of each State shall be 
(•ntitled to all privileges and immunities of ci- 
tizens in the several States. 

A person charged in any State with treason, 
iMoMv, or other crime, \\]ut ^liali flee from jus- 
tice, and be found in iuiolher State, shalli on 
demand of the executive antluuity of the .Stale 
from w liicli he lled,be.leli\ere(l up, t<» be removed 
to the Stale having JMrisdiction of the crime. 

No person hel;! to ser\i(e or labour in one 
State, under iIk- laws thereof, escaping into 
aiiotiier, shuil, in coiisecpience of any law <u- 
regulation therein, be discharged fr«)in such ser- 
vice or labtuir, but sliall be delivered up on 
claim t)f the party to whom such service or 
labour may be due. 

Sect. 3. Sow States may be ndmittod by the 
Congress into this union, but no now State shall 
be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of 
any other State : nor any State be formed by the 
junction of two or more States, ov parts of 
Slates, without the consent of the legislatures 
of the States concerned as well as of the I'on- 

'J'he (Congress shall have power to dispose of 
and make all needful rules and regulations re- 
specting the territory or other property belong- 
ing to ithe United States: and nothing in this 
constitution shall be so construed as to prejmlice 
any claims of the United Slates, or of any par- 
ticular State. 

Sect. 1. The United Stales shall guamntee to 
every Slate in this union a republican form of 
government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion: and on application of the legis- 
lature, or of the executive (when the legislature 
cannot be convened) iigainst domestic violence. 

Art. V. — The C'ongross, whenever two-thirds 
of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall 
propose amendments to this coiistilnlioii, or, (ui 
the applicali(Ui of the legislatures of two-thirds 
of the several Stateu, shall call u conventitui for 
proposing amendments, which, in either case, 
shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part 
of this constitution, when ratified by the legis- 
latures of three-fourths of ihe several Slates, 
ov by coiiventioiis in three-fourths thereof, as 
the one or Ihe other niotlo of ratiliealion may be 
propt>sed by tiie Congress: provided, that no 
amendment which may be made prior to the 
year IStW, shall in any manner allect Ihe first 
and iitiirlh clauses in the ninth section of the 
first article : and that no Stale, without its con- 
sent, shall be deprived of its erpial suffrage in 
Ihe Sfiiati'. 

Art. \'l. — All (l"!)ts eonlracted, and enga";c- 
nieiits entered into before the ndojition of lliis 
constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
Stales under this constitution, as under the coii- 

This conslitiilion, and Ihe laws of the United 
States, which shall be made in |)nrsuance there- 
of: and all treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the authority of the United Stales, 
sliidl be the snprenu' law of the land : and the 
judges in every Slate shall be bound thereby, 
any tiling in the constitution (u- laws of any State 
to the contrary nolwithstanding. 

The Senators ami l{ppreseiitiiti\es before meii- 
tione<l, and the Members of the se.<ii' Siate 
Legislature:;, and all l^xccntive and Judicial] 







i I , 




[Officers, both of the United States and of the 
several States, shall be bound by oath or aflir- 
niation to support this constitution ; but no reli- 
gious test shall ever be required as a qiuilifi- 
cation to any office or public trust under the 
United States. 

Art. VII. — The ratification of the conventions 
of nine States shall be sufficient for the estu- 
l>lishnient of this constitution Iwtvveeii the States 
MO ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention, b^ the unanimous consent 
ofthe States present, the 17th da^ of Septem- 
ber, in the year of our I^ord 1787, and of 
the Indopen'dence ofthe United States of 
America the 12th. In witness whereof, wc 
have hereunto subscribed our names. 

Geouoe Washington, President. 
Signed also b^' all the Delesates which 
« ere present from Tw elve States. 
Attest. Wii.i.iAM .Iac'Kson, Secretary. 

In Convention, Monday, September 17, 1787. 
Tlie States of New Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Ca- 
rolina, South Carolina, and (leorgia. 
Resolved, That the preceding constitution be 
laid before the United States in Congr(>ss as- 
.sembled, and that it is the opinion of tliis Con- 
vention, that it should afterwards b<' submitted 
to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each 
Stale In the people thereof, under the recom- 
mendation of Its legislature, for their assent and 
ratification ; and that each Convention assenting 
to, and r;:tifying the same, should give notice 
thereof to t)ie United States in Congress as- 

Resolved, 'J'hat it is the opinion of this Con- 
vention, that as soon as the C'onventiunsof Nine 
States shall have ratified this constitution, the 
United Slates in Congress assembled should fix 
a day on which electors should be appointed by 
the Slates which shall have ratified the same, and 
a day on which the electors should assemble to 
vole for the President, and the time and place 
for commencing proceedings under this consti- 
tution. That alter such publication, the electors 
should be appointed, and the senators and repre- 
sentatives elected ; that the electors should meet 
on llie day fixed for the election of the Presi- 
dent, and should transmit their votes certified, 
signed, scaled, and directed, as the conslilulion 
requires, to the Secretary of the United States, 

in Congress assembled; that the Senators and 
Representatives should convene at the time 
and place assigned ; that the Senators should 
appoint a Presulent of the Senate, for the sole 
purpose of receiving, opening, and counting the 
votes for President ; und, that after he shall be 
chosen, the Congress, together with the Presi- 
dent, should, witnout delay, proceed to execute 
this consilution. 

By the unanimous order ofthe Convention, 

(JKonGR Wasiiinoton, Prettident. 

William Jackson, Secretary. 

In Convention, September 17, 1787. 


We have now the honour to submit to the con- 
sideration of the United States in Congress as- 
send>led, that constitution which has appeared to 
us the most ndviscable. 

The friends of our country have htiigseen and 
desired, that the power of making war, peace, 
and treaties, that of levying money and regulating 
commerce, and the correspondent executive and 
judicial authorities, should be fully and elfec- 
tually vested in the general government of the 
union -. but the impropriety of delegating such 
extensive trust to one body of men is evident. 
Hence results the necessity of a diftereni organi- 

It is obviously impracticable, in the federal 
government of these Slates, to secure all rights 
of independent sovereignty to each, and yet pro- 
vide for the interest and safety of all. Indivi- 
duals entering into society must give up a share 
ol I'berly to preserve the rest. The magnitude 
ofthe sacrifice must depend as well on situation 
and circumstance, as on the object to be allained. 
It is at all times dinicnlt to draw with precision 
the line between th<»se riglits wliich must be sur- 
rendered, and those which may l)e reserved; and 
on the present occasion this difiicully was in- 
creased by a ililVerence among the several States 
as to their situation, extent, habits, and particu- 
lar interests. 

In all our deliberations on this subject we kept 
steadily in our view, that which appears to us the 
greatest interest of every true American, the con- 
solidation of our union, in which is involved our 
prosperity, felicity, safely, perhaps our national 
existence. This important consideralion, se- 
riousl> and deeply impressed on our minds, Icsl 
each state in the convent ion to be loss rigid on 
points of inferior iiiagiiilude than might have 
oeen otherwise expected : and thus the constitu- 
tion, which we now present, is the result of a] 


K f 





•ntitors and 
t the time 
tort) should 
lor the Hole 
ountine the 
he Hhail he 
I the Presi- 
to execute 

4, PrcHideiit. 


it to the con- 
I'oiigress as- 
appeared to 

[}nir seen and 
war, peace, 
id re^;ulatine 
xecutive una 
y and elVec- 
iinieiit of the 
Icfifatin^ such 
n is evident, 
brent orfjani- 

the federal 
ire all rifj^hts 
and yet pro- 
all. Indivi- 
e up a share 

on situation 

ho uttainod. 

th precision 
must lie sur- 

served : and 
ulty was in- 
everal States 

ind particu- 

ject wp kept 
?ars to us the 
can. the con- 
involved our 
our national 
eration, se- 
r niiiids, lo<l 
OSS rijvid on 
might have 
the constitu- 
rosult of a ] 

[spirit of amity,and of that mutual deference and 
coiicoHsion winch the peculiarity of our political 
situation rendered indisponsalde. 

That it will meet the full and entire approha- 
tioii of every State itt not perhaps to he cxpf>cted : 
hut each will doulitlesH consider, that had her in- 
terests l>eeii alone ciHisnlted, the consequenres 
niif(ht have b<<eii particularly disuf^rcvahle or in- 
jurious to others ; that it is liahle to as few ex- 
ceptions as could reasonahiy have heeii expected, 
we hope and helieve : that it may promote the 
lusting welfare of that country so dear to uh all, 
and secure her freedom and happiness, io our most 
ardent wish. 

With preat respect we have the honour to he, 
Sir, your Bxcollency's most olM'dient and hunihlc 
servants, (ieouciK Wasiiinoto.v, President. 

By unaniuions order of the Convention. 
His Excellency tiie President of the Congress. 

The convontions of a iiinnl)or of the States 
having, at tli(> time of their adopting the 
conslitiition, expressed a desire, in order 
to prevent misconstruction or ahuse of its 
powers, that further declaratory and re- 
strictive clauses should '>c added; and, as 
extending the ground oi , iihlic coiiKdence 
ill llie government, will host ensure the 
honelicent ends of its institution. 
Resolved l>y the Senate and Mouse <»f llepre- 
sontatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assemhted, two-thirds of luttli houses 
coiunrriiig, That the following articles he pro- 
posed to the legislatures of the several States, as 
amendments to the constitution of the United 
States, all or any of which articles, when ratified 
hy three-fourths of the said legislatures, to he 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the 
said constitution : viz. 

Articles in addition to, and amendment of, 
the constitution of the I'nited States of 
America, proposed hy ('ongress, and rati- 
fied hy the legislatures of the several 
States,* pursuant to the fifth article of the 
original constitution. 
Art. I. — After the first enumeration required 
hy the fii'^^i article of the constitution, there shall 
lie o:u^ representative for every yO,0(K), until the 
niimher shall amount to 100, after which the pro- 
portion shall he so regulated hy Congress, that 
there shall be not less than lOO" representatives, 
nor less than one representative for every 40,000 
poisons, until the number of representatives shall 
amount to aOO, after which the proportion shall 

bi> so regulated by Congress, that there shall not 
he less than iJOO representatives, nor more than 
one representative lor every 50,000 |)ersoiis. 

Art. li. — No law varying the coinp4>nsation fitr 
the services of the senators and representatives 
shall take eflTect, until an election of representa- 
tives shall hove intervened. 

Art. III. — Congress shall make no law reppect- 
ing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the free- 
dom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of 
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the 
government for a redress of grievances. 

Art. IV. — A well-regulated militia being ne- 
cessary to the security of a free state, the right 
of the people to keep and licar arms shall not be 

Art. v.— No soldier shall in time of peace he 
nuarlered in any house without the consent of 
tne owner, nor in time of war hut in a manner to 
be prescrilH'd by law. 

Art. VI. — The right of the people to be secure 
in their persons, nouses, papers, and efl'ects, 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, hut 
upon probable cause, supported hy oatli or afiir- 
nintion, and particularly descrihiiig the plaie to 
be searched, and the persons or things t<t ho 

Art. VII. — No iicrson shall be hold to answer 
fiir a capital, or otlierwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a grand Jury, 
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, 
or in the militia when in actual service, in time 
of war or public danger; nor shall any person 
be subject for the same ofTencc to be twice put in 
jeopiirdy of life or limb; nor shall be coin|>ellcd 
in any criminal case to be a witness against him- 
self, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or i)ropeity, 
without due process of law ; nor shall private 
property be taken for public use without just 

Art. VIII. — In all criminal prosecutions the 
accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
piihlic trial, by an impartial jury of the Stale and 
district wherein the crime sjiallhave been com- 
mitted, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained hy law, anil to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation ; to ho con- 
fronted with the witnesses against him; to have 
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in 
his favo;;r, and to have the assistance of counsel 
for his (iolonce. 

Art. iX. — In suits at common law, where the 
value in controversy shall exceed i?0 dollars, the] 



t ' ! 



< i 


IJ N I T E I) S T A T i: S 

fiifflit of frini l»y.jtiiT «linll ho prosorvcd.nnd ni> 
I'art, trinl l»v a jiirv, slinll lu* (tthcrwiMC n«-«<x!i- 
iniiu'd ill Hiiv vo\iv\ of tlio I'liitcd (Stales, than 
arcnnlinif \o lite iiilos ofHio romninn law. 

Arc. X.- I'jXiTssivo bail kIuiII not ho iTqiiiirel, 
iH»r oxcossivo linos iinnoNOil, nor criiol and uii- 
usual piinisliiiioiits iiiliictoil. 

Art. XI. — Tlioonninoration in thoronstitiitioii 
of rortaiii rights shall not h(> conNtruod to deny 
or disparn^o othors rotainod hv tho pooplo. 

Art. XII. — Tho powors not jloli'^nUod to tho 
I'nitodStatos hy tho ron.stitntion, nor prohihilod 
In it to tho Statos, aio rosorvod to tlio States ro- 
s|)octivoly, or lo tho pooplo. 

Tho I'ollowiiiir Stntos have ratitiod ail tho t'oro- 
^oiiii; artirlos of uinondmont to ino oonstilntion 
oftho (iiiloil Stntos, viz. Marvhind, N.Carolina, 
S. Carolina, Noh Vork, Virginia, and Vormonl. 
Now llainpshii'o. Now .lorHov, and I'oiinsvlvania 
rojocl llio soroiid artiolo: and Dolaware rojorts 
tho tir>l arliclo. NooirK-ial roliirns toonr know- 
lodjjo hii\o hooii itiado iVom tho othor Statos. 

Soriili/ ()/■ //ir ('inri)innli. — This socioty «as 
inslitiitod inunodiatoly on tliooloso ol'tho war in 
I78.'j. .At thoir first jyoiioral inootincj; at I'hilii- 
dolphin, in IVIay I7SI, thoy altorod and ainoiiiiod 
Iho original inslitntion, and roducod it to its 
prosoiit lorm. 'I'lioy doiioiiiinatod thoinHolv«'s 
*' Tho .So('iot\ ol' tho Ciiuiiinati," froiii tho hi<;h 
vonoration tlioy possossod for tho charaotor of 
that illustrious Uonmn, JiUcius Quintius Cinrin- 

The persons who oonstitnto this socioty, aro 
all tho ooinmissionod and hrevot ollicors of tho 
army and navy «>f tho IJiiitod Statos wh(» sorvod 
tliroo yoars, and who loil the service with repu- 
tation : all ortu'ors who wore in actual service at 
the conclusion oftho v>ar: all tho principal stalV 
officers of the continontal army : and tho officers 
who have boon deranged l>y tho several resolu- 
tions of Congress upon the difleront reforms of 
tho army. 

There wore also admitted into this socioty all 
the ministers of his most Christian Majesty to tho 
I nited Statos : all the generals and colonels of 
regiments and legions of the land forces: all 
tho admirals and captains ol'tho navy, ranking as 
colonels, who had co-oj)oralod with tho armies ol' 
tho Tnited States in their exertions lor liltortv : 
and such other persons as had been admitted \iy 
the respective State meetings. 

Tho motives which originally induced tho 
oHicors oftho .\merican army to Ibrm thomsolvos 
into a society of friends, are summed up in their 
circular lottor. " Having," say they, " lived in 

tho strictest habits of nniity through th(> various 
stagoi of a war, unparalleh>(l in many of its cir- 
ciimstiincos; liiiving soon the objects for which 
wo have contended happily attained, in tho nio- 
niont of triumph and separation, when we were 
about to act tho last pleasing, melancholy scone 
in our military drama — |)loasing, berau)>o wo were 
to leave «»ur country possessed of independence 
and peace — melancholy, because we wore to part, 
perhaps never to moot again ; while ovorv breast 
was penetrated with feelings which can be more 
easily conceived than «loscribed : while every 
little act of tondernoss recurred fresh to tho re- 
collection, it was impossible not to wish our 
friendships should he rontinuod : it was ex- 
tremely natural to desire thoy might bo porpotu- 
nied by our posterity to tho n'motest ages. With 
those impressions, and with such sentiments, wo 
candidly c<mfess wo signed tho institution. — We 
know our motives were irreproachable." 

The society have an order, viz. a Dald Ki\gh> 
of gold. iH'ariiig on its breast tho emblems do 
scribed as follows : — 

Tho principal ligure is Cincinnatiis : three 
senators presenting him with a sword and othor 
military ensigns: on a field in the back ground, 
his will* standing at tho door of thoir cotta>ro : 
near it a plough and othor instruments of hus- 
bandly. Wound tho \\\\a\v.oniiiia rr/ii/itit sitxnn 
irmpiihlirani. On the reverse, the sun rising, w 
city with open gates, and vessels entering tho 
port : I'ame crowning (^inciiuiatiis with a wreath, 
inscribed, xirliilis prwnihini. Helow, hands join 
ing, supporting a heart : with tin? motto, vsin 
prrpttiiii. Round tho whole, socirtas Chirhimtli)- 
mill, iiistitittd. A. 0. I7HJ. 

/IfSiriritftinr and Miiiiiif'nctiirra. — Tho throe im- 
portant objects of attention in the C nited Staler 
are agriculture, comnu'rce, and mnnufacturos. 
The richness of tho soil, which amply reward- 
tho industrious husl):indman ; the temperalun' 
of tho climate, which admits of steady labour ; 
the cheapness of land, which tempts tho fbroigmr 
from his native homo, has always led tho inhabi- 
tants to fix on agricultiin> as the groat leading 
interest of this country. This furnishes oiitManl 
cargoes not only for all thoir own sliij)s, but foi 
those also which foreign nations send to their 
ports, or, in othor words, it pays for all their 
importations: it supplies a groat part of the 
clothing of the inhabitants, and food for thoin 
and their cattle. 

'I'ho number of people oniployed in agrirulturc. 
is at least three parts in four of the inhabitanl- 
of the United States ; some say more. It follows } 


IJ N I T K I) s r A r K s 


ifjli Ihp varioiH 
nnnv »•' i*'< <"•!■• 
ijerts iVir which 
iioH, in <Iir nio- 
wlicn wi* wore 
pliinrlioly sceno 
icriuifo wo wore 
if iiulopoiitlonco 
wo wore to part, 
lilo ovprv hrPHst 
rli cnn Iw in«»rc 
I : whilr cvovy 
IVcsIi to tlip ro- 
ot to wish our 
(I : it was ox- 
iwjit he porpotii- 
itoHt atjos. With 
1 soiitiments, wo 
iUHlitiilion.— We 

i/. a MuiiJ Eiiiflo 
ho oinbioitis do 

riiinatiH: throo 
sword and othor 
I ho baok irronnd. 
)!' tlioir oottiist*' : 
tniinonts of linx- 
<m rrtii/Kit strviin 
tho snn risinsj, n 
sols ontorinj; tho 
\w with a wroath. 
clow, hands Join 
tho motto, rsfo 
uiitn^ Ciiwiminti}' 

-'I'ho throo im- 
tho IJnitod Stalo-^ 
lid ninnufacturo-;. 
h ani|dy rowaid- 
tho tPinporatun- 
)f stoady lal)oiir ; 
n|)ts tho Ibroisnoi' 
ys lod tho inhiil)i- 
iho lyroat Icadiiij; 
I'lniiishos ontwiuil 
)\vn shipH, l)nt Ten- 
ons sond to their 
pays Ibr all tlwir 
>roat part of tlu' 
lul ibod tor thorn 


"of tho inhabitanl» 

moro. It follows] 

ir.f t'onr^-o (hat thoy form tho body of tho militia, 
nlio aro llio bnlmirk of tho nation. Tho valno 
of their proporly. oronpiod by aiyrindtnro, is 
niaiiv tiinos j>roator than tho pr<»porly omplo\od 
ill ovor\ oilier way. 'I'lio sottloinont of wasle 
laiicU, ilio sub-division of (iiruis, and tho nniiio- 
roiis iiii|)ro\eineii(s in hushniidry, annually iii- 
rroaxo ilie pro-ominonro of the a^ritiiltiM'al iiilo- 
rost. 'J'lio resoiin-os d<>rivod from it, aro at all 
times ceitiiin and indisponsably necessary : Ih>- 
sides, iIk- rural life promotes heallh by its arlive 
nature; and nioralily, by keeping people from 
tile liivuries and \ ic(>s of the populous towns. 
In short, aiiriciiltiiie may bo considered as the 
spring:;; of coninierce, and the parent of the maiui- 
liicliiic'i of Ihc-e States. 

Mniinfddinrs. — 'I'iie subject of manufactures 
is one, ill a lii;;h dojjree, intereslih<>; to the inhabi- 
tants of the I iiited .States, but is (oo copious to 
be treat«'d at larp> in a uork of this kind. >\ o 
shall conlino what we ha\<.' to say, in this place, 
to a li w ^r(.||)'ral observations on the nianntac- 
lur(s of these States, and to an onumeialion of 
siK h articU's as have been alreadv nniniilactnred. 
Mr. Ilainillon, Secretary of the Troasiii \ in the 
I'liited Stalls, in his '• lloport on the Subject of 
Maiiiiliiilurex," and the writer (supposed to be 
Mr. ("«>\e, .Assistant to the Secretary of the Trea- 
sury) (d"'' .\ bri(>f Kxaminationof LordSJieirn Id's 
OiiMrvations on the Conimerco of the I iiitod 
Slates, ■ in ivut supplementary notes on Am* rican 
uiaiuiliiitiires, have j;i\on the fulh-st and iiio>l ac- 
curate inforniation on this subject. To them the 
reader is relerred. if ho wishes Ibr a more parti- 
cular account of the mauuliictnres than is hero 
f-iven.— They j re the principal authorities for 
^vlial follows. 

The value of laboiir-sav insy machines has, in 
voMie <ie»ree, been kiiovui and experienced here; 
ami by their i>(>neral adoption in their most im- 
proved state, to tho cotton, llaxen, hompon, me- 
tal, and part of the vuxillen and silken branches: 
bnl by no means yd to such a def>reo as lo be 
indepeiideiit of Uritish and other foreif>n nianu- 
tacliires. As to advantaffooiis silualionn for the 
erecticMi of mills, and Ibr the establishmont of 
manufactures in <ieiieial, no rctuntrv has more, 
and ivw so many as the I iiited States : it is also 
far from beiiij>, (leljcient in iiisreuious mechanics, 
who aro ci>i,abl»" not onU of erectiiifr machiiie.- 
alroady invented, and niakiiij> improAeiiients upon 
them, but also of inxeiiliuj. lu-w machines of the 
most complicated and useful kind. 

The establishmont of inaniiliK liin-- \v,\^ natn- 
\ oi,. \ . 

rall> increaxod the indncemoni- which this conn- 
try, in its present slate, hohlM out lo lbreit;iierri 
to come to it and bocoiiie citi/oiis. The oppres- 
.-lion that is o.\perionc4>d by the people in some 
purls of l''nropo, and tho distress«>s that innlli- 
Indo'i are brou;;'ht into by lh«> disltiibi<d state of 
so many kingdoms, have excited a disposition in 
niany ofthoir valuable citi/ens, toemi<;rate lo a 
connlry nlnn'o they may enjoy freedinii and peace. 
Tho elfecl of innllipl>iii^ ilie opportunities ol 
oinplo>ment to thosi- who omi^ralo, by manuliic- 
tnrul establishments, to a still greater det<;reo, 
would probably be an increase <d'the number and 
extent of valuable ac<|uisilions to the population, 
arts, and industry of tho country ; ImiI a very 
iiiaterial objection has been maile to the pursuit 
of inannliictnres in the I'nited Stal<'s, which is 
the impraclicabililv ol success, arisiii<> tiom scar- 
city of hands, doainess of labour, and want of 
capital. The last «>f thos«- circnm^tances, want 
«d' capital, has perhaps little founilalion. With 
i'0}>ai-d to the scarcity of hands, the 'iicl is appli- 
cable to, at loa>t, certain parts of the I nited 
.Stales. 'I'hei'o are, on tlu- ollitr hand, lari;) 
<lislricls, vtliich may be considered a> pretty fully 
peopled. : <id which, nolwilhstandinir a continual 
ilrain <<<r distant s<'tllements, are lliicklv inlei- 
snersed with lionrishiii" and increasing tnwnn- 
( onnectient and IMassichiisells contained as far 
ba«k as the census of I7})t), on tin average, as 
many as .V* inhabitants to every s(piaro mile; 
and the coniiiv id'l'isse.x, in MassachuM-tts, avo- 
rajied IJ."> inhabitants to every stpiare mih>. 
This latter district has alreadt reached the point 
at which the complaint of searcity (d" hands 
cea^es; and the above-mentioned slates at lar^o 
are not liir remote from, and aro approacliiiii> 
fast towards it; and having, perhaps, fewer at- 
tractions to ajrricnlturo than some othor more v. 
and tompeiato parts of the union, thoy exhibit 
a proportioiuibly stronger propensity to tin- pur- 
suit of inannfactiires, whicfi is exempliliod in the 
maturity which some branches have already at- 
tained in those districts. 

Hot there are circumstances that materially 
diminisli «"very where the olloct of a scarcity of 
hands. These circumstances are the fjreal us«' 
which may be made of women and children— the 
vast extension f;iven, by late iinprov< iiieiil-., to 
the employ nieiit of machines, which, Mibslitutin.'i 
the apcncy of lire and water, has prodif^ioiisU 
li's-ened "the necessity for inaniial labour; and 
la>ll>, llu' attraction «>fforei<>ii < iiii;;rants. in all 
the populous towns th<ic i> alreadv a larne [tro- 


* iu 


t. : 


I portion ol'iii^oiiiniH and vnltiiiltlt' uorkmrn in 
(lilli'iTnt arK and trader, wlio, liv romini; liilhrr 
iVoni l''Mro|K>, liav<> iin|>i'o\«<d (heir own rondi- 
lioii. and added to the indnslrv and wcultli oi' 
lli(> I nilcd S(:i(cs. Il is a natnral infcroncf, 
li-oin the i>v|u>rifn('t> ain-adv luid, that as soon 
iis (Ih> I iii(fd Slates sliall |>r(<s<>iit the connle- 
nance of a serious pros<><Mition id' inanuractin'es ; 
as soon as lorei^n artists shall In> made sensible, 
that the slate oi'thiiiirs hen* att'ords a incn'al cer- 
taintv of eiu|)lo\ inenl and eiK-oiirau^enient, com- 
petent niiinhers of I-'iiropean workmen will trans- 
plant llieins<'l\es. so as elVei*tuallv to ensure the 
Hiucvss of t!ie (Icsiijii. ' rinMimslances snl- 
ficieiili\ (<l>\iate tlie ohjeetioii which arises tVoin 
n sr :rrMV (iIImiuIs. 

Hilt, Id a!i the nririintents which are l)ron!;ht 
to evince ilie iiiipraclicahilitv of success, in manii- 
riicliii iii<l I'slaldishments in the I'niled Slates, il 
\u)iil'l !)•' a f'lHicient answer, to refer to the e\- 
p rieri •• of \»liHt has Ihumi alre;idy done. 1 1 can- 
iioi lie detii'd tlial several important hranches 
lia\e ^roxMi lip and lloiirished, with a rapidity 
w'licli surprises ; atlordin^ an encouraKin»; as- 
siiraiic." of success in fiilure attempts. Of these 
tla- fo'-iwiii"; are the most consi<(eral)le, viz. — 
Of Sjkiiis: lanned and tawod leathers, dressed 
skins, shoes, hoots, and slippers, harness, and 
saddlerv of all kinds, portmanteaus, and trunks, 
leather breeches, jrlovi's, niuH's, and tippets, 
parchment and ^lue. Of Irtm; bar and sheet- 
iron, ste<>l, nail rods and nails, implements of 
hus!)aii(!rv, stoves, pots andoth(>r luuisehold uten- 
sils, ilie steel and iroii w<H'k of carriu!>;rs and for 
s|iii)-l>uil(lin<>;, anchors, scale beams and weijrhts, 
anil various tools of artificers, arms of dilFereiit 
kinds. Of \V(.od; ships, cabinet wares, and tiir- 
nerv, wool and cotton cards, and other machinery 
for luannfactures and husbandrv, mathematical 
instruments, coopers wares of i-very kind. Of 
I'lax and llemp: cables, sail-cloth, cordajje, 
twiiu' and packthread. ()f ("lay ; bricks aiui 
roar-e tiles, and jiotters wares. .Ardent spirits 
and mall liipiors. Wriliiiir and printing paper, 
sheathiiii; and wrappinir paper, pastelioards, ful- 
lers or press papers, and paper hanirin^s. Mats 
of fur and wixd, and mixtures of both. W«)mens 
stud' and silk shoes. Refined siia;«rs. Chm-o- 
late. Oil of animals and seeds, soap, spermaceti 
and tallow candles. Copper and brass wares, 
particularly utensils for distillers, sii^ar-reliners 
and brew<>rs, hand irons and other articles for 
household use. Clocks, phil.)sophical apparatii 
Tin wares of almost all kinds for ordinary usi 



Curria^:cH of all kindx. Hniit)', rhewiiii{ and Huiok- 
n^: t«d)arco. Starch niid hair powder. Ijainp- 
black and other painters cidours. (riiiipowder. 

Desides the maniiracdire of these urIicloH, 
which are carried on as ret>;iilur trades, and have 
attained to a cmisiderable dei;re*> of maturity, 
there is a vast scene of household maniifartiir- 
in<r, which c<mtribiites very hir^ely to the supply 
of the c(Hnmiinily. These domestic manufactures 
are prosecuted as well in (he Southern, as in the 
.Middle and Northern States; threat qiiaiilitieH of 
coarsi> cloths, coatings, serges and llaniiels, jinsev 
woolseys, hosiery of wool, cotton and threuil, 
coarse fustians, jeans and muslins, checked and 
striped cotton and linen |;o(mIs, iM'dtirks, cover- 
lets, and ronnterpanes, tow linens, coarse sliirt- 
in^;s, sheeting's, towellini( and table linen, and 
various mixtures of wool and cotton, and of cot- 
ton and Hax, are made in the lioiiseludd way, 
and in many instances, to an extent not only sut'- 
ticient for the supply of the families in which they 
are made, but for sale, and even in some cases 
for exportation. Il is computed in a number of 
districts, that two-thirds, three-fourths, foiir- 
lillhs, and in sinne places even a ifreater propor- 
tion of all the clothiii<^ of the inhabitants is iiiiide 
by themselves. 

The above enumeration does not comprehend 
all the article!) that are manufactured as refruhir 
Irades. The followiiii; articles, tlnuiirh inanu- 
liictiired in a less extensive degree, and some of 
them in less perfection, (uiirjit to Im> added. — 
(•old, silver, pewter, lead, glass and stone wares 
of many kinds, books in various languages, print- 
ing types and presses, bells, combs, buttons, corn 
fans, ploughs and all other implements of hus- 
bandry. Some of these are still in their infancy, 
as are others not enumerated, but which are at- 
tended with iavourable appearances. There are 
other articles also of very great importance, 
which, though strictly speaking, iiianuiactiires, 
are omitted, as being immediately connected with 
husbandry : such are Hour and meal of all kinds, 
pot and |>eurl ashes, pitch, tar, turpentine, maple 
sugar, wine, and the like. 

The manufacture of nii'.ple sugar, though it has 
for many years been carried on, in the small way, 
in the Kastern Slates, has but very lately l>ecome 
an object of public attentioh. The Eastern and 
Middle States t'urnish a siiflicient number of ma- 
ple trees to supply the I'nited States with the 
article of siigr.r : anti, it is asserted, of a ipiality 
" equal, in the opinion of competent Judges, to 
the best sugars imported from tlio West India ' 

II ' 

u N I T i: D s r A r e s 


ilia; iiiul Hiiiok- 
v((or. lininp- 
( tiiiip<»w(l«'r. 
ilicso niiioles, 
(U'H, und liave 
» of inuturity, 
il inniuifartiir- 
{ to \\w Hiippl.y 
I' lmuu^^Ht•tllro^. 
hern, as in the 
lit quant itit'H of 
tlanneN, linHev 
III and threud, 
8, clicckod and 
M'dticks, covcr- 
iH, coarse Hliirt- 
tble linen, and 
on, and of n)t- 
lioiiseliold way, 
lit not only hiiI- 
t'H in which they 
I in Home cases 
in a nuinlier of 
-t'ourths, four- 
jrreater prop»»r- 
abitants is made 

not comprehend 
ured as repvilar 

though maiui- 
•c, anil some of 
to Ik* added. — 
and stone wares 
lanjjnujres, print- 
|)s, Itnttons, corn 
ItMuents of lins- 

in their infancy, 
it wliich are at- 
ices. There ar«' 
•oat importance, 
;, maiiufactiires, 
y connected w itii 
neal of all kinds, 
Ill-pent ine, maple 

riir, th(nisj;h it has 
w the small way, 
[>i-y lately Ih-coiiu- 
The Kastern ami 
t number of ma- 
1 States witli the 
ted, of a ijuality 

I i!.lan(ls." It has Immmi also said, " that four w 
tiw and indiistiitnis men, well provided »»ith 
materials and coii\eiiieiices proper lor carrying 
on the imsiiifss, mi^;hl make, in a common sea- 
son, which lasts from four to six we«'k!<, KMJOIbs. 
of siijcar, that is l(K)Olbs, to each man." No(- 
willistandiii|u: this the esiiort of snjjar front th*- 
Wi'-t Indies has been always incl-eaHill^^ No 
less than IS,()(N),(NM)lbs. of West India siiuram 
tvere annually imported into and consumed in the 
I'niled Stales as lar back as the year I7'M>, and 
the (|uanlity has been increuNin^ with the eii- 

^ iai-tfed demand of a frrowin^ po|)ulati«m. 

^ r'itiiiiin. — The revenue of the I'nited States is 

raised from duties on the tonnage of \t>ssels en- 
ler«-d in the I nited States, and on imported 
^oods, wares, and merchandise, and fiimi an ex- 
cise on various articles of ctmsiimption. The 
anioimt of the diili<-s arising «in flu* tonnage of 
vesN(>|s, for the year commeiiciui!; Octoln-r I, 
I7f)(), and ending September JO, I7f)l, amounted 
to I t.'>,JI7 dollars. The duties arising on i;ot)ds, 
wares, and nuM-chandise, for the same year, 
amounted to J,()()G,7'J'2 didlars. The whole 
amount of the revenue from the e.\cise at that 
period was I. );iX),()(H) dollars. 

The revenue is appropriated lo the purposes 
of supporting; the civil and military establish- 
ments, to the payment of the inteivst, and (he 
diminution of tiie principal of the public debt. 
In the year follow intr, Oetober I, ITSf), the e\- 

[ lenses and revenue of government were as fol- 
ows : — 

IMs: (Is: 

- - - afln,y7f) jj 

- - - .'»().7,"»() 7 

- - - .'J<)n,lfJ9 54 

Civil Fiist - - - 
Addiliimal expense 
War Deparlnient - 

Duties on Imports 
Duties on 'J"()nnaj>e 

Total 74U,2;i'J 14 

l)o/s. (ts. 

■ - l,9(W,7f)0 48 

■ - IGJ,4().J m 

Total 'i,0()<),l75 47 


ent ludi 

10 VVest 


India ! 

I'lom a report of the secretary of the treasiirv, 
or.laniiaiy yj, I79:i, it ap|)rar.s that the whole 
iiiiioi.ut of the domestic debt of the United States, 
principal and interest, which had been subscribed 
to tin- loan nroposcd conceriiiiifr that debt, by the 
act intituled, '■'■ An act niakiujj provision tin- the 

debt of the I nited Slates," was 31,707,181 did- 
lars. '2V cents. 

which, piirsuanl to the terms of l)o/s. ('Is. 

that act, had lieeii converted 
into stock, bearing an inime- 
«!iate interesi of (i per cent. - H.I77,lJO l.'J 
Stock bearin:; the like interest 

mm. .Ian. I, iSOl, - - - 7,(WS,7'>7 7'l 
Slock beariiii; an immediate in- 
terest of 3 per cent. - - - ii),.j;ji,JOJ II 

Making together y|,7*)7,lHl 'A> 

Of which there stood to the credit of the trus- 
tees of the sinking fund, in consetpieiice of piir- 
(hases ol' the public debt made under their di- 
rection, the sum of l,l,'il,.'i(>4 ihdlars, 7() cents. 

The nnsiibscribed residue of the said debl 
amounted to ll).fili),()04 dollars, (i.j cents. 

The debts of the respective states collectively 
were estimated to amoiiiit to t?.>,4()J,*J()'i dollars, 
of which, i^l,.'>(H),(K)l) had been nssumed, anil 
I7,()7y,j.'j| iV, subscribed, agreeably to act of 
Congress of .August 4, I7f)0. 

The amount of a debt due to certain foreign 
olVicers, who served the I'nited States during the 
late war, with arrears of interest, was '■^'iO^iiXii 
dollars, SI cents. 

The whole amoiint of the foreign debt of the 
Ciiited .Slates at the above period was iiiiout 
h>,(K)(),(MK) dollars; of which about (i,<H)0,INH) 
were due lo I'rance, and the rest to Holland. 
'I'lie executive hail l)(*eii empowered to make an 
additional loan in Holland, siillicient to pay the 
debt lo I'rance; and measures for that ])iirposo 
were afterwards carried into elVect witli regard 
to Holland. 

The act, making provision for the deiit of the 
United States, appropriated the proceeds of the 
;.'. lands as a fund for the discharge of the ptiblic 
debt. And the act, making provision for the re-^ 
diiction of the public debt, appropriated nl! the 
surplus of the duties on imports and tonuiige, to 
the end of the year I7f)0, to the piirjjosp t>f pur- 
chasing the debt at the market price ; and au- 
thorised tile l*rosi(l(Mit to borrow the further sum 
of y,000,()()0 of dollars for the same object.— 
These measures were meant by the legislature, 
as early and aH fast as possible, to iirovide for 
the extlngiiisiiment of the existing debt. 

In the year I7«l(), the average proportion of 

his earnings which each citizen of the I'nited 

States paid for the support of the civil, military. 

and naval establishments, and for the dischargel 

II 'i 






m Hi 


U ill 1.6 





WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 





^ V'» ^ 




UNIT i: 1) 8 T A T E S. 

n^ : 


I ol'tliu interpst oftlio public debts of his country, 
was iibotit Ij (iolluiA; (•qiial to two dayn l!il>oiir 
nearly ; that is, ii,()0(),()0() of dollars to 4,000,000 
of people. In Great Hritain, France, Flolland, 
Spain, Portugal, (lerinany, &c. tlie taxes for 
these objects, on an ?in'ra<re, amounted to about 
Gi dollars to eacli per-son. 

l'"rom the best data that could be collected, the 
taxes in the United States, for county, town and 
parish purposes ; for the support of schools, the 

[>oor, roads, &c. appeared to be considerably 
ess than in the counti'ies of Europe ; and per- 
haps the objects of th( m, except in roads, was 
attained in a more pertect degree. Great preci- 
sion is not to be expected in these calculations ; 
but we have sufficient documents to prove that 
these assertions are not far from the trutli. The 
proportion in the United States is well ascer- 
tained ; and with equal accuracy in France, by 
Mr. .Veckar ; and in England, Holland, Spain, 
and other kingdoms in Europe, by him, Zimmer- 
man, and other writers on the subject. 

For the objects of the late war and civil go- 
vernment, in the United States, nearly 12,000,000 
of dollars were annually raised, for nine years 
successively, apportioned on the number of in- 
habitants at that period, which amounted to a 
little short of four dollars to ea^h person. This 
was raised principally by direct taxes. Perhaps 
a contribution of six dollars a person would not 
have been so severely felt, had a part of it been 
raised by impost and excise. 

The public debt in 1793, was perhaps smaller 
to the existing wealth and population of the 
United States than the public debt of any other 
civilised nation. They had ii*< fact, (including 
the o])erations of the individual States) sunk a 
much greater proportion of their public debt ni 
the previous 10 years, than any nation in the 
world. The government had never since its or- 
ganization obtained considerable loans at the 
rate of 6 per cent, a year, except from the bank 
of tlie United States ; and these, on a capital of 
10,000,000, never amounted to 7,000,000 in the 
whole. In proportion to the amount wanted for 
the service of the year, and to the increase of 
stock of the public debt at market, the terms 
have naturally become less favourable; notwith- 
standing the commissioners of the sinking fuitd 
are bound by existing laws to apply the residue 
of the annual appropriation of 8,000,000 a year 
to the purchase of stock. Before we proceed fur- 
ther it will be convenient to introduce a brief ac- 
count of the origin of the bank. 

This bank was incorporated by act of Con- 
gress, February 2j, 1791, by the name and style 
of " The President, Directors, and Compai'y of 
yhe Bank of the United States." The amount of 
the capital stock was 10,000,000 dollars, one- 
fourth of which was in gold and silver ; the other 
three-fourths, in that part of the public debt of 
the United States, which, at the time of pay- 
ment, bore an accruing interest of 6 per cent, 
per annum. Two millions of this capital stock 
of 10,000,000 was subscribed by the President, 
in behalf of the United States. The stockholders 
were to continue a corporate body by the act, 
until March 4, 1811 ; and were capable, in law, 
of holding jjroperty to an amount not exceeding, 
in the whole, 13,000,000 dollars, including the 
aforesaid 10,000,000 dollars, capital stock. The 
corporation were not allowed at any time to 
owe, whether by bond, bill or note, or other 
contract, more than 10,000,000 dollars, over and 
above the monies then actually deposited in the 
bank for safe keeping, unless the contracting of 
any greater de'.t should have been previously 
authorised by a law of the United States. The 
corporation "was not at liberty to receive more 
than (i per cent, per annum tor or upon its loans 
or discounts ; nor to purchase any public debt 
whatever, or to deal or trade, directly or indi- 
rectly, in any thing except bills of exchange, 
gold or silver bullion, or in the sale of goods 
really and truly pledged tor money lent, and not 
redeemed in dii- time, or of goods which should 
be the produce of its bonds ; but they might sell 
anypartofthepublicdebtofu'hich its stock should 
be composed. Loans, not exceeding 100,000 
dollars, might be made to the Ihiited States, sind 
to particular States, of a sum not exceeding 
60,000 dollars. 

Officers for the purposes of discount and de- 
posit only, might be established within the 
United States, upon the same terms, and in 
the same manner, as should be practised at 
the Bank. Four of these offices, called Branch 
Banks, were almost immediately established, viz. 
at Philadelphia, Boston, New York, Baltimore, 
and Charleston, A lexaiulria, &c. when they di- 
vided a profit of 7| to Sj per cent, in quarterly 
payments. The faith of the United States was 
pledged that no other bank should he establislied 
by any future law of the UniteH States, during 
the continuance of the above corporation. The 
great benefits of this bank, as it respects public 
credit and commerce, have been invariably ex- 


ly act of Coil- 
name and style 
nd Company ot" 
Tlic amount of 
) dollars, one- 
ilver : the other 
public debt of 
3 time of pay- 

of 6 per cent. 
s capital stock 

the President, 
he stockholders 
ody by the act, 
apable, in law, 

not exceedina;, 
, including the 
tal stock. The 
it any time to 

note, or other 
oUars, over and 
eposited in the 
I contracting of 
3cen previously 
hI States. The 
o receive more 
r upon its loans 
any public debt 

irectly or indi- 
s of exchange, 
le sale of goods 
ey lent, and not 
Is which should 

they might sell 

its stock should 
ceding 100,000 

ited States, and 

not cxceedinsj 

scount and do- 
?d within the 

terms, and in 
le practised at 

, called Branch 
established, viz. 
ork, Baltimore, 

when they di- 
it. in quarterly 
lited States was 
d be established 
fi States, during 
•poration. The 

respects pul)lic 
1 invariably ex- 

f Tlie several funded capitals, together with the 
prices of stocks in January of the present year 
JSI4, were as follows : — 

3 per cent. - - - .56 \ 

<)U\(i percent. - - lO'i/ 

New () per cent. - iO,5 the whole nominal. 

Louisiana () per cent. J0.5 \ 

Bank shares - - lOS ) 

Reverting to the subject of the national debt, 
as it affects the more immediate time, we lind 
that the payments on account of the principal of 
(he public debt, from October 1, 1810, to De- 
cember '3\, ISII, exceeded 6,400,000 dollars. 
VV^ilh the exception of the annual reimbursement 
of the 6 per cent, and de'^erred stocks, there re- 
mained at the end of the year 181 1 no other por- 
tion of the public debt reimbursable at the will 
of the United Slates than the residue of con- 
verted stock, amounting to .j6,5,000 dollars, ami 
which was to be paid in the year I8!2. There 
being nothing afterwards left, on which the laws, 
passed subsequently to the year J80I, for the re- 
demption of the debt could operate, a general 
view of tlie result and effect of those laws mav be 
here usefully presented. 

Leaving for (he amount of annual in- 
terest on the old debt unredeemed 
on January ;, 1812, - - - - 1,547,481 

The annual interest o'v the Louisiana 

stock was 67."j,00() 

Making the annual interest on the 

whole debt due ou January 1, 1812, 2,222,481 

Which subtrac(ed from the annual 
interest on the debt due on April I, 
1801, 4,180,463 

Left for the diffi'rence between the 
amount of interest respectively psiy- 
able at those two dates - - - - 


The disposable national revenue, or that por- 
tion which alone was applicable to defray the 
annual national expenses, consisted only of the 
surplus of the gross amount of revenue collected 
beyond the amount necessary for paying the in- 
terest on the public debt. A diminution of that 
interest was with respect to the ability of defray- 
ing the other annual expenses, a positive increase 
of revenue to the same amount. With an e((ual 

Kxclusive of near 3,000,000 of un- 
funded debt since reimburseil, as 
detailed in the report of April J8, 
1808, the public debt of the I'nited 
States amounted on April I. 1801, 
to - 

The whole amount of principal ex- 
tinguished during the period of 10 
years and nine months, commenc- 
ing on April J, 1801, and ending 
December 31, 18 II, was . . - 

Leaving the amount of the old debt 

unredeemed on January 1, 1812, - 33,904,180 

And to which adding the Louisiana 
6 per cent, stock, being a new debt 
contracted subsenuent to April 1, 
1801. - - . ' 11,250.000 

Made the whole amount of public 
debt on January 1, 1812, - - -45,154,180 

The annual interest on the public 
debt due on April J, 1801, amount- 
ed to 

The annual interest of the public 
debt extinguished between April 1, 
1801, and January 1, 1812, amount- 
ed to - --' 

Dollars. amount of gross revenue, the revenue applicable 
to defray the national expenses was thus, by the 
effect of the reduction of the debt, 2,600,000 
dollars greater than on April 1, 1801. Or, view- 
ing the subject in another liglit, the laws for 
(he reduction of the debt had, in 10 years and 
- 79,926,999 nine months, enabled the United States to pay 
in full the purchase-money of Louisiana, and in- 
creased their revenue near 2,000,000 of dollars. 

If the amount of annual payments on account 
of both (he principal and interest of the public 

46,022,819 debt, during the eight years ending 181 1, be con- 
trasted with the payments thereafter necessary 
for the same purpose, the difference will be still 
more striking. Eight millions of dollars had 
been annually paid on that account during these 
eight years. The whole am. '.int payable after 
the year 1812, including the annual reimburse- 
ment on (he 6 per cent, and deferred stocks, Avas 
3,792,382 dollars, making an annual difference 
of more than 4,200,000 dollars, which were then 
to be liberated from that appropriation. And 

this annual payment of about 3,800,000 dollars, 

would lu've been sufficient, with some small va- 
riations, to have discharged in 10 years the whole 
4,180,463 of (he residue of the existing debt, with the ex- 
ception of the 3 per cent, stock, the annual inte- 
rest on which amounted only to 485,000 dollars, 
The redemption of principle had been thus 

2.032,982 far effected widu.ut (he aid of any internal] 





I taxos, oitlior diioct or iiidircct, without any ad- 
dition during the hist sovon years to tlie rslte of 
duties on importations, which, on the contrary, 
lja(i been impaired by tlie repeal of that on salt, 
and notwithstandiiifrthc' "reat diminution of com- 
nitce duriii"- the hist four years. It thus ap- 
peared that the ordinary revenue was capable of 
discharginn; in JO years of peace, a debt of 
42,000,000 of doUars, whicli should seem coii- 
siderabiy to lessen the weight of the objections to 
which that revenue, depending almost solely on 
toniiuerce, is liable. 

The net revenue arising from duties 

on merchandise and tonnage, 

which accrued during the year 

1809, amounted to - - - '- - 
I'he net revenue arising fron) the 

same sources, which accrued dur- 

ing the year 18J0, amounted to - 
The same revenue for the year 181J, 

amounted to 

The same revenue for the year 1812, 

(including about 3,500,000 from 

duties u importations from Great 

Britain), amounted to - - - - 
The same revenue for the year 18 IJ, 

amounted to about - ' - - 
Tht, sales of public lands n. of the 

river Ohio, on ithe average of the 

two years ending 1811 amounted, 

after deducting the e:ipenses and 

charges on that fund, to the annual 

siini of 000,000 

The sales in the Mississippi territory, being, in 
the first instance, appropriated to the payment of 
1,250,000 dollars to the state of Georgia, left in 
the end of the year 1811, a deficiency to be pro- 
vided for of 2,600,000, but this was proposed to be 
provided for by an addition of 50 per cent, to the 
existing amount of duties (together with a con- 
tinuance of the temporary duties theretofore de- 
signated by the name of"' Mediterranean Fund.' 
— This mode was thought preferable for the time 
to any interml tax. With respect to the sales of 
public lands, besides affording a supplementary 
fund for the ultimate redemption of the public 
debt, they were anticipated as being calculated 
to supply, without any diminution of revenue, a 
bounty to soldiers enlisting in the regular ser- 
vice, and to facilitate the terms of loans. 

6,527, 1()8 



The same amount of revenue was judged tobr 
necessary, and, with the aid of loans, would, it 
was believed, be sufficient in case of war, as in 
time of peace. The same increase of duties 
would therefore be equally necessary in that 
event. Should any deficiency arise, it was to be 
supplied by a farther increase of duties, by a re- 
storation of that on salt, and by a proper selec- 
tion of moderate external taxes. To raise a 
fixed revenue of only 9,000,000 of dollars, was 
thought so much within the compass of the na- 
tional resources, it would only require the legis- 
lature to effect the object. 

With regard to the loaning system, the United 
States have thought it much more eligible to pay 
at once the difference, either by a premium in 
lands, or by allowing a higher rate of interest, 
than to increase the amount of stock created, or 
to attempt any operation which might injuriously 
affect the circulating medium of the country. 
Thus, supposing 40,000,000 of dollars borrowed 
at 8 instead of 6 per cent, it was urged that the 
only difference would consist in the additional 
payment of 800,000 dollars a year, until the 
principal was reimbursed. 

In short, with a view to the ensuing years, 
and considering the aspect of public affairs pre- 
sented by the executive in this year, 1811, and 
the measures of expense which he recommended, 
it was attempted ii, shew, — 

" 1. That a fixed revenue of about 9,000,000 
dollars was necessary and sufficient, both under 
the existing situation of the United States, and 
in the event of their assuming a different atti- 

" 2. That an addition to the rate or duties on 
importation is at present sufficient for that pur- 
pose, although in the course of events it may re- 
quire some aid from other sources of revenue. 

" 3. That a just reliance may be put on ob- 
taining loans to a considerable amount, for de- 
fraying the expenses which may be incurred be- 
yond the amount of revenue above stated. 

" 4. That the peace revenue of the United 
States will be sufficient, without any extraordi- 
nary exertions, to discharge in a few years the 
debt w'.iich may be thus necessarily incurred." 

The best corollary to these propositions 'vill 
be a statement of the acti; . -^ceipts and dis- 
bursenients of these state-< t' '811 and the two 
following years.] 


i ! 

lue wasjudgofl to )>«• 
of loan's, would, it 

I case of war, as in 
increase of duties 

f necessary in that 
•y arise, it was to be 
e of duties, by a rc- 
by a proper selec- 
taxes. To raise a 
000 of dollars, was 
compass of the na- 
ly require the legis- 

f system, the United 
more eligible to pay 
?r by a |)remium in 
er rate of interest, 
)f stock created, or 
th niifrht injuriously 
im of the country, 
of dollars borrowed 
ivas urged that the 
t in the additional 
a year, until the 

the ensuing years, 

public affairs pre- 

lis year, 1811, and 

\i he recommended, 

of about 9,000,000 
ficient, both under 
United States, and 
ig a different atti- 

e rate or duties on 
;ient for that pur- 
if events it may re- 
rces of revenue, 
lay be put on ob- 
e amount, for de- 
ly be incurred be- 
jove stated, 
lue of the United 
out any extraordi- 

II a few years the 
iarily incurred." 

propositions ••ill 
•^ceipts and dis- 
:81I and the two 


[f.VCOMEofthe UNITED STATES for three j/cars, ending September 30, 1813. 


Dollars. C(» 
Customs, sales of lands, ar- 
rears, re|>iiymciits, and all 
other brandies of revenue, 
amoimtiiig together to - 13,541,446' 3? 

Temporary loan of Decem- 
ber 31, 1810 . - - - 2,750,000 



DoUjuh. Ci». 

10,934,946 90 

Loan of 11,000,000 
by act of March 
14, 1812 - - 5,847,212 50 

Dullars. C. 

Total receipts 16V291,446" 37 
Balance in the treasury, on 

October 1, 1810 - - - 3,4J9,029 T'2 

Aggregate revenue 19,750,476' 9 

- - - - I3,5f8,012 4.N 
Loan of 1 

by act of March 

14, Isi;; - - 4,637,187 •( 
Do. 16,000,000 by 

actolFeb.8,1813 14,4.S8 12j 
Treasure notes un- 
der liie acts of 

June 3ii, 1812, 

:iii<l February 25, 

18' 5 - - - 5,151 300 

Otlier I oans, Aug. 

2, .813, &C.&C. 19,320,811 7(, 

16,782,159 4( 

OnOcloberl,18II 3,947,8: ' 3. 

20,7'^9,977 70 

37,545,95J- 9.', 
On October 1,1 81 2 2,36l,6'52 69 
a9.9'>7,60? 62 

EXPENmTUJlEoft„e UNITED STATES for three , years, .nding September 30, 1813. 



Dollars. Cts, 

1,823,069 35 


^.. ., , . Dollars. Cts 

Civjl department, including- 

miscellaneous expenses, and 
lliose incident to the inter- 
course with foreign nations 1,360,858 98 
Army fortifications, 
arms, and arscii- 

Navy department" 2,' 136;00O --.".' " Vinr'^m r? I" IM84,750 49 

Indian ditto - ^2,725 - ' '!Zi^l ''n \; ; r . ' J. ' M20.707 20 

Dollars. Cis. 

1,705,916' 3o 

p . , . 4,407,725 

rayments for uiterest ou the 
public debt .... 2,225,800 93 

Total current expenses 7,994,384 91 

Keimbursement of the tempo- 
rary loan, in March and 
September 1811, . . -2,750,000 

I'ayments on account of the 
prmcipal of the public debt 5,058,272 82 

1,107,501 54 

230,975 - (Included with " army ")' 
11,108,776 51 l-L 

2,498,013 19 

Total expenditure 15,802,657 73 
Balance m the treasury, Seo- 
tember30, 1811 - - '. 3,947,818 36 

19,750,476 9 

24,905,457 69 
3,120,37!) 8 

15,429,859 8 

2,938,405 99 

■ 18,308,325 7 

2,361,652 69 

^0.7'-:9,977 701 

■ 29,731,753 12 

• 3,197,102 7 

32,928,855 19 

6,978,752 43 

39,907,607 62] 






i I 


Ij /h'3 

TB^an act of Aiijyust 2, ISia, a loan ()f7,.jO(),000 
doilai-s was aiitliori/od, and tlic manner in vvhicli 
that loan was obtained was as follows. The 
terms were 88 dollars 2.9 cents in money, for 
]00 dollars stock, bearing an interest of 6 per 
cent, which was equivalent to a premium of 13 
dollars 'jl^ cents, on each 100, in money, loaned 
to the I'nited States. Of this sum of 7,.'jOO,000 
dollars, about 3,850,000 dollars were paid into 
the treasury duriniy the year 1813, and the re- 
mainder was payable in the months of January 
and February, 1814. 

For the year 1814, the expenditures, as autho- 
rized by law, were estimated as follow : 

J. Civil, diplonutic and 

miscellaneous expenses - - - 1.780,000 
2. Public debt, viz. — In- 
terest on the debt exist- 
in<j previous to the war 2,100,000 
Ditto on the debt con- 
tracted since the war, 
includin>>' treasury notes 
and loan for the year 
1814 ...-'.. 2,950,000 

The ways and means already provided by law 
were as follow : — 

Ueimbursenient of princi- 
pal, including- the old six 
and deferred stocks, tem- 
porary loans, and trea- 
«iny notes 7,150,000 


3. Military establishment, estimated 
by the secretary at war for a full 
complement, (includin£>' rangers, 
sca-fencibles, and troops of all de- 
scriptions) of 63,422 oflicers and 
men, and including ordinance, for- 
tifications, and (In Indian depart- 
ment, and the permanent appro- 
priations for Indian treaties, and 
equipping the militia - - - - 24,550,000 

4. Navy, estimated for 13,787 officers, 
seamen, and boys, and for 1,869 
marines, and including the service of 
two 74 gun ships for four months, 
and three additional frigates for six 
months of the year 1814, and the 
expenses of the llotillas on the 

coast and on the lakes - - - - 6,900,000 

Amounting altogether to - - - - 45,650,000 


, Customs and sales of public lands. 
The net revenue accruing from tiie 
customs during the year IS 1 1, 
amounted, as above stated, to 
13,142,000 dollars. Of this sum 
about 4,300,000 was produced by 
the additional duties imposed by 
the act of July i, 1811. The du- 
tics which accrued during the year 
1813, were estimated at 7,000,000 
dollars. The custom-house bonds 
outstandina: on January I, 1814, 

Liarv I, 

after making all the allowance for 
insolvencies and bad debts, were 
estimated at 5,500,000 dollars; and 
it was believed, that 6,000,000 
might be estimated for the receipt 
of the customs during the year 
1814. The sales of public lands, 
during the year ending September 
30, 1813, had amounted to 256,345 
acres, and the payments by pur- 
chasers to 706,000 dollars. It was, 
therefore, estimated that 600,000 
dollars would be received into the 
treasury from this source, during 
the year 1814. The sum, there- 
fore, estimated as receivable from 
customs anil lands, was ... 

2. Internal revenues and direct tax. 
"rom the credits allow ed by law on 
some of the internal duties (the na- 
ture of these is explained below) and 
from the delays incident to assess- 
ment and collection of the direct 
tax, it was not believed that more 
ought to be expected to come into 
the treasury during the year 1814, 
than the sum of 

3. Balance of the loan of 7,500,00, 
already contracted for - - - - 

4. Balance of treasury notes already 

5. Of the balance of cash 
in the treasury on De- 
cember 3 1 ,1813, amount- 
ing to about - . - . 4,680,000 

There would be required 
to satisfy appropriations 
made prior to that day, 
and then undrawn, at 
least 3,500,000] 





cady provided by liin 

blic liuuls. 
i>- from tlie 
ciir ISII, 
slated, to 
this sum 
oducod by 
iiiposed by 
Tiio dii- 
I'r the yoiir 

1 7,ooo,noo 

ouso bonds 
y I, l«i4, 
knvaiice for 
k'bts, were 
oUars ; and 
the receipt 
sj the year 
iiblic lands, 
• Septenil)er 
i to 2o6,343 
its by pur- 
ars. It was, 
lat GOO.OOO 
red into the 
irce, during 
sum, t';ere- 
livable from 

direct tax. 

by law on 
ties (thena- 

lit to assess- 

the direct 

that more 
;o come into 

year 1814, 

of 7,500,00, 
)tes already 





f And leaving applicable to the service 
of the vear 1814 




So that there remained to be provided 

by loans, the sum of 29,350,000 


Althouffh the interest paid upon treasury notes 
was considerably iess than that paid for the 
monies obtained by the United States on funded 
fltock, yet the certainty of their reimbursement at 
the end of one year, and the facilities they afforded 
for remittances and other commercial operations, 
had obtained for them a currency which left little 
reason to doubt that they might be extended 
considerably beyond the sum of 5,000,000 of dol- 
lars, hitherto authorized to be annually issued. 
It would, perhaps, be eligible to leave to the exe- 
cutive, as was done last year, a discretion as to the 
amount to be borrowed upon stock or upon 
treasury notes, that one or the other might be 
resorted to, within prescribed limits, as should be 
found most advantageous to the United States. 

The amount, as intimated to have been reim- 
bursed of the principal of the public debt during 
the year ending on the 30th of September last, 
including treasury notes and temporary loans, 
appeared to have been 8,301,358 dollars. As the 
payments on account of the loan of 16,000,000 
bad not then been completed, and the stock had, 
consequently, not then been issued, therefore, it 
was not practicable to state with precision the 
amount added to the public debt during that 
year : but, after deducting the above-mentioned 
reimbursement of 8,200,000, this addition cannot 
iall short of 22,500,000 dollars. 

The plan of finance proposed at the commence- 
ment of the war, was to make the revenue, 
during each year of its continuance, equal to the 
expenses of the peace establishment, and of the 
interest of the old debt then existing, and on the 
loans which the war might render necessary, and 
to defray the extraordinary expenses of the war 
out of the proceeds of loans to be obtained for 
that purpose. 

The expenses of the peace establishment, as 
it existed previous to the armaments of 1812, 
made in contemplation of war, but including the 
eight regiments added to the military establish- 
ment in the year 1808, and the augmentation of 
the navy in actual service, authorized in 1809, 
amounted, after deducting some casual expences 

VOL. V. 


ofmilitia, and other inci- 
dental items, to about - - - 

The interest on the public 
debt, payable during the 
year 1814, would be, on 
the old debt,or that exist- 
ing prior to the present 
war ..-.-. 2,100,000 

On the debt contracted 
since the commencement 
of the war, including 
treasury notes, and al- 
lowing 560,000 dollars 
for interest on the loan, 
which must be made dur- 
ing the year 1814, a sum 
as small as can be esti- 
;nated for that object - - 2,950,000 


Making 12,050,000 

The actual receipts into the treasury 
from the revenues, as established 
in 1813, including the internal re- 
venues and direct tax, were not 
estimated for the year 1814, at 

more than 10,100,000 

Viz. : 
From customs and public 

lands 6,600,000 

Internal revenues and 
direct tax - - - - 3,500,000 

If to this sum be added that part of 
the balance in the treasury on the 
Slst of December 1813, which has 
been estimated above, to be appli- 
cable to the expenses of the year 
1814 ; and which, upon the princi- 
ples above stated, may be consi- 
dered as a surplus of revenue be- 
yond the expenses of the peace 
establisment, and of the interest 
on the public debt for the year 

1813, and therefore applicable to 
the same expenses for the year 

1814, which sum is estimated at - 1,180,000 

And making together . - - - - 11,280,000 
There still remain to be provided 
new revenues capable of producing 770,000 

I 12,050,000] 


■r 1 

I I' 

i I 



I s 



t V^'i 111 

^»!.i i:"» 



! ■ 

t :' 



[Bnt as the iiUonial rovpiuips anci tiirect tax, 
when in Cull opiMation wmiltl produce, in tlu' year 
1815, probably 1 ,'iO(),()()() '.loliiirn more than was 
08*imate(l to l)e received from lliein in the year 
1811, it would rest with ('oni>TesH to decide, 
whether it was necessary that new and addi- 
ti(Mial revenues should now be established. To 
what extent the existina; embargo niiiyht reduce 
the receipts into tl>e treasury iVoni the cu'<toms, 
during the year 1814, it whs difficult to estimate, 
as the operations of the w>ar had reduced the 
receipts from the customs nearly one-half from 
that which was received during the year pre- 
ceding the war. The former embargo reduced 
the revenue from the customs nearly one half 
the amount of that which was received dur- 
ing the year preceding its full operation. In 
tins case, how->ver, the transition was from the 
full receipt of a peace revenue, to the entire 
suspension of exportation and of foreign coui- 
merce in American bottoms. It was not, there- 
fore, to be presumed, that the existing embargo 
would caust a reduction of the war revenue in 
the proportion of the peace revenue. More- 
over it was argued, that the eftect of an act pro- 
hibitiu"' the importation of certain articles ne- 
cessarily increased the demand, and enhanced 
the value of those which might be lawfully im- 
ported, and that the high price they woultt bear 
would produce extraordinary importations, and 
in part compensate for the prohibition to export 
any thing in return. 

To the amount of the dctalcation of the re- 
venue caused by the embargo, whatever it might 
be, was to be added the dilVerence between the 
amount of the interest, payable in the year 1814, 
on the loan of that year, and the whole amount 
of the interests on the said loan, payable in the 
year 1815, as well as that part o^ the interest 
which might be payable in the year 1815, on the 
loan of that year. The sum of these items 
would be required for the year 1815, in addition 
to the revenues previously established, except 
130,000 dollars, being the difference between 
the estimated increase in tiie receipt of the in- 
ternal revenues and direct taxes, and this 
770,000 remaining to be provided for in the fore- 
going estimate. 

With these considerations it was submitted, 
whether it might not be expedient and prudent 
to provide new revenues capable of producing 
either the whole or such part of the 770,000 dol- 
Ibts unprovided for, as ntight appear necessary 
to fulfil the public engagements, and secure to 

the financial operations of the government, the 
confidence, stability, and success, which it anti- 
cipated from the coiuitry. 

Inteunal ok direct taxes,— Something yet 
remains to be saiil of the nature of the internal 
or direct taxes. A clearer view of them cannot 
be given than by the following extract from a 
letter from the secretary of the treasury to the 
chairman of ways and means, Januarj^ 10, 1812. 
' Before I proceed (says this perspicuous do 
cument) to answer the inquiry of the committee 
respecting a selection of the internal taxes now 
necessary, permit me to observe, that it was 
stated in the annual report of December 10, 
1808, that " no internal taxes, cither direct or 
indirect, were contemplated, even in the case of 
hostilities carried against the two great bel- 
ligerent powers." An assertion which renders 
it necessary to show that the prospects then held 
out was not deceptive, and why it has not been 

' The balance in the treasury amounted at that 
time to near 14 millions of dollars. But aware that 
that surplus would, in a short time, be expended, 
and having stated that the revenue was daily 
decreasinof, it was in the same report proposed, 
" that all the existing duties should be doubled 
on importationr, subsequent to the 1st day of 
Jani:ary, 1809." As the net revenue accrued 
from customs during the three years, 1809, 1810, 
and 1811, has, without any increase of duties, 
exceeded dollars 26,000,000, it follows that if the 
measure then submitted had been adopted, we 
should, after making a large deduction for any 
supposed diminution of consumption, arising 
from the proposed increase, have had at this 
time about 20 millions of dollars on hand, a 
sum greater than the net amount of the proposed 
internal taxes for four years. 

' In proportion as the ability to bon-ow is di- 
minished, the necessity of resorting to taxation 
is increased. It is, therefore, also proper to 
observe, at that time the subject of the renewal 
of the charter of the bank of the United States 
had been referred by the Senate to tlie secretary 
of the treasury, nor had any symptom appeared 
from which its absolute dissolution without any 
substitute could have then been anticipated. The 
renewal in some shape, and on a more extensive 
scale, was confidently relied on : and, accord- 
ingly, in the report made during the same session 
to the Senate, the propriety of increasing the 
capital of the bank to dollars 30,000,000 was 
submitted, with the condition thatthat institution] 





;ovcrnment, (he 
, which it unti- 

— Somctliinoyel 
of the intornal 
of them cannot 
r extract front a 
treasury to tlio 
mmry 10, I8ia. 
pcrHpicuons do 
f the committee 
tcrnal taxes now 
ve, that it was 
if December 10, 
cither direct or 
en in the case of 
two great bel- 
n which renders 
oHpects then held 
' it has not been 

amounted at that 
s. But aware that 
me, be expended, 
!venue was daily 
report proposed, 
hould be doubled 
the 1st day of 
revenue accrued 
years, 1809, 1810, 
icrease of duties, 
follows that if the 
)een adopted, we 
leduction for any 
umption, arising 
lave had at this 
lars on hand, a 
nt of the proposed 

to borrow is di- 
ortiiig to taxation 
also proper to 
ct of the renewal 
the United States 
e to the secretary 
ymptom appeared 
ution without any 
n anticipated. The 

a more extensive 
on : and, accord- 
g the F!ame session 

of increasing the 
s 30,000,000 was 
latthat institution] 

fshould, if required, be ohliiyed (o lend one-haU' 
of its capital to the United State-*. The amount 
thu« loaned might, without anv inconvenience, 
have been increased to 'iO millions. And with 
dollars §0.000.000 in hand, and loans being se- 
cured for yO.OOO,OnO more, without any increase 
of the stock of the public debt at market, in- 
ternal taxation would have been unnecessary 
for at least four years of war, nor any other re- 
sources l)cen wanted than an additional annual 
ioan of five millions ; a sum sufficiently moderate 
to be obtained from individuals, and on favour- 
able terms. 

' These observations are made only in re- 
ference to the finances and resources of the 
«-eneral government. Considerations of a dif- 
ferent nature have on both these subjects pro- 
duced a different result, which makes a resort 
to internal taxe.* now necessary, and will render 
loans more difficult to obtain, and their terms 
less favourable. But the resources of tl' coun- 
try remain the same; and if promptly and ear- 
nestly brought into action, will be found arnply 
sufficient to meet the present e.nergency. With 
respect to internal taxes, the whole amount 
to be raised is so moderate, when compared 
either with the population and wealth of the 
United States, or with the burthens laid on 
European nations by their governments, that no 
doubt exists of the ability or will of the people 
to pay without any real inconvenience, and with 
cheerfulness, the proposed war taxes. For it is 
still hoped, that the ordinary peace revenue of 
the United States will be sufficient to reimburse; 
within a reasonable period, the loans obtained 
during the war, and that neither a perpetual 
and increasing public debt, nor a permanent 
system of ever progressing taxation, shall be 
entailed on the nation. These evils cannot, 
however, be otherwise avoided than by the 
speedy organization of a certain revenue. De- 
lays in that respect, and a reliance on indefinite 
loans to defray the war expenditure, the ordi- 
nary expenses of government, the interest on the 
loans themselves, would be equally unsafe and 
ruinous ; would, in a short time, injure public 
credit, impair the national resources, and ulti- 
mately render much heavier and perpetual taxes 
absolutely necessary. 

' Of the gross amount of dollars, 5,000,000, 
to be now provided according to the preceding 
estimates, by internal taxation, it is respectfully 
proposed, that 3,000,000 should be raised by 
direct tax, and 2,000,000 by indirect taxes. 

< The sum of 3,000,000 will not, considering 

tlic increase of population, be a much greater 
direct tax, than that of y,000,000 voted in the 
vear l7f)H. To this permit me to add another 
view of the subject. 

' The direct taxes laid by the several States, 
during the last years of the revolutionary war, 
were generally more heavy than could l)e paid 
with convenience. But during the years \~Hj 
to 17H<) an annual direct tax of more than dol- 
lars a00,000 [dollars 205, 189 J was raised in 
Pennsylvania, which was not oppressive, and 
was paid with great punctunlity. The increase 
of population of that State, between the years 
1787 and 1812, is in the ratio of about 4 to 9. 
A tax of dollars 450,000, payable in the year 
J8I3, is not higher in proportion to the popu- 
lation alone, and without regard even to the 
still greater increase of wealth and of circulating 
mediu.n, than a tax of dollars 200,000 was in 
the year 1787. But the quota of Pennsylvania, 
on a tax of dollars 3,000,000, will, counting 
Orleans a state, hardly exceed dollars 365,000. 
The proposed tax will, therefore, so far as re- 
lates to Pennsylvania, be near 20 per cent, 
lighter, in proportion to the respective popula- 
tion, than that paid during theyears 1785 to 1789. 

' The rule of apportionment, prescribed by 
the constitution, operates with perhaps as much 
equality as is practicable, in relation to States 
not materially differing in weaUh and situation, 
It may, therefore, be inferred, that a direct tax, 
which is not greater than Pennsylvania can pay 
with facility, will not press heavily upon any 
other of the Atlantic States. It is only in re- 
ference to the Western States, that the constitu- 
tional rule of apportionment, according to the re- 
spective number of inhabitants in each State, 
may be supposed to be unequal. Being at a 
greater distance from a market, and having, on 
account of the recent date of their settlements 
less accumulated capital, it is certainly true, that 
they cannot, in proportion to their population, 
pay as much, or with the same facility, as the 
Atlantic States. Two considerations will, how- 
ever, much diminish the weight, if they do not 
altogether obviate that objection. 

' 1 . Of the articles actually consumed in the 
Western States, there are two of general con- 
sumption, on which duties are laid, or proposed 
to be laid, and on which, being articles produced 
in those States, they will pay nothing or less 
than the Atlantic States. On salt, they will pay 
nothing, as the whole quantity consumed there is 
of domestic origin ; and this observation affords 
an argument in favour of the restoration of thel 
1 2 

UN 1 



; »: t !. . 

[duty on that article, since it'will tend to equalize 
the operation of the direct tax. A consitferable 
part of the siipnr those States consume, nearly 
7,000,000 of pounds, is also the produce of the 
inaple, and pays no duty. And in time of war, 
it is probable that the residue of their consinnp- 
tion will, in « great decree, consist of New 
Orleans sugar, also duty-free. 

* 2. A considerable portion of the direct taxes 
in those States, is laid on lands owned by per- 
sons residing in other States, and will not fall 
on the inhabitants. It nnpears by a late ofliciai 
statement, that more tnan two-thirds of the 
land-tax of the State of Ohio, are raised on 
lands owned by non-residents. The portion of 
the quota of that State, on the United States' 
direct tax, which will be payable by its inhu 
bitants, will, for that reason alone, be reduced 
to one-tliird part of the nominal amount of such 
quota. And although the proportion may not be 
the same in the other Western States, it is well 
known, that a similar result, though not perhaps 
to the same extent, will take place in all. 

' From every view which lias been taken of 
the subject, it satisfactorily appears, tliat the 
proposed amount of 3,000 is moderate, and can- 
not be produc*ive of any real inconvenience, 
provided that the objects on which the tax shall 
be assessed, be properly selected. 

' A direct tax may be assessed cither on the 
whole amount of the property or income of the 
people, or on certain specific objects selected for 
that purpose. The Arst mode may, on abstract 
princijdcs, be considered as most correct ; and a 
tax laid, in case of selection, on the same arti- 
cles in all the States, as was done in the direct 
tax of 1790, is recommended by its uniformity, 
and supported by respectable authority. It is 
nevertheless believed, that the systems of taxa- 
tion respectively adopted by the several States, 
matured, modified, and improved, as they have 
been by long experience, will generally be found 
to be best adapted to the local situation and 
circumstances of each State ; and they are cer- 
tainly most congenial with the feelings and ha- 
bits of the people. It is, therefore, proposed, 
that the direct tax should be laid and assessed in 
each State, upon the same objects of taxation 
on which the direct taxes levied under the autho- 
rity of the State are laid and assessed. 

' The attempt made under the former direct 
tax of the United States to equalize the tax by 
authorizing a board of commissioners, in each 
State, to correct the valuations made by the 
local assessors, was attended with considerable 

expense, and productive of great delay. In 
order to obviate this inconvenience, it is pro- 
posed that the quota assigned to each State, 
according to the rule prescribed by the consti- 
tution, should be apportioned by law amongst 
the several counties, towns, or other subdivisions 
of each State, adopting in each State, where a 
State tax is now levied, the apportionment of 
the State tax, whether that be an absolute quota 
fixed by a previous State law on the county or 
town, or whether it be only the amount which 
shall appear to have been last laid on such county 
by the operation of the general State laws im- 
posing a direct tax ; making the apportionment 
in the State where no State tax is now levied, 
according to the best information and materials 
which can be obtained ; and authorizing the 
States respectively to alter the apportionment 
thus made by law, at any time previous to the 
day fixed by law for assessing the United States 
tax on individuals. The whole process of assess- 
ment will thereby be reduced to that of assess- 
ing the quota of each county, town, or other 
subdivision on the lands and inhabitants of such 
subdivision. It will be as simple, and may be 
effected as promptly, and with as little expense, 
as the assessment of a county tax : and, tlie ob- 
jects of taxation being the same, it may be still 
more facilitated by authorizing an adoption of 
the State assessment on individuals, whenever it 
can be obtained from the proper authority. 

' With respect to indirect taxes it does not 
appear necessary to resort to any other than 
those which had l)een formerly levied by the 
United States. As they were in operation dur- 
ing several vears, their defects, and the modifi- 
cations an(t improvements of which they are 
susceptible, are better understood than new taxes 
could be. With some alterations, they may pro- 
duce the amount now wanted ; and it does not 
appear that any other etjually productive could 
be substituted with any real advantage. The 
gross amount of those taxes in the year 1801, 
was nearly one million of dollars. They would, 
according to the increase of population, and 
without any augmentation in their rate, yield 
now near 1,400,000 dollars. An average in- 
crease of about 50 per cent, in the rate would 
produce the intended gross amount of two mil- 
lions. But it is believed, that that increase 
ought not to be the same in all those taxes, and 
that some are susceptible of greater augmenta- 
tion or extension than others. 

' I. Duties on domestic spirits distilled. — There 
is not any more eligible object of taxation than] 




Eit delay. In 
[)ce, it is pro- 
o eacli State, 
by the consti- 
' law amonp;iit 
er HulidiviKiuna 
State, where a 
)ortionineiit of 
iihsohitc (|Uota 
the county or 
amount which 
on such county 
Uate lawH im- 
is now levied, 
and materials 
jthorizing the 
revious to the 
! United States 
ocess of assess- 
that of assess- 
own, or other 
t>itants of such 
>, and may be 
little expense, 
: and, tne ob- 
it may be still 
an adoption of 
Is, whenever it 
es it does not 
ny other than 
levied by the 
operation dur- 
nd the modifi- 
lich they are 
than new taxes 
they may pro- 
id it does not 
oductive could 
vantage. The 
the year 1801, 
They would, 
>pulation, and 
eir rate, yield 
n average iu- 
le rate would 
ut of two niil- 
thut increase 
ose taxes, and 
iter augmenta- 

stilied. — There 
taxation than] 

[ardent spirit* ; but the inr-^e of taxation is liable 
to strong objections, parucidariy with respect 
to persons win, arc not professional manufac- 
turers, and who only occasionally distil the pro- 
duce of their farms. It is, therefore, proposed, 
that the duties on the quantity of spirits distilled, 
should be levied only on spirits distilled from 
foreign materials, at the rate of ten cents per 
gallon distilled ; and on other distillers employ- 
ing stills, the aggregate of which shall contain 
more than 400 gallons, at the rate of three cents 
per gallon distilled ; and that, instead of a duty 
on the spirits, or of licenses in proportion to the 
time employed, other distillers should only pay 
an animal tax of live dollars for each still solely 
employed in the distillation ol" fruit, and of 15 
dollars lor each still otherwise employed. This 
tax may silso, without reference to time, be made 
to vary according to the size of the stills. At 
those rates, this clas4 of duties is estimated to pro- 
duce at most 400,000 dollars ; and it is intended 
in that case, that another duty should l)e levied 
on the same article, in the shape of licenses to 
retailers. Uy the adoption of that mode the ex- 
penses of collection will be considerably dimi- 
nished, penalties for not entering stills will be 
unnecessary, and they will be confined, with re- 
spect to country stills, to the case of clandestine 
distilling without paying the tax. 

' 2. ))iUii's on rr/iiicd sitgur. — A duty double 
of that heretofore laid, viz. at the rate of four 
cents per pound, is estimated to produce iJOO,000 
dollars, f he drawback both of that duty, and 
of that on the importation of the raw material, 
to be allowed. 

• 3. Licenses lo retailers. — These are believed 
to l)e susceptible of considerable and very proper 
augmentation and extension. The following rates 
.ire estimated to produce 700,000 dollars : 

For a licei. .e to retail wines - - - - 20 
Ditto - - ditto - spirits generally - - 20 
Ditto - - ditto - domestic spirits only 13 
Ditto - - ditto - any other species of 

foreign merchandise 10 
' Tavern keepers, licensed under the autho- 
thority of any State, and not living in any city, 
town, village, or withia five miles thereof, to be 
excepted. Every othei person who sells wines, 
foreign spirits, or foreign merchandize, other- 
wise than in the vessel or package of importation ; 
or in the case of dry goods, otherwise than by 
the piece ; and every person who sells domestic 
spirits in less quantity than 30 gallons, to be con- 
sidered as a retailer. 

* IV. Duties on sales at auction. — These, con- 
fined to the sales of articles of foreign produce 
or manufacture, and at the same rate as hereto- 
fore, may produce about 50,000 dollars. 

' V. Duliet on enrriagfs for the conveiynnre of 
persons. — Those duties, adding at the rate of 50 
per cent, on the duties formerly raised, are esti- 
mated to produce 150,000 dollars. 

' VI. Stamp duties, — An association of ideas, 
which connects those duties with the attempt of 
(irreat Britain to tax America, and which might, 
with equal propriety, attach odium to the duty 
on the importation of tea, has rendered their 
name in some degree unpopular. The extension 
of post roads, and the facility of distribution, 
have, liowever, removed the most substantial 
objection to which they were liable. They do 
not appear to be more inconvenient than any 
other internal tax, and the expenses of collec- 
tion are less than on any other, being only a 
commission on the sale and the cost of paper 
and stamping. At the same rate a^ iicretofore, 
with the exception of bank notes, on which an 
increase appears proper (with an option to the 
banks to pay l-20th part of their dividends in 
lien thereof) they arc estimated to produce 
500,000 dollars. 



Direct tax, gross amount 

Duties on spirits, and li- 
censes to (list i Hers, gross 

Refined sugar,gros8 amount 

Retail licenses, ditto - 

Sales at auction, ditto - - 

Duties on carriages, ditto - 

Stamp Duties, dilto - - - 

- - 3,000,000 



Total gross amount - - - 5,000,000 
Deduct expenses of assessment, and 
collection and losses, estimated at 15 
percent 750,000 

iVet amount estimated for 1814 - - 4,230,000 
But are not estimated toyield in 1813, 

more than 3,600,000 

' Most of the internal taxes have been estimated 
at their maximum ; but it is hoped that any de- 
falcation from the estimated amount, will be com- 
pensated by a diminution in the expenses of col- 
lection, which have also been computed at the 
highest rate.] 


1. ' 

1 IJ 


[* For the Hiipftrintniidfitirn of thoBO (Hxos,l)otli 
(lirort nnd indirect, it nppniir>* indispoiiHiililc that 
the oflfirc of coniminsionor ol the rovemie Hhoiild 
he rc-cHtiiblished. For thoir collection, tlio Cor- 
incr offlcon of supervisor and inspector, nro ho- 
lipvod to Iiavc been unneccsniir)' and injurious 
links in the Kystem, and that the expense will be 
diminished, and the collection and accountability 
better secured, hy the division of the states into 
convenient collection districts, and by the ap- 
pointment of a collector to each district, who will 
pay into the treasury, and be inime(liately ac- 
countable to that department in the same manner 
as the collectors of customs. This arrangement, 
the greater amount to be collected, and the sim- 
plification in the objects and mode of taxation, 
will, it is hoped, reduce in a Hhort time the ex- 
penses of collection of the indirect taxes to 7| 
instead of 13 per cent, which they formerly cost, 
when brought to their highest degree of improve- 
ment. In estimating the charges on the direct 
tax of 1,5 per cent., t) per cent, have been allowed 
for the assessment, 5 per cent, for the collection, 
and 5 per cent, for losses. This last item is 

FH'inci pally on account of losses on unseated 
ands, and on some remote districts of country, 
and is not susceptible of much reduction. That 
for assessment may be lessened in those States 
where the objects of taxation do not require an 
annual valuation, or where the state or county 
assessment may be used. The expense of cot- 
lection proper may be also, in some degree, les- 
sened in cities aiid populous districts, and by 
uniting it with that of the internal taxes. It is, 
however, necessary that the compensation of the 
collectors be sufficient to command the services 
of men properly qualified, and in every respect 
worthy of the trust. 

'In performing the ungracious task of pointing 
out new objects of taxation, those have been sub- 
mitted which appeared sufficiently productive 
and least oppressive. The objections to which 
each, including the increase of duties on impor- 
tations, is liable, have not been stated ; not be- 
cause I was insensible of them, but because no 
substitute of any importance was perceived, which 
was not still more objectionable. Every tax 
being, in some degree, an evil, is therefore liable 
to some objection ; and every one taken singly 
may, for th&t reason, be easily combated. But, 
if the necessity of an additional revenue be ad- 
mitted, the objections afford no argument why 
the tax proposed should be rejected, unless an- 
other less inconvenient be substituted. The ne- 
cessity of such an addition to the revenue has, in 
the course of this letter, been strongly urged, 

because it was strongly felt. But with respect 
to the taxes proposed, the selection is sulimiltcd 
with diffidence : and it will be iiighly gratifying 
that some more eligible may be devised. 

'The lastinquiry of the committee relates chiefly 
to the terms on which loans, amounting to at loaNt 
IO,0(M),000 of dollars peraiin. may be obtained, and 
to the pliin proper to be adonted for their reimburse- 
ment- (tftliis subject we liave already treated.' 

Trmlr. — The vast extent of sea-coast, which 
spreads liefore these States, the number of excel- 
lent harbourn and sea-port towns, the numerous 
creeks and immense bayn which indent the coast, 
nnd the rivers, lakes, and canals which neninsu- 
Inte the whole country, added to its agricultural 
advantages and improvements, give this part of 
the world superior advantages for trade. This, 
together witli the imports, exports, shipping, 
muniifactures, and fisheries, may properly be 
considered as forming one general interest ; but 
they have been considered as constituting the 
more peculiar and important objects of the New 
Eiidaiid States. 

The consumption of fish, oil, whalebone, nnd 
other articles obtained through the fisheries, in 
the towns nnd counties that are convenient for 
navigation, has become much greater than is ge- 
nerally supposed. It was computed that no less 
than ^OOO liarrcls of inackarel, salmon, and pickled 
cod-fish were vended, annually, in the city of Phi- 
ladelphia, as far back as 1792 : add to them the 
dried fish, oil, spermaceti, candles, whalebone, 
&:c. and it will be found that a little fleet of sloops 
and schooners must have been employed in the 

The demand for the fore-mentioned articles is 
proportionably great in the other parts of the 
union, (especially in Boston and the large coni- 
nierciul towns tliat lie along the coast «. e., 
which enter largely into the fishing trade), and 
the vessels employed in transporting them are 
proportionably numerous. 

The quantity of fur exported from the n. parts 
of America to Great Britain, amounted yearly 
to about £.41,000 sterling, estimated from the 
freight during the years 1768, 1769, and 1770. 
The exports of bucK-skins amounted to upwards 
of £.33,000. The sales of fur, (which take place 
in London every spring), produced, in 1782, 
£.4,700. It was a little increased in 1783, nnd 
in 1784 it exceeded £.245,000. All this fur was 
paid for by English manufacturers ; and a fourth 
part of it was worked in England, where its 
worth was doubled. Great Britain has however 
of late years been chiefly indebted to Canada for 
supply of these articles ; for the total value of] 

I J \ r T i: I) s r a r k s. 

It will) rcHpcrt 
on i>4 HiiUinitlcd 
t;hlv Krutitying 

Mt'inff to ut loattt 
eady treated.' 
ica-coiiHt, which 
iiml>t>r of excel - 
*, the numerous 
ndent the coast, 
which pcninsu- 
its agricultural 
ive this part of 
or trade. This, 
ports, shippinfi^, 
ny properly be 
pal interest ; but 
constitutins: the 
jects of the New 

whalebone, and 
the fisheries, in 
B convenient for 
peater than is ge- 
uted that no less 
Imon, and pickled 
in the city of Phi- 
add to them the 
idles, whalebone, 
ttle fleet of sloops 
employed in the 

itioned articles is 
llier parts of the 
id the large coni- 
the coast «. e., 
slung trade), and 
)orting them are 

from the w. parts 
amounted yearly 
ti mated from the 

1769, and 1770. 
unted to upwards 

which take place 
)duced, in 1782, 
sed in 1783, and 
All this fur was 
ers ; and a fourth 
gland, where its 
itain has however 
ted to Canada for 
he total value of] 

("the fiirs and pcllry exported from llitil ct)loiiy, 
niDoiintrd, on an H\<'nt:;e of ihn'i- \i',\f.*, ending 
180.), to i'.v;6J,()88. Kxcfii^^iveof this, 
a hiri;e i|iiantity of furs of all docriptionH are 
unnii.<<lly wiit from Canada, l»y mji) "fSi. John's, 
into the I'niled States ; not nieri l> lor supply- 
ing the demands of that cuiinlry, hut lor export- 
ing to China, for which market the tiuesi furs and 
prime peltries are in re<|ue!it. 'I'he amount of 
those articles, sold to the Americans in the year 
J8a(», Mr. liruy states at £A>'2,0m. iii.v.' V?(/. 
Tiie rensoii of the furs b«-iijg vent by this ciiaii- 
nol, rather than through the London market, is 
the difliculty of getting home (he produce ob- 
tained for ilie fins in China by tlie ICast India 
company's ships, together «ith the various re- 
strictions laid by the Directors, and the liea\y 
duty payable on' the exportation. 

Xbcutiyaiitages for trade \yhich nature has so 

lilMM'ally given these States, have never, till since 
the eslablishment of the nreM'ut government, 
been pn perly improved. l><-lore the revolution, 
(ireat Uriluih claimed an exclusive rilcht to tlie 
trade of her American (olonieb. This right, 
which she inliexibly maintained, enabled her lo 
fix her own price, as well on the articles whicii 
^'he purchased from (hem, as upon those of her 
own manufactures exported for their consump- 
tion. The carrying trade, too, was preservwl 
almost exclusively in her ov.'U hands, whicJi af- 
forded a temptation to the curriers, that was often 
too powerful to Ite withstood, to exact exorbitant 
commissions and freights. That Great liritatn 
enriched herself prodigiously by this exclusive 
trade with her colonies, is reasonable to sii;)pose, 
and will appear most clearly by the following 
document, made up from unqueatinnable autho- 

Totft/ imount of Imports info, and Exports from. Great Britain (cxclasivc of Scotland) and the Rritish 
CoioHifs, noifi' Ihv I'niftd Stales, from I(i97 to ITTfi im/iisive, up to the 'Declaration nf their Inde- 
pendence, being a Period of bO Years, distins;uishini!: each Stale. 

iNew England - - - 
New York - - - - 
Pennsylvania - - - 
Virginia and Maryland 
Georgia ----- 
Carolina .... 


1,918,847 1 
y,J83,0.i9 17 
I,403,'>i9 14 

J0,3oa,4ll 2 
806,6.52 4 

12,741,079 8 




.52,606,279 9 6 J 


19,268,7.56 8 11' 

12,317,032 10 I0| 

10,44.5,873 9 4 

21,2.58,127 1.5 10 

917,389 17 

9,0j6,332 4 5* 

Imports Exci'iis. 

9,095,283 6 lU 
3,684,747 4 I 

73,263,512 6 5 i| 12,780,930 11 0^ 

(Exports I'jicvi.'. 

I4,.i49,909 7 21 

9,933,979 13 Sj 

9,042,613 14 m 

110,737 12 T 

33,437,263 7 11} 
12,780,030 11 Gi 

Exports exceed the Imports - jg.20,637,232 16 lOi 

Which was the amount (official value) of the 
profit derived by Great Britain during the time 
that those colonies yvere und^r her controul. It 
will presently appear that this, however consi- 
derable, bore no nroportion to the benefit she 
has derived from them, in a commercial point of 
view, since the declaration of their independence. 
The war which brought about the separation 
of these States from Great Britain, threw com- 
mercial affairs into great confusion. The powers 
of the old confederation were unequal to the 
complete execution of any measures, calculated 
effectually to recover them from their deranged 

situation. Through want of power in the old 
Congress to collect a revenue for the discharge of 
the foreign and domestic debt, the credit was de- 
stroyed, and trade of consequence greatly em- 
barrassed. Each State, in her desultory regula- 
tions of trade, regarded her oyvn interest, yvhile 
that of the union yvas neglected. And so differ- 
ent were the interests of the several States, that 
their laws respecting trade often clashed yvith 
each other, and yvere productive of unhappy con- 
sequences. The large commercial States had it 
in their poyver to oppress their neighbours; and 
in some instances, this poyver yva8 directly or in-] 



^ H 





[directly exercised. These impolitic and unjusti- 
iiable regulations, formed on the impression of 
the moment, and proceeding from no uniform or 

Eermanent principles, excited unhappy jealousies 
etween the clasning States, and occasioned fre- 
quent stagnations in their trade, and, in sonic 
instances, a secresy in their commercial policy. 
But the measures which have since been adopted 
by Congress, under in efficient government, soon 
put a new and more promising face upon public 
affairs. Invested with the adequate powers. 
Congress formed a system of coniniercial regula- 
tions, with '\ view of enabling the country to 
meet the opposers of its trade upon their own 
ground ; a system which has certainly placed its 

commerce on a respectable, uniform, and intelli. 
gible footing, adapted to promote the general in- 
terests of the union, with the smallest injury to 
the individual States. 

The balance of trade, in favour of Great Bri- 
tain during 80 years, up to the period of the in- 
dependence of these States, was, we hav^ already 
seen, somewhat more, on an average, than a 
quarter of a million annually. The balance she 
obtained in her favour, during the six years im- 
mediately succeeding, was upwards of £.360,000 
annually, being an increase of £.110,000, com- 
pared with the annu<il r.verage ot the period up 
to 1776, as will appear by the following Tables, 

JJie official Value of Imports and Exports from Great Britain and the British Colonies in N. America, 
now the United States, between the Years 1777 and 1782 fsijc Years J during the Disturbances ; dis- 
tinguishing each Colony or State. 



Imports Excess. 

Exports Excess. 

New England - - - 
New York - - - - 
Pennsylvania . - - 
Yirgiiiia and Maryland 
Georgia - - - - - 

5,159 5 

65,611 6 8 

679 17 2 

58 7 11 

10,169 3 

116,299 2 10 

1,619,278 10 

7,5,37 6 7 

106,372 2 10 

637,530 14 8 

5,159 5 
58 7 11 

1.553,666 14 2 
6,857 9 5 

96,203 2 7 
521,231 11 10 

197,976 19 10 

2,370,718 4 11 

5,217 12 11 

2,177,958 18 
5,217 12 11 

Exports exceed imports 

2,172,740 5 1 

Annual average Excess of Exports 

£ 362,123 6 8 

But, although the balance of trade for any six 
years preceding the Revolution, on the average 
of the whf>le period of 80, amounted to a quarter 
of a million, it is evident that the trade of the 

six years immediately preceding, was infinitely 
greater even than tha of the six years during the 
disturbances, or more than double, as will thiri« 

y Table 



n, and intelli- 
he general in- 
llest injury to 

of Great Bri- 
riod of the in- 
e hav^ already 
erage, than a 
lie balance she 

six years im- 
8 of £-360,000 
.110,000, com- 

the period up 
lowing Tables, 

iM N. America, 
sturbances; dis- 

ixports Eicess. 

.53,666 14 2 
6,857 9 5 

96,203 2 7 
(21,231 11 10 










', was infinitely 
[years during the 
Ible, as will thits 

[Table ofjniporls tind Exports briween Great Rrilain and the Cofonics of \\ .hucrica (now the Initeri 
Stales J for Sir Yiars, ending i776, disti'guishing the Imports and Exports of each Cofont/, and the 
Balances in favour of Great Britain. 



New England - 

New York - 

Pennsylvania - 

- - 1*71 



1774 to 1776 

- - 1771 



1774 to 1776 

- - 1771 



1774 to 1776 

Virginia and Maryland 1 77 1 



1774 to 1776 

Georgia • 


■ - 1771 



1774 to 1776 

- - 1771 



1774 to 1776 

150,381 17 2 

126,265 7 6 

124,624 19 6 

229,599 2 6 

95,875 8 11 

82,707 8 6 

76,246 12 

269,345 5 7 

31,615 19 9 

29,133 12 3 

36,652 8 9 

246,995 9 7 

577,848 16 6 

528,404 10 6 

58y,803 14 5 

1,443,613 12 8 

63,810 10 9 

66,083 18 9 

85,391 1 8 

103,694 3 

420,311 14 8 

425,923 1 1 

456,513 8 4 

1,025,520 11 

7,286,362 15 4 


1,420,119 1 1 

821,830 8 9 

527,055 15 10 

689,151 15 11 

653,621 7 6 

343,970 19 9 

289,214 19 7 

439,165 14 7 

728,744 19 10 

507.909 14 
426,448 17 3 
627,383 11 3 

920,326 3 8 

793.910 13 2 
328,904 15 8 
530,659 16 9 

70,493 19 3 

92,406 4 4 

62,932 19 8 

171,296 6 

409,169 9 4 

449,610 2 2 

344,859 9 1 

384,362 7 5 

12,036,549 11 10 

Impnrls Excni. 

260,898 18 9 
912,953 15 11 

Exports Exrrsi. 

l,26y,737 3 11 

698,565 1 3 

402,430 16 4 

459,552 13 5 

557,745 18 7 

261,263 11 3 

212,968 7 7 

169,820 9 

697,129 1 

478,776 1 9 

389,796 8 6 

380,388 1 8 

342,477 7 2 

265,506 2 8 

22,458 2 

11,142 5 4 

111,653 19 3 
641,158 3 7 

1,960,265 4 10 


6,683 8 6 
26,322 5 7 

67,602 3 

23,687 1 1 

6,710,452 1 4 
1,960,265 4 10 

4,750,186 16 6 

Annual average Excess of Exports 791,697 16 1 
Annual average Excess during the six years of Disturbances 362,123 6 8 

Annual average loss by the six years of Disturbances £ 429,574 9 5 


If then such were the advantages of a few 
years of insecurity and restricted trade, it is not 
to be wondered at that immediately upon the 
signing the treaty of 1783, the amount of benefit 
from the intercourse that Great Britain carried 

VOL. v. 

on with her former colonies, began rapidly to in- 
crease in a manner to exceed the expectation of 
the most sanguine. The loalance in iavour of 
England for the six years, from 1783 to 1788, 
was upwards of 7,000,000, being an increase"! 






■? < 


h i i 

[of 1,000,000 on the former period of six years, 
ending 177C. 

In tlic next six years ending 1794, it reached 
to upwards of 15,000,000. 

In the next six years ending 1800, it reached 
to nearly 24,000,000. 

In the next six years ending 1806, it reached 
to upwards of 28,000,000, whicli is the higliest 
pitch it ever attained. It will be here satisfac- 
tory to add, 

T/ir annual Amount of Imports into, and Exports 

from, Great Britain and the United States, from 

I7Sj, the Year of the aeknozcleds;ement of their 

Independenee, to the Year 18 ly, distinguishing 

the Excess of Exports of each Year. 

M'; . ' 

\ ciir-. 


.'J 14.0.58 


Exports Excess. 































2.2 1 4.849 


1,011, .366 































1 1799 











4,811,013 i 




3.-395.987 i 

1 I8f)3 









1 ,766.556 




1, 999^884 

8,613 124 

6.61 3.2 K) 





















1,294,! 52 




» I'he (lot 


iimenls of tli'iB > i.-.r no;e d;'strcyed :;( tlic l:i(i' 

liiv al llii- (■ 

1 Inin lloiibc. 

.liiiii 'H 

>, 13U. W. IllvlNt. 

We now proceed to oiler a more specitic ac- 
count of the trade of these States, in order to 
give tur readers an idea not merely of their 
general importance, as applying to the amount 
of their i:i(lividual imports and exports, but to 
shew of wha> tlie same may consist, and tlie coun- 
ti'ics with which the intercourse is carried on. 

])olliir9. Ontfi. 

The duties arising on goods, 
wares, and merchandize im- 
ported into the United .Slutes, 
commencing Oct. 1, 1790, and 
ending Sept. 30, 1791, amount- 
ed to 3,006,722 85A 

The duties on the tonnage of 
vessels that entered these 
States, durii;g the same period, 
amounted to ^ 

illl,. T.iii- ijith'. Hols. fViil". C 

..S :\m riciiii :.()( Oiil 7() i .'iO.C.'t 7"'. C 
'■' ( FiilULMi - '.-.i 1,1)13 IK U1J,5VJ -'>' J 

T..1H ysiln. 
737,073 6.i 

145,347 75 

Total Dollars 

3,152,070 60 rV 

The Value of the Exports for the Year, ending 
Sept. 30, 1791, with their destination, teas as 



21,866 2 
277,273 53 

- - 1,634,825 6 

362,010 21 

To the dominions of Russia - 
To the dominions of Sweden - 
To the <h)ininions of Denmarii 
To the dominions of the United 

Netherlaiiils - - - 
To the dominions of Great Britain 7,95.3,418 21 
To tlie Imperial ports of (ho Au-;- 

trian Netlierlandsand (lorniany 
To Hambiu'gh, Bremen, and other 

Manse Towns . - . - - 
To the (h)iniiiions of I'rance - - 
To the dominions of Spain - - 
To the dominions of Portugal 
To the Italian Ports - - - - 
'I'o Morocco ----.-■■ 
To the Cast Indies, generally 
To .A frica, generally . . - - 
To tlie West Indies, generally 
To the N. W. Coast of America - 
To Europe and the West Indies 

for a market .----. 

Total Dollars - 





1,301,286 95 









168,477 92 

59,434 36 




17,571, .551 


'• '*' 



re specific ac- 
9, in order to 
lerely of tlieir 
to the amount 
xports, but to 
, and tlie coun- 
carricd on. 

Dollars. Cents. 

3,006,722 S5A 

145,347 73 

3,152,070 00/, 

\e. War, ending 
imilion, teas as 

Dols. Cf. 
2i,8(iG 2 
277,273 53 

1,634,825 fi 
7,953,418 21 

362,010 21 

64,259 25 

4,2f)8,762 26 

1,301,286 95 

1,039,696 47 

31,726 90 

3,660 50 

318,628 46 

168,477 92 

59,434 36 


29,274 5 

17,571,551 45] 


lAmount of Exports for the 
Year, ending Sept. 30, 












Now Hanipsli. 
MassachusL'ts ■ 
Rhode Island 
Connecticut • 
New York - ■ 
New iemcy 
Pennsylvania - 
Delaware - ■ 
Maryland - ■ 
Virginia - ■ 
N. Carolina ■ 
S. Carolina 
Georgia - ■ 


Amount of Exports 
for the \ear,fnding 
Sept. 30, 1793. 
















Value and Destination of Exports for the Year, 
ending Sept. 30, 1793. 

Russia -- 5,769 

Sweden 310,427 

Denmark 870,508 

Holland 3,169,536 

Great Britain 8,431,239 

Imperial Ports 1,013,347 

Hanse Towns 792,537 

France - - 7,050,498 

Spain 2,237,950 

Portugal 997,390 

Italian Ports - 220,688 

Morocco 2,094 

East Indies ------.- 253,131 

Africa - 251,343 

West Indies ----.... 399,559 

N. VV. Coast of America - - - 1,586 

Uncertain 3,986 


Thus the exports of the United States had in- 
creased, in the three years, ending Sept. 1793, 
from 17,300,000 to 26,000,000 of dollars. 

The above exports consisted, in a great degree, 
of the most necessary food of man and of working 
animals, and of raw materials applicable to ma- 
nufactures of the most general utility and con- 

The exports were, at this period, five or nearly 
nix times the amount of the national taxes and 
duties, The amount of the outward freight of 
the ships and vessels of the United States, wai 

about equal to all their national taxes and duties. 
The inward fn-ight was considerable. The 
earnings of the fishing vessels, in lieu of freight, 
were also considerable. The coasting freights 
were greater in value than both the last. All 
ships and vessels departed from the United States, 
fully laden, excepting a p4»"t of the East Indi;i 
traders. The quantity of^ tonnage, employed in 
the coasting trade was very considerable, as was 
also that employed in the cod and whale fisheries. 
The imports of the United States were less in 
value than the exports, deducting the outward 
freights of their <iwn ships, (which were returned 
in goods,) the net snles of their ships to foreigners, 
and the property imported by migrators from 
foreign, countries. 

rhe ver^ great proportion of the imports, 
which consisted of manufactures, (and from raw 
materials which America could produce,) afforded 
constant and inviting opportunities to lessen the 
balance against the United States, in their trade 
with foreign countries^ held out a certain home 
market to skilful and industrious manufacturers 
in America, and gave promises to the landholder 
and farmer of a very increasing demand for his 
produce, in which he could not be deceived, and 
to which the steady price of their produce, during 
the existence of embargoes, has borne testimony. 

The imports had not, however, been hitherto 
swelled in proportion to the increase of popula. 
tion and wealth. The reason was, the constant 
introduction of new branches of manufacture, and 
the great extension of the old branches. 

The imports had almost ceased to exhibit cer- 
tain articles of naval and military supply, and 
others of the greatest utility and* consumption. 
They consisted in a small degree of necessaries, 
in a great degree of articles of comfortable ac- 
commodations, and in some degree of luxuries ; 
but the exports consisted chiefly of prime neces- 
saries, with some articles of mere comfort and 
utility, and some of luxury. The following will 
be found to be the quantities of some of the prin- 
cipal articles of exportation from the United 
States, during the year, ending September, 1792. 

3,145,253 Bushels of grain and pulse (princi- 
pally wheat, Indian corn, rye, 
beans, and peas.) 
44,752 Horses, horued cattle, mules, hogs, 
and sheep. 

1,469,723 Barrels of flour, meal, biscuit, and 
rice, reducing casks of various 
sizes, to the proportion of flour 




\ ^^^ i 


[146,909 Barrels of tar, pitch, turpentine, ond 
1 16,803 Barrels of beef, pork, mutton, sau- 
sages, oysters, tripe, &c. reducing^ 
casks ot various sizes, to the pro- 
portion of beef and pork barrels. 
S31,776 Barrels of dried and pickled fish, re- 
ducing them to barrels of the same 
048,115 Gallons of spirits, distilled in the 
United States. 
7,823 Tons, 12 cwt. and 141b. of pot-ashes 
and pearl-ashes. 
112,428 Hogsheads of tobacco. 
60,646,861 Feet of boards, plank, and scantling. 
19,391i Tons of timber. 
18,374 Pieces of timber. 
1,080 Cedar and oak ship knees. 
71,693,863 Shingles. 
31,760,702 Staves and hoops. 
191 Frames of houses. 
73,318 Oars, rafters for oars, and handspikes. 
48,860 Shook or knock-down casks. 
52,381 Hogsheads of flax seed. 

The exports of the year of which the above are 
u part, amounted to 21,000,000 of dollars— but 
the exports of the next following year, (ending 
Sept. 30, 1793), amounted to 5,000,000 more, 
being, as we have seen above, 26,000,000 of dol- 
lars. Provisions and raw materials had greatly 
increased. Of flour alone there were snipped 
1,103,000 of casks. 

'Ihe imports began now generally to he 
brouglht directly (and not circuitously) from the 
countries which produced or manufactured them. 
— China, India proper, the isles of Bourbon and 
Mauritius, Good Hope, the S. settlements of 
America and the W. Indies, the Wine Islands, 
the countries on the Mediterranean and Baltic 
Seas, Great Britain and Ireland, France, the 
Netherlands and Germany, Spain and Portugal. 
Less than half the ships and vessels belong- 
ing to the United States, were sufficient to trans- 
port all the commodities they consumed or im- 

Tlieir citizens might be lawfully concerned in 
any branch of foreign trade, except the slave 
trade, whether carried on from the United States, 
or from any other country. 

Their commerce was diversified and prosper- 
ous, and consisted in importing for their own 
consumption, and with regard to their export, in 
the coasting and inland trades, and the Indian 
trade. There was no branch of commerce, fo- 

reign or donestic, in which every district, city, 

Eort, and individual was not equally entitled to 
e interested. 

The lawful interest of money was 6 per cent, 
per annum in most of the States : in a few it wau 
7 per cent ; in one it was 5 per cent. 

The commanders and other officers of American 
ships were deemed skilful and judicious; from 
which cause, combined with the goodness of their 
ships and of their equipment, insurances upon 
their vessels were generally made in Europe, 
upon the most favourable terms, compared with 
the corresponding risk ^ on board of the vessels 
of other nations ; and this opinion has not ceased, 
with other causes, to operate in their favour to 
the present day. 

The separate American States had (with one 
small exception) abolished the slave trade, and 
they had also, in some instances, abolished negro 
slavery ; in others they had adopted efficacious 
measures for its certain, but gradual abolition. 
The importation of slaves was discontinued, and 
could never be renewed, so as to interrupt the 
repose of Africa, or endanger the tranquilliU of 
the United States. The steady use of effica- 
cious alternatives was preferred to the imme- 
diate application of mr.ic strong remedies, in a 
case of so much ir^mentary and intrinsic impor- 

The clothes, books, household furniture, and 
the tools or inj})lements of their trade or profes- 
sion, brought by emigrators to America, were 
exempted from the import duty, and they might 
begin their commerce, manufactures, trades, or 
agriculture on the day of their arrival, upon the 
same footing as a native citizen. There was no 
greater nor other tax upon foreigners, or their 
property in the United States, than upon native 
citizens. All foreign jurisdiction, in ecclesiasti- 
cal matters, was inconsistent with the existing 
laws and constitutions. 

The poor taxes were very small, owing to the 
facility with which every man and woman, and 
every child who was old enough to do the light- 
est work, could procure a comfortable subsistance. 
The industrious poor, if frugal and sober, often 
placed themselves, in a few years, above want. 

Horses and cattle and other useful beasts, im- 
ported for breeding, were exempted by law from 
the import duty. 

All the lands in the United States were free 
from tythes. The medium annual land rents of 
Europe were greater per acre than the medium 
purchase was in the United States ; including, in 
the estimate, the value of the old improved farms] 

y; i 



' district, city, 
Uy entitled to 

van 6 per cent, 
in a few it waa 

TB of American 
idicious; from 
lodness of their 
surances upon 
de in Europe, 
:ompared with 
of the vessels 
has not ceased, 
their favour to 

had (with one 

Eive trade, and 

bolished negro 

pted efficacious 

dual abolition. 

continued, and 

» interrupt the 

tranquillity of 

use of emca- 

to the imme- 

remedies, in a 

ntrinsic impor- 

furniture, and 
rade or profes- 
America, w«re 
ind they might 
res, trades, or 
rival, upon the 
There was no 
fliers, or their 
m upon native 
, in ecclesiasti- 
:h the existing 

I, owing to the 
id woman, and 
:o do the light- 
)le subsistance. 
id sober, often 
above want, 
eful beasts, im- 
sd by law from 

ates were free 
al land rents of 
in the medium 
including, in 
nproved farms] 

[in America, and the great mass of unimproved 

The productions and manufactures of military 
supplies and articles, enabled these States to 
derive from their own resources ships of war, 
gunpowder, cannon and musket balls, shells and 
bombs, cannon and carriages, rifles and cutlasses, 
grapnals, iron, lead, cartouch boxes^ sword belts, 
cartridge paper, saddles, bridles, and holsters, 
soldiers' anu sailors' hats, buckles, shoes and 
boots, leathern breeches, naval stores, sheathing 
paper, malt and spirituous liquors, manufactured 
tobacco, soap, candles, lard, butter, beef, pork, 

bacon, hams, peas, biscuit, and flour, and other 
articles for the land or marine service. 

Such, in a commercial view, were the United 
States in 1793, and such were the grounds upon 
which their rapidly increasing prosperity nad 

The following Tables will show that, in the 
course of 13 years, their Exports to Great Bri- 
tain alone became more than equal to those they 
had made to all parts in 1793, since the Total 
Exports were then f?6,01 1,787 dollars, and in 
1807, to Great Britain, 36,739,181 dollars, or 
£.6,331,410 sterling. 

AMERICA, f including Ijouisiana) for Three Years, ending Januart/ 3, 1808, distinguishing each 
Year, and the principal Articles of such Imports and Exports ; and also foreign Merchandize from 
British Produce and Manufactures. 

Real Value of Imports from the United States t>( America. 

Annotto - 

Ashes, Pearl, and Pot - - 
Cochineal ------ 


Corn, Grain, and Meal - - 

Hides - 

Indigo ------- 

Pitch and Tar 

Seeds ; viz. Flax and Linseed 
Skins and Furs ----- 


Tobacco --------- 

Turpentine ----..-. 

Wood ; viz. Deals and Fir Timber 

Mahogany - - - . 


Staves - _ - - - 

Wool; viz. Cotton 

Other articles -----__ 



Total Imports 











































4,076,803 4,360,743 


























! ..1 I 

■ I 

'4 i 




[Real Value of Exports fior.i ICiiglaiiil to tiic UiiitiMl Sditot of America. 

Brass and Copper Manufactures - - 
Cotton Goods -------- 

Glass and Earthenware ----- 

Haberdashery - 


Iron and Steel -.--.... 

Lead -_._ 

Linens - 


Silk Manufactures ...----. 

Tin and Pewter ------- 

Woollens --.--.--. 
Other articles 

British Produce and Manufactures 
Foreign Merchandize - - - - 

Total Exports - - 

I mi). 






4,6a 1, 8^7 





























■ 36,410,432 

(Balance in Ikvcur of England, by the two foregoing Tables, £.21,441,476.) 

Real Value of Exports from England to all Parts of America and the W. Indies (exclusive of tlic 

United States.) 

Years, ended 10th October, 1806 




















Excess of Exports to the United States - 


Thus, upon an average of three years, ending 
1807, the real value of British manutactures and 
foreign merchandise, exported to America and 
the W. Indies, exceeded that to all other parts 
by upwards of 6,000,000. 

But if these States had thus benefited Great 

Britain, up to this period, by their intercourse, 
their own improvement was not less striking. 
In the course of five years, from the time of their 
independence, their political economy might be 
said to be firmly established upon its own basis ; 
we shall therefore present our readers with a] 

* » 





[General Statistical View of the United Stales, for a Period of •-20 Years, from 1788 <o 1808. 
Collected chiefly from Official Documents. 





their intercourse, 
not less striking. 
I the time of their 
conomy might be 
on its own basis ; 
eaders with a] 

Number of States in the Union 
Square acres ...... 

Acres of land in cultivation - - 
Average price of laud, per acre 
Population.— Whites and free 
■coloiu' - - 
Slaves ... 
Total population - . . . 
Elfectivo uiilitia - - . . 
Regular army -.-.-. 

people of 

Niinilirr and 
Value ill ith8. 


2 dollars 



Naval force 

Dwelling houses ---.... 

Horses --- ...... 

Horned cattle ----.... 

Post oflices 

llevenues of general ditto - . . . 

Expenses of ditto . 


The post extends in miles .... 

Tonnage of merchant vessels ... 

Value of imports in sterling . . - 

Exports C Domestic produce 

in Sterling Monev. ') f'^''^^.^" goods . 

• (^lotal . . . - 

Annual revenue ....... 

Specie in circulation 

National debt 

Number and 
Value in llius. 

The commerce of these States, previous to the 
late embargo, was most flourishing, notwithstand- 
ing t he < ipredations said to have been com- 
mitted upon it by the belligerent powers of 
^urope, as will appear from the following official 
documents, laid before (he house of representa 
tivesou I-ebruary29, 1808, by Albert (Gallatin, 
secretary of the treasury. 

Exports of the United Slates, from October 1, 
1806, to October 1, 1807. 

Ti 1 Dollars, 

1 lie goods, wares, and merchandize 
ot domestic growth, or manufac- 

"" ' ' ■ 48,699,592 






6 dollars 

CIO frigates,^ 
<81 slooj)si)tC 
(gunboats. ) 


Incrraic in s!0 

4 dollars 





91 vessels 







Decrease 1 

rpi „ 1 . Dollars. 

1 lie goods, wares, and merchandize 
of foreign growth or manufacture 59,643,558 

Total 108,343,150 

Recapitulation of the above. 
1 he foreign goods are classed as follows • 

1st. Articles free of duty bv law . - 2,080,114 

2nd. Do. liable to duty, and on re-ex- 

portation entitled to drawback - 48,205,943 

3rd. Do. liable to duty, but no draw- 
back on re-exportation - ... 9 357 591 



Y ■,' \- 


fN.B. The clutieH collected on the third clasH 
are" derived dircctlv from the carrying trade, and 
amount to I ,*i93,877 dollars. 

The articles of domestic growth or manufacture 
are arranged as follons : 

Ist. Produce of the sea - - - . 2,804,000 

2nd. Do. of the forest 5,476,000 

3rd. Do. of agriculture ... - 37,832,000 
4th. Do. of manufactures ... 2,409,000 
5th. Do. uncertain 1,79,000 


The following is a statement of the duties paid 

upon imports into the principal soa-port towns of 

the United States, calculated upon an average of 

four years, ending March, 1805. 

Towns. Slates. 

New York, New York 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



South Carolina 




Rhode Island 



North Carolina 
























Annual average 


Mr. Key, in his very able and masterly speech 
against the continuance of the embargo, stated, 
that of the exports of domestic produce of the 
United States, in 1807, amounting to 48,699,592 
dollars, only 9,762,204 were exported to Euro- 

Eean ports under the control of France, which 
ad been since interdicted by the British orders 
fn council ; and that there consequently remained 
a surplus of 31,937,288 dollars of American pro- 
duce, which might yet have been exported, if the 
embargo had not taken place. But if any thing 
further were wanting to prove, that war and em- 
bargo are not conducive to the commercial inte- 
rest of these States, the great decrease of the 
exports in 181 1 would amply testify the assertion. 
By the following official statement of goods, 
wares and merchandise, exported from the United 
States^ during one year, prior to October 1, 181 1, 

it will be seen that the total exports did not ex- 
ceed 61,316,833 dollars, being a deficit of the ex- 
ports of 1807, to the amount of 47,026,307 dollars. 

The goods, warr s and merchandise, of 
doniPHtic growth or maiinfacturp, 
included in this statement, arc esti- 
mated at 45,294,043 

And those of foreign growth or manu- 
facture, at 16,022,790 


The articles of domestic growfti or manufacture 
may be arranged under the following heads, viz. 

Produce of the sea 1,413,000 

Produce of the forest 5,286,000 

Produce of agriculture - - - . 35,556,000 

Manufactures 2,376,000 

Uncertain 663,000 


And they were exported to the following coun- 
tries, viz. 

To the dominions of Russia, Prus- 

sia, Sweden and Denmark - . 3,055,833 

Great Britain 20,308,21 1 

• Spain and Por- 
tugal 18,266,466 

France and Italy 1,194,275 

To all other countries, or not dis- 
tinguished .--..-- 2,469,258 


The goods, wares and merchandise of foreign 
•^vuwtli or manufactures, were exported to the 
following countries, viz. 

To the dominions of Russia, Prus- 
sia, Sweden and Denmark - - 5,340,117 

Great Britain 1,573,344 

Spain and Por- 

tug-al 5,772,572 

France and Italy 1,712,537 

To all other countries, or not dis- 
tinguished 1,624,220 


We now proceed more specifically to notice 
the relations between these States and Greal 
Britain and her colonies. 

About £.800,000 or £.1,000,000 of Birmini.- 
ham manu&ctures are sent, upon the average, to 
America, in years of open intercourse; but the] 

orts did not ex- 
leficit of the ex- 
026,307 dollars. 
e, of 

- - 45,294,043 

- - 10,022,790 


li or manufacture 
ivina; heads, viz. 

- - 1,413,000 

- - 5,286,000 

- . 35,550,000 

- - 2,376,000 
. - 663,000 

e following coun- 


- - 3,055,833 
ritain 20,308,211 

- - 18,266,400 
I Italy 1,194,275 
>t dis- 

. - 2,409,258 


landise of foreicn 
exported to the 


- 5,340,117 
Jritain 1,573,344 

. - 5,772,572 
ditaly 1,712,537 
ot dis- 

. - 1,024,220 


(cifically to notice 
States and Great 

0,000 of Birmin!>- 
on the average, to 
Tcourse ; but the] 



[erection of steel furnaces, by the Americans, and 
the circumstance of their procuriii!? their iron from 
Sweden, has lately tended to diminish tiiis export 
on the piirt of "(ireat Britain. The export of 
Birininghain to America, previous to l'"el)rnarv, 
IS 1 1, was to the value of £.H')0,0()0: hut, for 
some time before, was very casual : the exports 
of tlie saiae articles to other parts, ahout the 
same period, did not exceed jg.300,000annuajlv. 
The projj;ress ofN. American nmnufactures witli- 

in the last tliree or four years hns been flj»'e;i(, 
but not soalarmiuij as ^ronpidlly ini:ixiiK fl. Tlio 
circums(!uice of niuii'-rons ndvcrfi-fniettts hiivin;^ 
been r'cently seen in the .New V'ork papers, for 
hands to eiiiynjje in hiisiiicss pcfuliar •(> \Iani hos- 
ier and Birniintrhani, is hest iinswcrcd hy the 
jrreat increase, upon the whole, of Ibilixli exroils 
lo Aniericn, and tlie V'. Indies in o;«neriil. Tliis 
will appear most plainly by the folios iii<r docu- 

Jictitrn to an Order of thr House of Commons, Fehruari/ 7, 18 12, /or nn ArcounI of the Total Value nf 
EXPORTS from Gnat Bri'lahi to all Parts of America and the IVtst Indies; difliixrnishimx 
liritish Prodiice and .Vannfartnrrs from Forris^n and Colonial Produce, and distini>;'iisliin.^ the 

United States from other Parts of Amirica,for J'uiir Years, ending IS 10 

fficial Value of Exports, to 

The Uiiiteil Stati.-!i. 



ISiiliili I'r- 

iliii'r »ii(l Ma- 



,iiul Col.. 

iii.ii J'i'o 








Olhci I'aiti of Ami rioii aiiJ the Wrsi 

Bi'itisli Pro 

luce and INI i 


'iniL'n and 


0,220,740 739,52, 


All Parts of Ainrrion and llie West 
Iiidi », 

Mritiih Pro- 
lix p and INI i 
iiiii'artiin s. 

13.909 97.') 
! 1,0)8,80! 
! 8,592,99 1 

•iiciiin an. 




Real Value of Exports, lo 

The United .States. 


British Pro- 
duce and M-t 

18081 5,241,739 
I809i 7,258,500 


and Colo 

nial Pro 









Other Parts of America and the West 


British Pro- 

dure and Ma 



Koreign and 




914,373 11,3.")3,79G|22 
1,581,18518,173,050 21 
1,819,47719,833,090 2. 
2,043,541 !17,083,707|20 

All Parts of Amerii^a and the West 

British Pro- 
Ince and Ma 

Foreign and 


22,285,930 1 , 1 05,802 23,45 1 ,738 

21 ,8.33,0 10 1 ,042,3 12123,475.922 

25,272,7 19,2,021 ,745127,294,404 

,500,9 1 8 2,340,474 ,28,90 1 ,392 

Custom House, London, 
Februart/ 18, 1812. 

From which it appears, that although there was 
a considerable falling off in the exports to the 
United States in 1808 and 1809, the delicicncy was 

VOL. V. 

William Irving, 
Inspector of Imports and Exports. 

more than accounted for by an increased trade to 
other parts of America, and, what in many regards 
could not be le-ss- beneficial to the British colonies.] 


i' ' 





j ll «as a^jHprUul by (lie iiiorcliiinfs oxnmincd by iruAo. Tho hIioIp Ballii.* (rndc of Grout Rritnin, 

tli(> i-fMiiniiltco on the ordern in cniinoil, timt with all the roiiiitrieH of the vai-ioiis powers that 

ivlien trade was open to the United States it waH lie within the Hound, important an it was to her, 

Hteady, and conid be rc{i(niarly calculated upon ; did not even, at that early ])eriod, fill more, 

it was recularly increasing up to IHOH. Twenty Their trade with Holland, France, Spain, and 

years ano Americans were behind hand in pay- Portugal, did not altogether employ as many 

nients, but had been proi^ressively improving, vessels. Their whole (tslieries, American co'ionial 

In 1807, there watii no diflicnlty in getting pay- trade, and W. India trade, did not emoloy and 

ment for shipments. In 1809 and 1810, pay- load more. The tonnage of the whole of the 

ments were l)etter than ever, and money was fre- American vessels was, of course, proportionably 

qucntly advanced to save the discount. In 1811, small; the whole number of these vessels that 

nothing was done but a few shipments, considerecl arrived in American ports in the same year, 

a high speculation. During the embargo in 1808, from all the countries and places subject to the 

there were considerable shipments to Canada, for Dritisii crown, amounted to no more tlian •IJjSSO 

smuggling into the United States ; the same was tons, 

attempted in 1812, but with unfortunate results. The ship-building of these States was greater 

Before the interruption of trade, about one fifth in 1792 than in any former year. In 1788, tho 

of exports to America was re-exported to S. tonnage of merchant vessels amounted to 250,000 

America and the E. Indies; but tnc decline of tons, and to 1,207,000, giving an increase of 

these re-exports had naturally kept pace with 957,000 tons, in 1808, exclusive of the tonnajye of 

that of the original exports from England. 91 vessels, constituting the naval force established 

On the other hand, however, the rising pros- subsecjuentiy to the former period, 

perity of the British colonies in N. America in The tonnage, according to the report of the 

1808, was justly attributable, in a great measure, secretary of the treasury, December 12, 1811, 

to the restrictions on trade in other parts of the amounted to 984,269 tons, being an average 

world, in Europe in particular. The non-inter- annual decrease of the tonnage of 1808, of up- 

course had also the effect of throwing a vast num- wards of 74,000 tons, or of 222,731 tons for the 

l)er of people of the United States into those three years intervening. 

colonies, particularly into Canada. By its influ- The net amount of revenue arising from duties, 

ence the outports of'^Great Britain were, perhaps, tonnage, light money, &c. was, 

more particularly benefited than those of Lon- Dollars. 

don. Thus Liverpool, as well as Glasgow, sup- In 1806 16,015,317 

plied Canada with the necessaries they formerly 1807 16,492,889 

procured from the United States. Such was the 1808 7,176,985 

substance of the evidence delivered on the ques- 1809- . - - - 7,138,676 

tion ofthe repeal of the Orders in Council. 1*310 12,756,831 

The W. Indies, during the embargo, were sup- The an' junt of tonnage of vessels entered in- 
plied from Canada by means of an entrepot wards Ibr three quarters, ending October 1806, 
established at Bermuda ; and for the security of was ------------ 70,264 

such intercourse, six or seven convoys were Do. three quarters, ending October 1813 1,985 

established, proceeding as far as Halifax. • 

We shall presently see, that the British ton- Loss of tonnage 68,279 

nage employed between the American colonies The number of sloops, schooners, and other 

and the \V. Indies, has increased at least in equal vessels laid up and dismantled in the American 

rates, to the falling off of the shipping of the harbours, on September 17, 1813, amounted to 

United States, during the period of an embargo ; 640, including about 16 brigs, 

but a short review of the naval power of the The vessels of war are calci'ated, by the oflTi- 

latter might here be desirable. cial report of May 1814, at 33 vessels for the 

The United States have, doubtless, contributed ocean (including tfiree seventy-fours, likely soon 

much to the support of the navy of Great Britain, to be launched), carrying 947 guns, and 32 ves- 

b^- the employment they have given to her ships, sels for the lakes, carrying 265 guns, besides 263 

From August 1789, to August 1790, no less than gun-boats ; amongst "vhich it is not improbable 

230,000 tons of British vessels cleared from these that some of the above mercantile vessels have 

States ; which much exceeds the quantity of ves- been adopted. 

sels they employed the same year m the Russian The fall of revenue from 16,000,000 to 7,000,000] 

of Grout Rritnin, 
•ions powers that 

IIS it wns tn lier, 
criod, till more, 
iiu'c, Spnin, niid 
LMiiploy us iiiiiny 
not cninloy nnd 
he whole of" the 
p, proportionnbly 
liosc vcMsels thut 

the saiiin year, 
es siihjpct to the 
more than 4J,580 

tates was greater 
iir. In 1788, the 
Duntcd to 250,000 
r an iiirrcase of 
of the tonnajyo of 
1 force established 

he report of the 
ember 12, 1811, 
einj? an average 
; of 1808, of up. 
1,731 tons for the 

•ising from duties, 



cssels entered iii- 
.berl813 1,985 

ig October 

>f tonnage 68,279 
loners, and other 
1 in the American 
813, amounted to 

"ated, by the offi- 
13 vessels for the 
•fours, likely soon 
funs, and 32 ves- 
guiis, besides 263 
is not improbable 
intile vessels have 

1,000 to 7,000,000] 


[in the years 1808 and 1809, as in the prercding 
statement, are attribiital)le to the derangements 
of commerce, caused by tlie embargo : particu- 
larly as we find that in 1810, it rose again to 
nearly 1 3,00<),0(K), nutwilhstaiuling the continu- 
ance of some restrictions and einbarrassinents in 
the way of importations. 

The tbllowing was the increase of vessels in the 
trade of Quebec, which cleared from that port 
and from Montreal, in the under-mentioned 

S/iips. Tons. 

1808 ... - 334 70,000 

1809 ... - 434 87,(X)0 

1810 - . - - C61 140,000 

1811 .. - - 352 116,000 

It is evident from the above statements, that 
the British N. Americans were undoubtedly be- 
nefitted by the Orders in Council ; this will 
appear more clearly, when, i( is shewn, as by the 
subsequent tarif, how the tonnage between Eng- 
land and Quebec supported a sieady rise in 
prices, whilst the mercantile shipping of the 
Americans lay useless and unemployed. 

S T A r E S. 7.5 

Toniniffc hi I wan Enjiilamhmd Qiirtur. 

X'. s. d. i;. v. d. 

1806 from 4 15 to T 5 

1807 from 5 to 5 15 

1808 from 7 to 7 10 

1809 - - . - . from 8 to 8 10 

1810 from 7 to 9 

1811 from 8 to 9 

It should thus appear, that whatever con- 
tributed to decrease the carrying trade of tli0 
United States, operated as a premium to liritish 
navigation : the latter has however Iw^en con- 
stantly and regularly encroached upon, in a 
ratio more tliun equal to the increasing tonnage 
of American shipping, in their intercourse with 
Great Britain ; or, in other words, the ship- 
ments between the two countries have been 
progressively on the decline since .Fanuary 1801, 
though England has, at the same time, amply 
compensated for the loss, by her nnval com- 
munication with all other uarts. This will be 
manifest by the following table, being] 

An Acccfunt 



I) i\ I T i: I) ST AT lis 




\ 1 

f ! 

i \ 




— K 

id * a 

,y. W ■ - 

•s ^-^ 

c ". ^ 

6. !» S 

■". t 2 

!5 W 9^ 

5 >, -S 



S a: .s: 

4i sj 5 

K« ^ 
^.^ <i 

•2 ^ "^ 

<u .. > 


_? ^ \ 
















a r. J - - .r I- a. :• » 1. * 
t* '.'^ 1- >' c ;i *t 'CI*'" u 
»i 1, - a r, i. » C ,. : .r In 

?; a 'O •'! 1.' « iJ 5 7'. (.; ot •* 


'-.•=-; 5. •* '^ ■'i -► 5. -: ■: '^ 


.^ 5 ;; S 5 a 5 i' !•• .-, i S 

•r K >» t/^ t. o -f .*. ?^ -t c> ffi 
CO '.•) - o. S a ■!• ■* •0 - 1. ^ 


"' 5 1' i t I" "5 - ■* - '5 w 

>H I, t, jS » 1, t» "5 3-. '.1 '0 'r 



f 5 'O t- J. •-. f. ; ' 11 ? T '•I 
01 y. >^ o .»• « K »i 1. fi d ji 


1- -»• O. -o y. * * X = »i 3 V( 

■li -/■'« «i -N Ji >i '.1 •? ■:■; t-f -o" 


a. f* ^. J> ^ ^ *■ 7^ -0 f* ^1 f* 

»• 53 '^ f2 i* a ,t ii "^ t .»! '• 

c -o -T - '•■) f -' '■-- '"> 'O .(« -jf 






























S< ..- i -■: il f •> t- 5'. K •(• 

•l< = = n"i .".^.^hS , 

'.*•*« ai ^ ^ ^- •^ "^ -* 30 '.'5 


'.1 1, a. -f^ '.*. = « :. -r « -N 

t, 5__ U J, ; r._ ?( 1> .< -t » 



a — -,• X 1- a ?. .-. c. * »" ' 
3, (>. 30 'O -. 00 C* :0 -H C 1* 
C-j^ M >l « « 06 - •« -'it , 

CO -f iC c* »- 'O '/•s a c t>. *' 
- 5 -1 S 51 » n X e» -; :i 


« JI .^ 'f^ 3. »-• 0> •- C< h^ CO , 

f f ■r 1. c- 3. 'r ■^. » ^; 3 



;i 3 00 — CO -t - •! » ' 
:i X :i » ji ■'S '3 'S. 1. t» (. 
-:i - t» 3> » f 'fi ^ r» C: .0 , 


V. -k Z S ?. i', •?! 'S 0': ^ 3 , 


O < 





'C .1 -J' ^ c. r-. •-• c :■- ■■ r^ 
-^ 3i 3; '•; 3^ '• *x *T S *':. 1 1 

00 3» 1' ,1; ,^7 ;T .H* 'O 1* r 'f 

X II -.I - z^ ■/-. 3. c Ti i» - 


3". *i r- "T r» -?■'■'> T r* 'O 

■!-. :': 1- c 3. f 1- -!! -.- 3 ■ 

» ■•• .r f 'O 'O 1* ^' 'C 1* ,* 




T« ■:i ■', 1- » t ra C-. 3 .r; f, 
3>_ .r. » i,j_i» 3. ••j_-r ;i^.r. t» 
05 '.ij r." 5" r-" ^-r -O :i O »! tJ ' 

■f^ 3> ^-i c '^ -^ o> -r ^ ifi fM 


X <^ M Cl JI » c i» ^ •': X 

«31l*t^''^»l^C>^*>--tC. , 

i» in -r -t -c •'> (. 31 -t 'o «o 

if> i; 3. ■* '•) « = 1- 0. 
■JI t 3 •■V'i'v''' -' ■* 11 -I 1 
oT c? — '.-. '.-1 X a -^ — CI jr 

31 CI -M T- — — -1 -31 , 


r^ 'r, C-. X II C3. X -o — 3. X 
-« :-. X .c .r. ■;-, ;l ■/: .- 3. , 




M ^ .'. •'-. - 1^ ■.-. •5- .-v r- X ■ 
X — -.O Ii '•■! ■« -• |» - - (. 

■^ -, = » ■1 * = '■'. n •-;, ==, . 


-r .r, X <r, 3. t^ i^ 'C c t^ .r: 
■f> 1^ — '.1 0-. c. Cl — 'O :« 'o , 

X -I- « - t •' 1. — 'O ts. -Tl 






11 X *^ — •<• -f 'O ,- '.'^ T?! ' 

»--1«!MX — r^*-•X'-'r^^, 
•* C'*^ •* ir rH a 83 -■ Oj, <o ■« 

3? -. 10 sT 0" »^ — -t '■I t' ' 

1.- C. »" X — f (^ '.1 ■•-. '-0 « 


■.1 .n ir. ". 1- CT. -.i-, * ji 
»i K X II SI '-r <;•; — c cri , 
1 t» :<5 •* -.1 ^i" •- ■£ 1- 'O 'JI i;") 



o 3 X '.<: c '.^ C-. X II ■»■ -f ' 

t. t- CT ■* Ji M II X 3 'C X 

■f?3-To' tC 'S —as -.'otda 
iiwc; — ---• — —. 


f-i 3 .r^ 11 SI — ,T 11 -f 'r If! 

rO 3 '^ N (» -f! X - -t « K . 









'r. T. — II *o II II -o — >- II 3. 
.11 -^ =0. "t. f^ — ^ 'T. ^. *.. ^^ ^ ■'^ 
isT 3? J-r X '-0 ."T iJ 3^ ^^ '.0 f^ .'T 
th — r* 3. ■* — "M c. X ,1 -.'; '.T 

•'I ''^ ^i. '1 ^ '^. '"i *;. '^ ^^^ '^ ". 
i^." .r" -r ■£ I' i: 1^ "T ■-" iC — -»•' 




^ 3 3' 'o * X 4i — cT '3 — .h 
.' .7; 3 T .c X 'r: :'. :'. ~ : 

■c :-: -•' -: -5 3? r.- c .-: •? a-: -f 

3 II - .r -J -.-»■■?: 3 -H 3 3. 

I'. 3; 3; (^ 3;^ 00 X II -C -.1 II 


- II '■: -)■ •/: -o (^ c; 3> 3 " 11 

333C33CC3-1,- — 






is ' 

•- s^ -,«.=. 9- 





•C o. C. 5 3 il 

O' ^ 1^ X X X 

^ ^ T- 1^ — 













,2 a.= 

e '• a 


:^':5 2i 































■^. ^ 



' 3 


«- 5 










^; I. 






•5 2 

I ^ 
^ I 

u a 












UNIT i: I) 

Mitilnri/ Slrnic:th. — Stniidiniu: nniiien '"«' «l«'<'<"- 
p(l iiK-oiiHi«lciit with a n'|iiil)li«'iiii Ktivtriiiiiciil ; 
llii> iiiilitiirv KdM'ii^'lli ol'lhr I'liiJcd Sliil('M«(>iir,ihlM 
llicrcroic i'li ilH mi III ill. Ah liir Imck iis llu' ^ciir 
I7«)(), tlic iiiiiiiImm- was vciv ron^idcralili'. I lie 
|)n's«'.it iirnioiil loir*' is almiil l<M),IHK», iiicliidiiiK 
n'f^ilars. Siu-li an aiinv, hh (o niiiiilH'rx, is cx- 
liTMU'lv I'orinidahli', osptViallv upon any allnn|)l 
of a ixmtT loo»i'iiuii tL'scSlaU-s ; hut it is h\ no 
means ra|>ahh< of coping; on any thiii^ 'ikt> iMpial 
tcrniH, with the wtdl disciplined troops oi IOnrop«>. 
At the hi'^inninir ol' tlit> pr«>s(>nt year, IHI t, it 
Hoonifd to Ih> the intontion of tlif Anu'iicaii {(o- 
vt'i-nini'iit to nu'iy the war into Canada, with tin* 
ffi'outost poKsililc \ i^oiir,and the hoiinly had risen, 
on tliis orcasion, as hi<;li as i^.'JO a man. As 
30,000 of Wcllinftton's victorious troops arc now 
(Juno IHl t) oil llieir passa<rt' to America, the 
bounty is prol)al)iy iiuuii lii^;h(>r. 

iMiirion. — The mnstitutioii of the United 
States nrovides a;riiinst the niakiiii^ of any hiw 
respecliiiff an estahlishmeiit of reiii^ion, or pro- 
hil>itin|r the IVoe exercise of it ; and in the coii- 
Btitutions ol'tho respective Stales, leliiriouH liberty 
is a fnndamental principle. On this important 
point, this irovernmenl is distinguished from 
almost every other. The people, as beinjj at 
liberty to choose their own reli<>;ion, arc naturally 
iiiuch di\id(>d in their election. 'J'he bulk of 
them would denominate themselves Christians ; 
a small nroportiuu of them are Jews : Home plead 
the sufliciency of natiual religion, and reject 
revelation as unnecessary and fabiilouH ; and 
many have yet their reliijion to chootie. 

Tlie followitii^ denominations of ChristianH arc 
more or loss numerous in the United States, viz. 
Congregationalists, I'rcsbyterianH, Dutch Re- 
formed ('hurch, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers 
or Friends, Methodists, Roman Catholics, Cler- 
man Lutherans, German Calvinists or Presby- 
terians, Moravians, Tunkers, Mennonists, Uni- 
versalists, and Shakers. 

Of these the Conjjregationalists are the most 
numerous. In New England alone, besidcH those 
which are scattered through the Middle and 
Southern States, there were not less, in the year 
1790, than 1000 congregations of this denomina- 
tion, viz. 

In New Hampshire 200 

Massachusetts 440 

Rhode Island ---... 13 
Connecticut --.._. 197 
Vermont (say) 150 

Total 1000 

S r A T 1: S. 77 

Which, acconlinj.' to the relntive inrronso of po- 
pulation, would now amount to jiist double tiiat 

It is dilliciilt to say what is the prcHcnt ecclc- 
siaHiical constitution of the Congregation';! 
churches, rormerly their ecclesiastical proceed- 
ings were regulateil, in MassachiisettH, by Iho 
Cambridge I'latform of church discipline, eslu- 
blished by the synod, in KitH ; and in Connecti- 
cut, by the Saybrook IMatform of discipline; 
but Nince the revoliilioii, less regard has been 
paid to these constitutions, and in many instances 
they are wholly disuHed. Congregatifmalits are 
pretty generally agreed in this opiiiion, that 
" Kvery church or particular cimgregalioii of 
visible saints, in gospel order, being furnished 
with a pastor or bishop, and walking together in 
truth and peace, has received fr(nn the liord 
JesuH full power and authority, ecclesiastical 
within itself, regularly to administer all the ordi- 
nances of ('hrist, und is not under any other 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction whatsoever." Their 
churches, with some exceptions, disclaim the 
word Independent, as np|)lical)le to them, and 
claim a sisterly relation to each other. 

From the answer of the elders, and other mes- 
sengers of the churches, assembled at Iloston, in 
the year 1C62, to tlu; (|ueHtions proposed to them 
by order of the general court, it appears that the 
cliurches, at that period, professed to hold com- 
munion with each other ni the following acts, 

1. "In hearty care and prayer for one another. 
— 2. In atlbrding relief, by communicaling of 
their gifts in temporal or spiritual necessities. — 
3. In maintaining unity and peace, by giving 
account one to another of their public actions, 
when it is properly desired ; to strengthen one 
another in their regular administrations ; in par- 
ticular by a concurrent testimony against persons 
justly censured. — 4. To seek and accept help 
from, and atibrd help to each other, in case of 
divisions and contentions, whereby the peace of 
any church is disturbed; in matters of more than 
ordinary importance, as the ordination, installa- 
tion, removal, and deposition of pastors or 
bishops ; in doubtful and diflicult questions and 
controversies, doctrinal or practical, that may 
arise ; and for the rectifying «)f mal-administra- 
tion, and healing of errors and scandals that are 
not healed among themselves. — !i. In taking no- 
tice, with a spirit of love and faithfulness, of the 
troubles and difficulties, errors and scandals of 
another church, and in administering help (when 
the case manifestly calls for it) though they] 



• il 


' :f 


[should so neglect their own tfood and duty, as 
not to seek it. — 6. In admonishiug one another, 
when there is cause for it ; and after a due course 
of means, patiently to withdraw from a church, or 
peccant party therein, obstinately persisting in 
error or scandal." 

A consociation of churches was, at the period 
mentioned, considered as necessary to a commu- 
nion of churches, (the former being but an agree- 
ment to maintain the latter) and therefore a duty. 
The consociation of churches they defined to be, 
" Their mutual, and solemn agreement to exer- 
cise communion in such acts as aforesaid (meaning 
the acts of communion above recited) amongst 
themselves, with special reference to those 
churches which, by Providence, are planted in a 
convenient vicinity, though with liberty reserved 
without offence, to make use of others, as the 
nature of the case, or the advantage of the oppor- 
tunity may !ead thereunto." 

The ministers of the Congregational order 
are pretty generally associated for the purposes 
of licensuig candidates for the ministry, and 
friendly intercourse and improvement ; but there 
are few Congregational churches that are con- 
sociated on the above principles ; and the practice 
has very generally gone into disuse, and with it 
the communion of churches in most of the acts 
before recited. In Connecticut and the w. parts 
of Massachusetts, the churches have deviated less 
from their original constitution. The degeneracy 
of the Congregational churches from that order, 
fellowship, and harmony, in discipline, doctrines, 
and friendly advice and assistance in ecclesiastical 
matters, which formerly subsisted between them, 
is considered matter of deep regret to many, not 
to say to most people of that denomination. 

Congregationalists are divided in opinion re- 
specting the doctrines of the gospel, and the 
proper subjects of its ordinances. The body of 
them are Calvinists ; a respectable proportion 
are what may be denominated Hopkensian Cal- 
vii'ists ; besides these, some are Arminians, soi 
Arians, a few SocinJ^ns, and a number ha.e 
adopted Dr. Chauncy's scheme of the final salva- 
tion of all men ; but for a digested summary of 
the peculiar sentiments of each of these sects, 
ihe reader is referred to H. Adams's View of 

Next to the Congregationalists, Presbyterians 
are the most numerous denomination of Chris- 
tians in the United States. They have a consti- 
tution by which they regulate all their ecclesias- 
cal proceedings, and a confession of faith, which 
all church officers and church members are re- 

quired to subscribe. Hence they have preserved 
a singular uniformity in their religious sentiments, 
and have conducted their ecclesiastical affairs 
with a great degree of order and harmony. 

The body of the presbyterians inhabit the 
Middle and Southern States, and are united under 
the same constitution. By this constitution, the 
Presbyterians who were governed by it, in 1790, 
were divided into five Synods and 17 Presbyte- 
ries ; viz. Synod of New York, five presbyteries, 
94 congregations, 61 settled ministers. — 2. Synod 
of Philadelphia, five presbyteries, 92 congrega- 
tions, 60 settled ministers, besides the ministers 
and congregations belonging to Baltimore pres- 
bytery. — 3. Synod of Virginia, four presbyteries, 
70 congregations, 40 settled ministers, exclusive 
of the congregations and ministers of Transyl- 
vania presbytery. — 4. Synod of the Carolinas, 
three presbyteries, 82 congregations, 42 settled 
ministers, the ministers and congreo^ations in 
Abington presbytery not included. If we sup- 
pose the number of congregations in the presby- 
teries which made no returns to their synods, to 
be 100, and the number of settled ministers in the 
same to be 40, the whole number of Presbyterian 
congregations in this connection would be 438, 
which were supplied by 223 settled ministers, 
and between 70 and ^0 candidates, besides a 
number of ordained ministers who had no par- 
ticular charges. With relation to the census of 
1810, the above numbers will be about double. 
Each of the synods meet annually ; besides 
which they have a joint meeting, by their com- 
missioners, once a year, in General Assembly at 

The Presbyterian churches are governed by 
congregational, presbyterial, and synodical as- 
semblies : these assemblies possess no civil juris- 
diction. Their power is wholly moral or spiritual, 
and that only ministerial or declarative. They 

fiossess the right of requiring obedience to the 
aws of Christ, and of excludmg the disobedient 
from the privileges of the church ; and the powers 
requisite for obtaining evidence and inflicting 
censure ; but the highest punishment, to which 
their authority extends, is to exclude the contu- 
macious and impenitent from the congregation of 

The church session, which is the congrega- 
tional assembly of judicatory, consists of the 
minister or ministers and elders of a particular 
congregation. This body is invested with the 
spiritual government of the congregation; and 
have power to inquire into the knowledge and 
cluistian conduct of all its members ; to call] 









bit the 
d under 
ion, the 
in 1790, 
i. Synod 
re pres- 
2 settled 
ttions in 
we sup- 
8 presby- 
^rnods, to 
ers in the 
1 be 438, 
besides a 
I no par- 
census of 
leir com- 
sembly at 

erned by 
)dical as- 
ivil juris- 
ce to the 
le powers 
to which 
he contu- 
gation of 

ts of the 
with the 
lion ; and 
ledge and 
to call] 

[before them offenders and witnesses, of their own 
denomination ; to admonish, suspend, or exclude 
from the sacraments, such as deserve ti;?8e cen- 
sures ; to concert measures for promoting the 
spiritual interests of the congregation, and to 
appoint delegates to the higher judir stories of the 

A presbytery consists of ali the ministers, and 
one ruling elder from each congregation, within 
a certain district. Three ministers and three 
elders, constitutionally convened, are competent 
to do business. This body have cognizance of 
all things that regard the welfare of the particular 
churches within their bounds, which are not cog- 
nizable by the session. Also, they have a power 
of receivmg and issuing appeals from the sessions 
— of examining and licensing candidates for the 
ministry ; of ordaining, settling, removing, or 
judging ministers ; of resolving questions of doc- 
trine or discipline ; of condemning erroneous 
opinions, that injure the purity or peace of the 
church; of visiting particular churches, to inquire 
into their state, and redress the evils that may 
have arisen in them ; of uniting or dividing con- 
gregations, at the request of the people, and 
whate'.vr else appertains to the spiritual concerns 
of the churches under their care. 

A synod is a convention of several presbyteries. 
The synod have power to admit and judge of 
appeals, regularly brought up from the presby- 
teries ; to give their judgment on all references 
made to them of an ecclesiastical kind ; to cor- 
rect and regulate the proceedings of presbyteries ; 
to take effectual care that presbyteries observe 
the constitution of the church, &c. 

The highest judicatory of the Presbyterian 
church is styled, the General Asaenibly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America. This «^rand assembly is to consist of 
an equal delegation of bishops and elders from 
each presbytery within their jurisdiction, by the 
title of commissioners to the general assembly. 
Fourteen commissioners make a quorum. The 
general assembly constitute the bond of union, 
peace, correspondence, and mutual confidence 
among all their churches ; and have power to re- 
ceive and issue all appeals ar.d references which 
may regularly be brought betbi-e thorn from in- 
ferior judicatories; to rer,ulate and correct the 
proceedings of the syngas, &c. To the general 
assembly also belongs the power of consulting, 
reasoning, and judging in controversies respect- 
ing doctrine and discipline ; of reproving, warn- 
ing, or bearing testimony against error in doc- 
trine, or immorality in practice in any church. 

presbytery, or synod ; of coi-responding with 
foreign churches ; of putting a stop to schismati- 
cal contentions and disputations ; and in ge-' — »l 
of recommending and attempting reformatif n '.. 
manners, and of promoting charity, truth, and 
holiness in all the churches ; and also of erecting 
new synods when they judge it necessary. 

The confession of faith adopted by the Pres- 
hyterian church, embraces what are called the 
Calvinistic doctrines ; and none who disbelieve 
these doctrines are admitted into fellowship with 
their churches. The general assembly of the 
Presbyterian church hold a friendly correspon- 
dence with the general association in Connecticut, 
by letter, and by admitting delegates from their 
respective bodies to sit in each other's general 

Dif contented with the churches of which we 
hiive been speaking, there are four small presby- 
teries in New England, who have a similar form 
of ecclesiastical government and discipline, and 
profess the same doctrines. 

Besides these, there is the " Associate Presby- 
tery of Pennsylvania," having a separate eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction in America, and belonging 
to the Associate Synod of Edinburgh, whicli they 
declare is the only ecclesiastical body, either in 
Britain or America, with which they are agreed 
concerning the doctrine and order of the church 
of Christ, and concerning the duty of confessing 
the truth, and bearing witness to it by a public 
testimony against the errors of the times. This 
connection is not to be understood as indicating 
subjection to a foreign jurisdiction ; but is pre- 
served for the sake of maintaining unity with their 
brethren in the profrssion of the Christian faith, 
and such an interourse as might be of service to 
the interests of sectarians. Ihis sect of Presby- 
terians are commonly known by the name of 
Seceders, on account of their seceding from the 
national church in Scotland, 1736. See H, 
Adams's Viezc nf lie'igion, article, Seceders. 

The Dutch Reformed churches in the United 
States, who maintain the doctrine of the synod of 
Dort, held in 1618, were, in the year 1790, be- 
tween 70 and 80 in number, constitutino; six 
classes, which form one synod, styled " The Dutch 
Reformed Synod of New York and Now Jersey."' 
They may now be estimated at double that num- 
ber. The classes consist of ministers and ruling 
elders ; each class delegates two ministers and an 
elder to represent them in synod. From the first 
planting of the Dutch churcnes in New York and 
New Jersey, they have, under the direction of 
the classes of Amsterdam, been formed exactly] 



'upon the plan of tlie established church of Hol- 
fand as far as that is ecclesiastical. A strict cor- 
respondence is maintained between the Dutch 
Reformed Synod of New York and New Jersey, 
and the Synod of North Holland and the classes 
of Amsterdam. The acts of their synods are 
mutually exchanged every year, and mutual ad- 
vice is given and received in disputes respecting 
doctrinal points and church discipline. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States (the churches of that denomination in New 
England excepted) met in convention at Philadel- 
pliia, October 1785, and revised the book of 
Common Pi^yer, and administration of the sacra- 
ments, and other rites and ceremonies, with a 
view to render the liturgy consistent with the 
American Revolution, fiut this revised form 
was adopted by none of the churches, except one 
or two in Pliiladelphia. 

In October 1789, at aiother meetinc, of their 
convention, a plan of unioi; among all (he Protes- 
tant Episcopal churches in the United States of 
America was agreed upon and settled ; and an 
adequate representation from the several States 
being present, they again revised the book of 
Conunon Prayer, which is now published and 
generally adopted by their churches. They also 
agreed upon and published 17 canons for the 
government of their church, the first of which 
declares, that " there shall, in this church, be 
three orders in the ministry, viz. bishops, priests, 
and deacons." 

At the same time they agreed upon a constitu- 
tion, which provides that there shall be a general 
convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
the United States, on the second Tuesday of Sep- 
tember, of every third year from 1789 ; that each 
State is entitled to a representation of both the 
clergy and laity, or either of them, and may send 
deputies, not exceeding four of each order, chosen 
by the convention of the State ; that the bishops 
of the cliurch, when three or more are present, 
shall, in their ueneral conventions, form a sepa- 
rate house, with a right to originate and propose 
acts for the concurrence of the house of deputies, 
composed of clergy and laity ; and with a power 
to negative acts passed by the house of deputies, 
unless adhered to by tour-fifths of the other 
house ; that every bishop shall confine the exer- 
cise of his episcopal office to his proper diocese or 

district ; that no person shall be admitted to holy 
orders, until examined by the bishop and two 
presbyters, having produced the requisite testi- 
monials ; and that no person shall be ordained 
until he shall have subscribed the following de- 
claration — " I do believe the Holy Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testament to be the Word of 
God, and to contain all things necessary to sal- 
vation ; and I do solemnly engage to conform to 
the doctrines and worship of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States." 

They have not yet adopted any articles of 
religion other than those contained in the Apos- 
tles and N icene Creeds. The number of Epis- 
copal churches in the United States is not ascer- 
tained ; in New England there were, in 1790, 
between 40 and 50 ; but in the Southern States, 
they were much more numerous. Four bishops, 
viz'. Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Virginia, had been elected by the conventions 
of their respective States, and had been duly 
consecrated. The former by the bishops of the 
Scotch church ; the three latter, by the bishops 
ot die English church. And these four, in Sep- 
tember 1792, united in the consecration of a 
fifth, elected by the convention of the State of 

The Baptists, with some exceptions, are upon 
the Calvinistic plan, as to doctrines, and inde- 
pendents as to church government and discipline. 
Except those who are styled " open communion 
baptists," of whom there is but one association, 
they refuse to communicate in the ordinance of 
the Lord's Supper with other denominations ; 
because they hold that immersion only is the true 
baptism, and that baptism is necessary to com- 
munion ; it is, therefore, improper and incon- 
sistent, in their opinion, to admit unbaptized 
persons, fas all others are, in their view, but 
themselves) to join with them in this ordinance ; 
though they allow ministers of other denomina- 
tions to preach to their congregations, and some- 
times to assist in ordaining their ministers. 

From an account taken, in the year 1790, by 
a preacher, Mr. John Asplund, of the Baptist 
denomination, who had travelled through the 
United States-, to ascertain their number and 
state, the following statement of their associa- 
tions, churches, ministers, church members, and 
principles, has been given.] 

■ i' 


d to holy 
and two 
site testi- 
wing de- 
iptures of 
Word of 
ry to sal- 
on form to 

irticles of 
the Apos- 
of Epis- 
not ascer- 
, in 1790, 
rn States, 
r bishops, 
ania, and 
)een duly 
ops of the 
\\e bishops 
ir, in Sep- 
ation of a 
3 State of 

, are upon 
and inde- 

inance of 

ininations ; 

is the true 

to com- 

lul incon- 


view, but 

dinancc ; 

and some- 

1790, by 
le Baptist 
irough the 
miber and 

ir associa- 
nbers, and 




[New Hampshire ------- 

Ma.«sachusettR -----...- 107 

Rhode island -------- 

Cninecticut --------- 

^ ;>rmont ---------- 

] lew York --------- 

N 'w Jersey ---.--.-. 
Pennsylvania -.-.----- 

Delaware .---•----- 

Maryland ----.--... 

Virginia -.-----..._ 207 

Kentucky -------.-- 

Wetitern Territory ------- 

North Carolina -------- 

Deceded Territory ------- 

South Carolina -------- 

Georgia ---.-..--- 

Total - - 

Of these there were 

Six principle Baptists . ---«-..! 
Open Communion Ditto -------1 

General Provision Ditto -------3 

Seventh Day Ditto --------- — 

Regular or Particular Ditto ------ 30 

Total - - 35 





























































































. 26 















To this account, the compiler conjectured that 
1,500 members, and 30 churches, ought to be 
a<Ulpd— making the whole number of churches 
about 900, and the members about 66,000. He 
supposes, moreover, that at least three times as 
many attend their meetings as have joined their 
churche.% which, if we suppose all who attend 
their meetings are in principle Baptists, will 
make the whole number of that denomination in 
these States 198,000, or a twenty-sixth part of 
the inhaoitants, at that period. Their increase, 
if only in proportion to the rest of the popida- 
tion, would, on an average, amount to 396,000. 

Some of the leading principles of the regular 
or particular Baptists, are— The imputation of 
Adam's sin to his posterity- tlie inability of man 
to recover himself— effectual calling by severe gn 
grac— justification by the imputed righteous; ess 
of Christ— immersion for Baptism, and that on 
profession of faith and repentance — congrega- 
tional churches, and thei ..idependency, and 
reception into them upon evidence of sound 

VOL. V. 

We have next to speak of the people called 
Quakers. This denomination of Christians arose 
about the year 1648, and were first collected 
into religious societies by their highly respected 
elder, George Fox, who was brought before two 
justices in Derbyshire, and oi;^ of whom, scoflT- 
ing at him, for having bidden him and those 
about him to tremble at the word of the Lord, 

fave to him and bis followers the name of Qua- 
ere ; a name by which they have since been 
usually denominated: but they themselves 
adopted the appellation of Friends. They came 
to America as early as 1656. The first settlers 
of Pennsylvania were all of this denomination ; 
and the numl)er of Friends' meetings in the 
United States, in 1793, was about 320, at present 

Their doctrinal tenets may be summarily ex- 
pressed, as follows : In common with other Chris- 
tians, they believe in OneEternal God, and in J esus 
Christ the Messiah and Mediator of the* new co- 
venant. To Christ alone, in whose divinity they 
believe, they give the title of the Word of God, j 



;, !,i;Si 



Ill' .1 






'» /t 



I ! 

i: If. 


I'' ■ 111 

r I 

U, 1 

hi: ' ly 



[and not to the scriptures ; ^et they profess a liiijli 
esteem for the sacred writings, in subordination 
to the Spirit who indited them, and believe that 
ihey are able, t{irou|;h faith, to make wise to salva- 
tion. They reverence the excellent precepts of 
scripture, and believe them practicable and bind- 
intr on every Christian : and that in the life to 
co'ue, ev'^ry man will be rewarded accordinij; to 
his works. In order to enable mankind to put 
in practice these precepts, they believe that every 
man comiui;- into the world is en.Iucd with a mea- 
sure of the Ijijjht, Grace, or Good Spirit of 
Christ ; by which he is enabled to distini^uish 
ffood from evil, and correct the disorderly pas- 
sions and corrupt propensities of his nature, 
which mere reason is altogether insufficient to 
overcome — that this divine grace is, to those 
who sincerely seek it, an all-sufficient and pre- 
sent help in time of need — and that by it tb'> 
snares of the enemy are detected, his allurements 
avoided, and deliverance experienced, through 
faith in its effectual operation, and the soul 
translated out of the kingdom of darkness into 
the marvellous light and kingdom of the Son of 
God. Thus persuaded, they think this divine 
influence ''specially necessary to the perform- 
ance of tlie highest act of which the human 
mind is cnpable, the worship of God in spirit 
and in truth ; and therefore consider, as obstruc- 
tions to pure worship, all forms which divert the 
mind from the secret influence of this unction 
of the HDly One. Though true worship is not 
confined to time or place, they believe it is in- 
cumbent on churches to meet often together, 
but dare not depend for acceptance on a formal 
repetition of ilie words and experiences of others. 
They think it is their duty to wait in silence to 
have a true sight of their condition bestowed on 
them ; and believe even a single sigh, arising 
from a sense of their infirmities and need of 
divine help, to be more acceptable to God, than 
any performances which originate in the will of 

They believe the renewed assistance of the 
light and power of Christ, which is not at our 
command, nor attainable by study, but the free 
gift of God, to be indispensably necessary to 
all true ministry. Hence arises their testimony 
against preaching for hire, and conscientious 
refusal to support such ministry by tythes or 
other means. As they dare not encourage any 
ministry, but such as they believe to spring from 
the influence of the Holy Spirit ; so neither dare 
they attempt to restrain this influence to per- 
sons of any condition in life, or to the male 

sex ; but allow such of the female ex as appear 
to be qualified, to exercise their giflts for iho 
general edification of the church. 

They hold that as tliere is one Lord and one 
faith, so his Baptism is one in nature and ope- 
ration, and that nothing short of it can make 
us living members of His mystical body ; and 
that Baptism with water belonged to an inferior 
and decreasing dispensation. With respect to 
the Lord's Supper, they believe that communi- 
cation between Christ and his church is not 
maintained by that nor any other external ordi- 
nance, but only by a real participation of his 
divine nature, through faith, that this is the sup- 
per alluded to, Rev. iii. 20 — and that where the 
substance is attained, it is unnecessary to attend 
to the shadow. 

Believing that the grace of God is alone suffi- 
cient for salvation, tboy can neither admit that 
it is conferred on a few only, while others are 
left without it ; nor, thus asserting its univer- 
sality, can they limit its operation to a partial 
cleansing of the soul from sin, even in this life. 
On the contrary, they believe that God doth 
vouchsafe to assist the obedient to submit to the 
guidance of his pu^•e spirit, through whose assis- 
tance they are enabled to bring forth fruits unto 
holiness, an I to stand perfect in their present 

As to oaths, they abide literally by Christ's 

Eositive injunction, " Swear not at all." They 
elieve that " wars and fightings" are, in their 
origin and effects, utterly repugnant to the gos- 
pel, which still breathes peace and good-wilt 
to men. Though during the late war, some of 
their number, contrary to this article of their 
tiiitli, thought it their duty to take up arms in 
defence of their countiy. This laid the founda- 
tion of a secession from their brethren, and thev 
now form a separate congr^ation in Philadel- 
phia, by the name of the " Resisting or fighting 
Quakers." They also are firmly persuaded, that 
if the benevolence of the gospel were generally 
prevalent in the minds of men, it would eftec- 
tually prevent them from oppressing, much more 
from enslaving their brethren, of wliatever com- 
plexion ; and would even influence their treat- 
ment of the brute creation, which they would 
have no longer to groan the victims of avarice, 
or of the false ideas of pleasure. They profess 
that their principles, which inculcate submission 
to the laws in all cases wherein conscience is not 
violated, arc a security to the salutary purposes 
of government. But the^ hold that the civil 
magistrate has no right to interfere in matters of J 



X as appear 
;ift3 for iho 

ord and one 
ire and ope- 
it Clin make 
body ; and 
) an inferior 
li respect to 
it cominuni- 
lurch is not 
xternal ordi- 
lation of his 
is is the snp- 
lat wliere the 
iry to attend 

is alone suffi- 
>r admit that 
le others are 
•r its univer- 

to a partial 
jn in this life. 
Iiat God doth 

submit to the 
h whose assis- 
rth fruits unto 

their present 

Iv by Christ's 
It all." They 
" are, in their 
int to the gos- 
and good-will 
war, some of 
irticle of their 
ie up arms in 
lid the founda- 
thren, and thev 
n in Philadcl- 
ing or fighting 
lersuaded, that 
were generally 
t would eftec- 
ing, much more 
wliatever corn- 
ice their treat- 
ch they would 
ims of avarice, 
They profess 
cate submission 
)nscience is not 
utary purposes 
that the civil 
in matters of] 

[religion, and tliink pcrscciilion, in any degree, 
unwarrantable. They reject the use of those 
names of the montlis and days, which, having 
been given in honour of the heroes, or gods of 
the heathen, originated in their Hatteiy or su- 
perstition; and the custom of speaking to a single 
person in tlie plural number, as having arisen 
also from motives of adulation. Compliiiients, 
superiiuity of apparel or furniture, outward 
shews of rejoicing or mourning, and observa- 
tions of da^s and times, they deem incompatible 
with the simplicity and sincerity of a Christian 
life; and they coiulcnin public diversions, gam- 
ing, and other vain amusements of the world. 
They require no formal subscription to any ar- 
ticles, either as the condition of membership, or 
to qualify for the service of the church. 

To eflect the salutary purposes of discipline, 
monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings, are 
established. A monthly meeting is composed of 
several neighbouring congregations. Its busi- 
ness is to provide forth( subsistence of the poor, 
and for the education of their offspring — to 
judge of the sincerity and fitness of persons ap- 
pearing to be convinced of the religious princi- 
ples of the society, and desiring to be admitted 
to membership— to excite due attention to the 
discharge of religious and moral duties — to deal 
with disorderly members — to appoint overseers 
to see that the rules of their discipline are put 
in practice — to allow of marriages, &c. Their 
mode of marrying is as follows : Those who in- 
tend to marry, appear together, and propose 
their intention to tne monthly meeting ; and if 
not attended by their parents or guardians, pro- 
duce a written certificate of their consent, signed 
in the presence of witnesses. The meeting then 
appoints a committee to inquire whether they 
are clear of other engagements respecting mar- 
riage ; and if at a subsequent meeting, to which 
the parties also come and declare tne continu- 
ance of their intention, no objections are re- 
ported, they have the meeting's consent to 
solemnize their intended marriage. This is done 
in a public meeting for worship, towards the 
close of which the parties stand up and solemnly 
take each other for husband and wife. A certifi- 
cate of the proceedings is then publicly read, and 
«igiied by the parties, and afterwards by the re- 
lations and others as witnesses, which closes the 

A quarterly meeting is composed of several 
monthly meetings. At this meeting are pro- 
duced written answers from monthly meetings, 

to certain questions respecting the conduct of 
their ir.einbeis, and the meeting's care over 
them. The accounts thus received, are digested 
and sent by representatives to the yearly meet- 
ing. Appeals from the judgment of montlily 
meetings iire brought to the quarterly meetings. 

The yearly meeting has t^e general siiper- 
intendanre oithe society in the country in which 
it is es-tablished. But the yearly meeting is a 
misnomu ; for the quakers have, in all, seven 
yearly meetings. One in London, to which come 
representatives from Ireland. The other six are 
in, the United States. 1. New England. 2. New 
York. 3. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 4. 
Maryland. 5. Virginia. 6. The Carolinas and 
Georgia. The business of these meetings is to 
give tbrth its advice — make such regulations as 
appear to be requisite, or excite to the observ- 
anceof those already niade,&c. Appei'ls from the 
judgment of quarterly meetings are here finally 
determined ; and a brotherly correspondence, by 
epistles, is maintained witn other yearly meet- 

As they believe women may be rightly called 
to the work of the ministry, they also think 
they may share in their Christian discipline. 
Accordingly they have monthly, quarterly, and 
yearly meetings of their own sex : held at tlie 
same time, and in the same place with those of 
the men ; but separately, and without the power 
of making rules. 

Their elders and ministers Iiave meetings pe- 
culiar, to themselves. These meetings, called 
Meewiigs of Ministers and Elders, are generally 
held in the compass of each montlily, quarterly, 
and yearly meeting — for the purposes of excit- 
ing each other to the discharge of their several 
duties — of extending advice to those who may 
appear .veak, &c. They also, in the intervals 
of the yearly meetings, give certificates to those 
ministers who travel abroad in the work of the 

The yearly meeting, held in London, 167d, 
appointed a meeting to be held in that city, for 
the purpose of advising or assisting in cases of 
suffering for conscience sake, called a meeting 
for sufferings, which is yet continued. It is com- 
posed of Friends under the name of Corres- 
pondents, chosen by the several quarterly meet- 
ings, who reside in and near the city. This 
meeting is entrusted with the care of printing 
and distributing books, and with the manage- 
ment of its stock, and considered as a standing- 
committee of the yearly meeting. In none ofj 


^ ., 

< I 







»* ' 



, < 

! ;^ I 

lil^'- '^ 



ftlieir meetin^H have they u president, as thejr be- 
ievc Divine WiHtlom alone ought to preside ; 
nor has any member a right to claim pre- 
eminence over the rest. 

The Methodist denomination of Christians 
arose in England in 1739 ; and made their first 
appearance in America about the year 1770. 
Their general style is, " The United Societies of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church." They pro- 
fess themselves to be " a company of men, hav- 
ing the form and seeking the power of godliness, 
united in order to pray together, to receive the 
word of exhortation, and to watch over one an- 
other in love, that they may help each other to 
work out their salvation." Each society is di- 
vided into classes of 12 persons ; one of whom 
is syled the Leader, whose business it is to see 
eacn person in his class once a week, in order to 
inquire how their souls prosper, to advise, re- 
prove, comfort, or exhort, as occasion may re- 
qtiire ; and to receive contributions for the relief 
of the Church and Poor. In order to admission 
into their societies they require only one condi- 
tion, viz. " A desire to flee from the wrath to 
come, i. e. a desire to be saved from their sins." 
It is expected of all who continue in their so- 
cieties, that they should evince their desire of 
salvation, by doing no harm, by avoiding all 
manner of evil, by doing all manner of good, as 
they have ability and opportunity, especially to 
the household of faith ; employing then, prefer- 
ably to others, buying of one another (unless 
they can be served better elsewhere) and helping 
eacn other in business. And also by atti^Ading 
upon all the ordinances of God ; sucn as public 
worship, the supper of the Lord, family and pri- 
vate prayer, searching the scriptures, and fasting 
or abstinence. The late celebrated Mr. John 
Wesley is considered as the father of this class 
of Methodists, who, as they deny some of the 
leading Calvinistic doctrines, and hold some of 
the peculiar tenets of Arminius, may be called 
Arminian Methodists. The famous "Mr. White- 
field was the leader of the Calvinistic Methodists, 
who were numerous in England, and a few are 
in the dift'erent parts of the United States, who 
are patronized and supplied with ministers, by 
the late Lady Huntingdon. 

In 1788, the number of Wesleian Methodists 
in the United States stood in the following 
manner : 

Georgia g,011 

South Carolina - . - . 3,366 
North Carolina - - - . 6,779 

Virginia - - 
Maryland- - 
Delaware -1 
New Jersey - 
New York - 

Total - 

- 14,350 

- 11,017 

- 1,998 

- 1,751 

- 8,004 

- 43,282 

Since this estimate of their numbers was taken, 
some few scattering societies have been collected 
in different parts of the New England States, 
and their numbers increased in other parts ; so 
that in 1790, the whole connection amounted to 
57,621. To superintend the Methodist connec- 
tion in America, they had, in 1788, two bishops, 
30 elders, and 50 deacons. 

In Great Britain and Ireland, the whole num- 
ber of persons in full connection with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, amounted, in 1790, to 
71, .168. 

The whole number of Roman Catholics in the 
United States, in 1790, was estimated at about 
50,000 ; one-half of which were in the State of 
Maryland. If, as is probable, their increase has 
kept pace with the increase of the population, 
the number may be now estimated at 100,000. 
Their peculiar and leading doctrines and tenets 
are too generally known to need a recital here. 
In 1790, the residence of their bishop was in 
Baltimore. Their congregations are large and 

The Cierman inhabitants in these .States, who 
principally belong to Pennsylvania andNew York, 
are divided into a variety of sects ; the principal of 
which are, Lutherans, Calvinists or Presbyteri- 
ans, Moravians, Tunkers, and Mennonists. Of 
these the German Lutherans are the most nu- 
merous. Of this denomination, ard the German 
Presbyterians or Calvinists, who are next to 
them in numbers, there were, in 1790, upwards 
of 60 ministers in Pennsylvania— and the former 
had 12, and the latter six, churches in the State 
of New York. Many of their churches are 
large and splendid, and in some instances fur- 
nished with organs. These two denominations 
live together in the greatest harmony, often 
preaching in each other's churches, and some- 
times uniting in the erection of a church, in 
which they alternately worship. The number of 
these sects has probably also doubled. 

The Moravians are a respectable body of 
Christians in these States. Of this denomina- 
tion there were, in 1788, about 1,300 souls in] 








era was taken, 
been collected 
ngland States, 
her parts; so 
1 amounted to 
hodist connec- 
i, two bishops, 

he whole num- 
fith the Mctho- 
1, in 1790, to 

Hatholics in the 
mated at about 
in the State of 
eir increase has 
the population, 
ted at 100,000. 
rines and tenets 
I a recital here. 
I bishop was in 
are large and 

ese .States, who 
land New York, 
the principal of 
or Presbyteri- 
Icnnonists. Of 
•e the most nu- 
ard the German 
lo are next to 
1 1790, upwards 
—and the former 
ics in the State 
r churches are 
e instances fur- 
. denominations 
harmony, often 
ches, and some- 
of a church, in 
The number of 
ectable body ol 
' this dcnomina- 
1 300 souls in] 

rPennsylvania ; viz. at Bethlehem, lietween 5 and 
600 ; which number since increased, in 1790, nt 
Nazareth, to 450— nt Litiz, to upwards of 300. 
Their other settlements, in the United States, 
were nt Hope, in New Jersey, containing about 
100 souls ; and at Wachovia, on Yadkin rivor, 
North Carolina, containing six churches. Their 
numln^rs are now nearly doubled. Besides these 
regular settlements, formed by such only as arc 
members of the brethrens' church, and live toge- 
ther in good order and harmony, there are in 
different parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
New Jersey, and in the cities of Newport, 
(Rhode Island) New York, Philadelphia, Lan- 
caster, York Town, &c. congregations of the 
Brethren, who have their own church and minis- 
ter, and hold the same principles, and doctrinal 
tenets, and church rites and ceremonies, as the 
former, though their local situation does not ad- 
mit of such particular regulations as are pecu- 
liar to the regular settlements. 

They call themselves, " The United Brethren 
of the'Pi-otestant Episcopal Cliurch." They are 
called Moravians, bi'rause the first settlers in the 
English dominions were chiefly emigrants from 
Moravia. These were the remnant and genuine 
descendants of the church of the ancient United 
Brethren, established in Bohemia and Moravia, 
as early as the year 145G. They left their na- 
tive country to avoid persecution, and to enjoy 
liberty of conscience, and what they conceived 
to be true ^ xercise of the religion of their fore- 
fathers. They were received in Saxony, and 
other Protestant dominions, and were encouraged 
to settle among them, and were joined by many 
serious people of other dominions. They adhere 
to the Angustin Confession of Faith, which was 
drawn up by Protestant divines at the tin>e of 
the Reformation in Germany, in the year 1530, 
and presented at the diet of the empire at Aus- 
burg ; and which, at that time, contained the 
doctrinal system of all the established Protestant 
churches. They retain the discipline of their 
ancient church, and make use of Episcopal or- 
dination, which has been handed down to them 
in a direct line of succession for more than 300 
years, as appears by David Cranlz' History of 
" The ancient and modern United Brethren's 
Church, translated from the German, by the Rev. 
Benjamin La Trobe." London, 1780. 

They profess to live in strict obedience to the 
ordinances of Christ, such as the observation of 
the Stihbath, Infant Baptism, and the Lord's Sup- 
per ; and in addition to these, they practise the 

foot washing, the kiss of lovo, and the use of 
the lot. 

They were introduced into America by ("ount 
Zinzendorf, and settled at Bethlehem, which in 
their principal settlement in America, as early as 
1741. Regularity, industry, ingenuity, and (eco- 
nomy, are characteristics of these people. 

The Tunkcrs arc so called in derision, from 
the word hmkcn. tn put a morsel in sauce. The 
English word thai conveys the proper meaning 
of Tunkers is sops or dippers. They are also 
ciilled Tumblers, from the manner in which they 
perform Baptism, which is by putting the person, 
while kneeling, head lirst under water, so as to 
resemble the motion of the body in the action of 
tumbling. The Germans sound the letters / and 
b like d and p ; hence the words Tunkcrs and 
Tumblers, have been corruptly written Dunkers 
and Dumplers. 

The first appearing of these people in America 
was in the fall of the year 1719, when about 20 
families landed in Philadelphia, and dispersed 
themselves in various parts of Pennsylvania. 
They are what are called General Baptists, and 
hold to general redemption and general salva- 
tion. 1 hey use great plainu'^ss of drr;^;* and 
language, and will neither swear, nor fight, nor 
go to law, nor take interest for the money they 
lend. They commonly wear their beards — keep 
the first day Sabbath, except one congregation- 
have the Lord's Supper with its ancient at- 
tendants of Love Feasts, with washing of feet, 
kiss of charity, and right hand of fellowship. They 
anoint the sick with oil for their recovery, and 
use the trine immersion, with laying on of hands 
and prayer, even while the person baptised is in 
the water. Their church government and dis- 
cipline are the same with those of the English 
Baptists, except that every brother is allowed to 
speak in the congregation ; and their best speaker 
is usually ordained to be their minister. The^ 
have deacons, deaconesses (from among their 
ancient widows) and exhorters, who are all li- 
censed to use their gifts statedly. On the whole, 
notwithstanding their peculiarities, they appear 
to be humble, well-meaning Christians, and have 
acqiiired the character of the harmless Tunkcrs. 

Their principal settlement is ntEphrata, some- 
times called Tunker8Town,inLancasterCounty, 
60 miles westward of Philadelphia. It consisted, 
in 1790, of about 40 buildings, of which three 
were places of wot ship: one is called Sharon, 
and adjoins the sister's apartment as a chapel ; 
another, belonging to the brother' apartment, is] 



I *>'. i^ 

f^ m 



frallcd Betliany. To those tlic b'-otliron and 
sisters ro«ort, soparntoly, to worship morning 
and evening, and somolinics in tli«' niijlit. Tlio 
third in n common church, called Zionj whoro all 
in thfi Hottl(>mont mcot once a week for public 
worship. The Brethren have adopted the White 
Friars' dress, with some alterations; the sisters 
that of the nuns ; and both like them have taken 
the vow of celilmcy. All, liowever, do not keep 
the vow. When they marry, they leave their 
cells, and po amon^ t)ie married people. They 
snhsist hy cnltivatin^ their lands, by attending a 
print injr office, a grist mill, a paper mill, an oil 
nn'il, &c. and the sisters by spinning, weaving, 
sewing, &c. They at first slept on board couches, 
but now on beds, and have otherAvise abated 
much of their former severity. This congrega- 
tion keen the seventh day Sabbath. Their sing- 
ing is charming, owing to the pleasantness of 
their voices, the variety of parts, and the devout 
manner of performance, uesides this congre- 
ption at Ephrata, there were, in 1770, 14 others 
in various other parts of Pennsylvania, and some 
in Maryland. The whole, exclusive of those in 
Maryland, amounted to upwards of 2,000 souls. 

The Mennonists derive their name from Mcnno 
Simon, a native of Witmars, in (iermany, a man 
of learning, born in flie year 1503, in the time of 
the Reformation by Luther and Calvin. He was 
a famous Roman Catholic preacher, till about 
the year 1531, when he became a Baptist. Some 
of his followers came into Pennsylvania from 
New York, and settled at German Town, as 
early as 1G92. This is at present their principal 
congregation, and the mother of the rest. Their 
whole number, in 1770, in Pennsylvania, was 
upwards of 4,000, divided into 13 cfiurches, and 
42 congregations, under the care of 13 ordained 
ministers, and 33 licensed preachers. 

The Mennonists do not, like the Tunkers,hold 
the doctrine of general salvation ; yet like them, 
they will neither swear nor fight, nor bear any 
civil office, nor go to law, nor take interest for 
the money they lend, though many break this 
last rule. Some of them wear their beards; 
wash each others feet, &c. and ail use plainness 
of speech and dress. Some have been expelled 
their society for wearing buckles in their shoes, 
and having pocket holes in their coats. Their 
church government is democratical. They call 
tliemseivcs the Harmless Christians, Revengeless 
Christians, and Weaponless Christians. They are 
Baptists rather in name than in fact ; for they do 
not use immersion. Their common mode of bap- 

tisn is this : the person to be baptized kneels; ttlC 
minister holds his hands over hini, into which the 
deacon pours water, M'hicli runs ihron'rli upon 
the head of the person kneeling. After this, tbl- 
low imposition of hands and prayer. 

The denominalinn,s(ile(l I 'niversalists, though 
their schemes are very varioi.s, may properly 
enough be divided into two classes: viz. Tlioso 
who eiidirace the scheme of Dr. Chauncey, ex- 
hibited in bis book, entitled "The Salvation of 
all Men ;" and the disciples of Mr. Wiiichester 
and Mr. John Murray. 

A judicious summary of Dr. Channcey's sen- 
timents has been given in li. Adams's " View of 
Religions," article Universalistss, as follows : 

" That the scheme of revelation has the hap- 
piness of all mankind lying ai bottom, as its 
great and ultimate end ; that it gradually tends 
to this end ; and will not fail of its accomplish- 
ment, when fully completed. Some, in conse- 
quence of its operation, as conducted by the Son 
of God, will be disposed and enabled, in this 
present state, to make such improvements in vir- 
tue, the only rational preparative for hapjiines.s, 
as that they shall enter upon the enjoyment of it 
in the next state. Others, who have proved in- 
curable under tae means which have been used 
with them in this state, instead of being happy 
in the next, will be awfully miserable; not to 
continue so finally, but that they may be con- 
vinced of their folly, and recovered to a virtuous 
frame of mind : and this will be the effect of the 
future torments upon many ; the consequence 
whereof will be their salvation, they being thus 
fitted for it. And there may be yet other states, 
before the scheme of God may be perfected, and 
mankind universally cured of their moral dis- 
orders, and in this way qualified for, and finally 
instated in, eternal happiness. But however 
many states some of the individuals of the human 
species may pass through, and of however long 
continuance they may be, the whole is intended 
to subserve the grand design of universal hap| i- 
ness, and will finally terminate in it; insomuch, 
that the Son of God and Saviour of men will not 
deliver up his trust into the hands of the Father, 
who committed it to him, till he has discharged 
his obligations in virtue of it ; having finally 
fixed ail men in heaven, when God will be All 
in All." 

Thenumber of this denomination is not known, 
but it is undoubtedly large, since the doctrine is 
so worldly and convenient. The open advocates 
indeed of this scheme are few; though the num-j 

I >i 




tizrti knocN; t!ie 
n, into wliicli tlio 
s llin>iin;li upon 
A (tor lliiH, Ibl- 

^, may properly 
ssos: viz. Those 
•. Clmuiupy, ex- 
'he Salvation of 
Mr. VViachester 

riianncov's fion- 
:lanis'H "'Vit'W of 
i, as foUowH : 
ion lia'* the hap- 
i bottom, as it8 
•rradually tends 
' its accomplish- 
Some, in fonse- 
ucted by the Son 
enabled, in this 
•ovements in vir- 
ve for happiness, 
? enjoyment of it 
have proved in- 
i have been used 
of being happy 
liserable; not to 
ley may be con- 
red to a virtuous 
I the effect of the 
;lie consequence 
they being thus 
yet other states, 
perfected, and 
Heir moral dis- 
for, and finally 
But however 
Is of the human 
of however long 
lole is intended 
universal hap| i- 
n it; insomuch, 
of men will not 
s of the Father, 
has discharged 
having finally 
od vvill be All 

on is not known, 

the doctrine is 

open advocates 

ough the nuni-j 

[her is larger of surh as embrace the doctrine of 
the salvation of all men, upon principles similar, 
but variously differing from those on which the 
above mentioned scheme is grounded. 

The latter class of Universalists have a new 
schema differing essentially from that of the 
former, which they reject as inconsistent and ab- 
surd : and they cannot conceive how they who 
embrace it, can, " with any degree of propriety, 
be called Universalists, on Apostolic principles, 
as it does not appear that they have any idea of 
being saved by, or in, the Lord, with an ever- 
lasting, or with any salvation." Hence, accord- 
ing to Mr. Murray, in his " Letter to a Friend," 
page 40, 41, printed in Boston, 1791, they call 
them '' Pharisaical Universalists, who are willing 
to Justify themselves." 

it is difficult to sny what is the present scheme 
of the denomination of which we are now speak- 
ing; for they differ not only from all other Uni- 
versalists, and from each other, but even from 
themselves at different periods. The reader, 
however, may form an idea of some of their 
tenets from what follows, collected from the let- 
ter just referred to. This letter, written by the 
head of the denomination, and professing to rec- 
tify mistakes respecting doctrines propagated 
under the Christian name — to give the character 
of a Consistent Universalist — and to acquaint 
the world with their real sentiments, we have 
reason to conclude, gives as true an account of 
their scheme as can be obtained. 

From this letter it appears, " that they be- 
lieve, that religion, of some sort or other, is a 
public benefit ; ' and that every person is at li- 
berty, and is bound, to support what he con- 
ceives to be the true religion. That public wor- 
ship on every first day of the week, is an incum- 
bent duty on all real lovers of divine truth — that 
prayer, as it indicates trust in, and dependence 
on, God, is part of his worship. They believe 
that the deceiver, who beguiled Eve, anil not oup 
first parents themselves, did the deed which 
brought ruin and death on all the human race. 
That there are two classes of fallen sinners — 
the angels who kept not their first estate, and 
the human nature, deceived by the former, and 
apparently destroyed consequent thereon — that a 
just God, in the law given by Moses, has de- 
nounced death and the curse on every one who 
contmueth not in all things, written in the book 
of the law to do them— but that the same God 
was manifested in the flesh as the head of every 
man, made under the law, to redeem them that 
are under the law, being made a curse for them 

— that he tasted death for every man, being a 
Saviour, not of a few only, but of all men — and 
that the declaration of this is the Gospel. They 
lielieve that when God denounces on the human 
race, woes, wrath, tribulation, death, damnation, 
i^c. in the scriptures, he speaks in his legislative 
c'ipacity, as the just God who will by no means 
clear the guilty — that when he speaks «if merty, 
grace, peace, of life as the gifl of (iod, and sal- 
vation in whole or in part, lie speaks in the cha- 
racter of the just God and Saviour — that the 
former is the language of the law ; the latter is 
the language of the gospel. 

Confession of sins — repentance, and supplica- 
tions for mercy and forgiveness, make no part of 
their creed or worship. 

They believe that the Prince of Peace came to 
save the himian nature from the power and do- 
minion of the devil, and his works — that he came 
to destroy the latter, that he might save the for- 
mer. That "• Sin is the work of the devil— that 
he is the worker and doer of whatever gives of- 
fence. — That Jesus, as the Saviour of the world, 
shall separate from his kingdom, both the evil 
worker and his evil works ; the evil worker, in 
the character of goats— the evil works in the 
character of tares." They suppose that what is 
wicked in mankind, is represented by the evil 
seed sown by the evil one in human nature, and 
that " when the s^ wer of the evil seed, and all 
the evil seed sown, shall be separated from the 
seed which God sowed, then the seed which is 
properly God's seed, will be like him who sowed 
it, pure and holy." 

They consider all ordinances as merely sha- 
dows ; yet they celebrate the Lord's Supper, by 
eating and drinking wine — and some of them 
suppose that every time they eat bread and drink 
wine, they comply with our Lord's injunction, 
" Do this in remembrance of me." Various 
other opinions prevail among them respecting 
this ordinance, and that of baptism. They " ad- 
mit of but one baptism, tnc baptizer Jesus 
Christ ; the elements made use of, the Holy 
Ghost and fire" — ^yet they are willing, in order 
to avoid contention, " to become all things to all 
men," and to baptize infants by sprinkling, or 
adults by immersion — or to omit these signs 
altogether, according as the opinions of parents 
may vary upon this subject. Somd think it pro- 
per to diedicate their children to the Lord, by 
putting them into the arms of the minister, to 
be by nim presented to Christ, to be baptized 
with his baptism, in the name of the Trinity ; 
the minister at the same time to bless theiu in] 





f ' n^ 


lllic wnrilN in wliicli (ind coinniniulcil Aarnii niid 
nin NiMiH (n bl«>M Ihp cliiltlivii of Ihi-hpI - " Tim 
liiini hli'HH (lie<>, &r." !l RfippurH, in nHoH, thut 
tliiMr notinnn reH|N>r(inff Ihertu ordinanct>« aro 
varionN, vatfii«\nnil iin!«>(<ipii. 

Tlioy hpliovp in a jndKniont naHt, and a Jiidg- 
nipnt to romp— 'Ihiit tm* paH( juaKmrnt in eitlipr 
that in which Ihp worl<i waM,|udgt>d in thn Hpcond 
Adani, aconnlin|( to (hp word of the Siviour, 
** Now is thp ,|ndf(nient of thiH world — now in 
the prinop of t\\w world cant out, and judgment 
executed on ihem and on the whole hinnan na> 
tnre, nrcording to the righteouH judgment of 
(to«l — or that whirh pverv man in to pxercine 
upon him8plr, according to the wordn "judg<* 
yonrsplvps iind ye hIuiII not be iudgwi." "The 
Judgment to come in that in which all who have 
not Judged themnelveN — all unbelieverH of the 
human race, and all the tallen angeln, Hliall he 
Judged l»v the Saviour ; but these two charac- 
ters vi?;. unbelieverH of the human race, and 
thp fallen angeU, shall bp i)lacpd, the former on 
the right, the latter on the letl hand of thoir 
•fudge ; the one under the denomination of 
sheep, tor whose salvation the Saviour laid down 
his hie — the other inidpr the denomination of 
gonts, who are the accursed, wHokp nature he 
passed by" — " The human nature" (i.e. the sheen 
or unbefievers of the human race) " as the off- 
spring of the everlasting Father, and the ran- 
somed of the iiord— shall be brought, by divine 
power, into the kingdom prepared lor them, be- 
tbre the Inundation of the world." — The other na- 
ture, (i. e. the goats, or fnllpn angels) '^ will be 
sent into the hre nre{wred tor them *." From 
which it appeal's, tliat it is their opinion, that 
unbelievers of the human race, or slippp, and 
the fallen angels, or goats, will l)e the only 
classes of creatures concerned in the awards of 
the last Judgment ; and that the righteous, or 
believers in Christ, will not then be Judged, hav- 
ing previously Judged themselves. " But the 
resi of mankind," say they, " will be the sub- 
ierts of this judgment, when our Saviour shall 
oe revealed A-om heaven in flaming fire, taking 
vpnn;oance on them that know not God, and 
obey not the gospel : and they shall then be pu- 
nislied with everlasting destruction from the pre- 
sence of the Lord, and the glory of his power." 
Their inference from and exposition of this pas- 
sage, are peculiar, and will serve to give the 

reader an idea of their niaiiner of explaining 
other iMirallel iNisHuges of Ncriptitre. I'runi this 
awful n>vela(ioii of the Savi«nir, t4i lake >en- 
geancp on them that know not (lod, and obey 
not the goij)i>l, they inter I his cunH<'«pieiice, th«-y 
shall then lie made to know (lod, and olH<y the 
gospel." The everlasling destruction, froiii the 
presence of the L«inl and the glurv of his power, 
with which tlicy shall be punished, they siip|MMu 
is sufllereil by unbelievers, in consequence «>l the 
revelation of the everlasting dettlructiuii, pre- 
vioun to this awful period ; and that lliey will 
suffer no punishment utler it— for " il is not 
said," they say, " tlait they shall be everlast- 
ingly punished with deNlruction." They explain 
thoir idea of everlasting punishnieni and suffer- 
ing the pain of eternal fire, thus, " Were it 
tioNsible to find a culilla^y fire that never would 
le extinguished, but in tne strictest sense of the 
word, wan everlasting or eternal — should any 
memlier of the Imdy pass through thut burning 
Hame, though but a moment of time had been 
thus spent in passing through ; yet even in that 
moment, it would suffer the pain of eternal 
fire." Uut whether they beliove it possible that 
there should Ih> such a lire, or that unbelievers 
shall bo doomed to suffer the puni.shineiit of 
eternal fire by thus pssiiig through il, they do 
not declare^ 

They do not suppose that '* all mankind will 
be on a level in the article of death, but that 
they who die in unbelief, will lie down in sor- 
row, and rise to the resurrection of danination, 
or condemnation ; and when the biNiks shall bu 
opened, and the dead, both small and great, shall 
bejuv-lged out of the things written in the biMiks 
— ewTv mouth shall be slopjied, and all the 
world become guilty before (Jod ; and while con- 
scious of guilt, but ignorant of a Saviour, they 
shall call on the rocks and mountains to itill on 
them to hide them from the wrath of the Lamb. 
But that in this Judf|;ment the judge is the Sa- 
viour — they will" be judged by their own Iwad ;" 
and as the head of every man is Christ, all of 
course must be acquitteu and saved. 

Although they Iwlieve that the devil is the 
doer or worker of every thing that gives offence; 
yet they assert, that " all men at all times arc 
sinners, and come short of the ^\ory of God:"— 
but they believe that what Christ suffered, " was 
considered by the Great Lawgiver, as done and 


• The reader will doubtless notice thut the plural pronoun tltr-', is tevenil limes used toexprets the singu'ar noiiii human nnlure, 
ond Prince of tliis world, as the human natnre, &c. sliall be brontnt into the kingdom prepared for thtni i the other niiture will he 
sent into the fire prepared for them— the Prince of this world shall he cast out, and judgment he eieeuted on them. This is a 
phraseology pecniiar t« this denomination, for the grammatical propriety of which the compiler docn not hold himself responsiblcl 




I J N IT i: {) SI A TEN 


' (wplaiiiiiig 
i''i-uiii I Mm 
( tttko \«'«- 
1, uiitl olwy 
|iieiit-i', t\wy 
nil oIk7 tlio 
•n, IVoHi Uio 
>!' liiH |)owur, 

uunce oithe 
lucliuii, !»•«• 
lilt Wivy will 
r " ii itt nut 
1)1' ev«rlii»t» 
riit'.v ox|>laiii 
It iiixl Mullcr* 
H, " Wcro il 

iievBV won Id 
I HC'iiHf of the 
-Hhoulii uiiy 

(liui biirniiiK 
iiiG liiul Im3«» 

oven in tliut 
n of oleiiml 
I poHHilile (hat 
it uiibolicverH 
)iiiii»ihiiieiii of 
^\\ it, tliey Uo 

mnnkiiid will 
..atli, but that 
down ill sor- 
ot' tlaiiiiintioii, 
MM»k8 Hhall bo 
nd groat, hIwU 
II in the books 
, mid all tho 
and while con- 
8avio(ir, tlicy 
i„8 to liill on 

of the Lamb. 
Ice is the Sa- 
ir own Iwad ;" 

Christ, all of 

le devil ih the 
t gives ollence ; 
t all times are 
)ry of God;"— 
suffered, " was 
>r, as done and 

noun human nnturr, 
Uhprnnnirp wi" I"" 
,n U<pm. This is a 
ioiself rf*po'i»'''l«-.l 

( BiilViTod by rviTV inan in hi" own prrnon ; mid s|Mikrii of in tho l^th chaplfi- of (ho llrvfliition 
■HUM niiK-h iiil«>n>N(iMl in wh:i( mid (lint shr ipoko Hi>v<'ii(y-two (onirnrH : iind iil 


cvny niiiii 


ClniNt, (fw Hi'oond Adiim, did, bh (Im'v wciv in (IioiikIi tl""**' (oiigiii-s w«'n> iniiii(«*lligil)li< (o (he 
wliiil (In- rirH( ,\dmii did"— (hiiH bclicvinit, (licy living, mIh' roiiviTHi'd with (hi- dead wlio iiiidrr- 
l»T(»od »H iii«( in heintf (heir Saviour, iim Moot) licr liiiii(iiiig<'. 'I'ln-y iilh'nod «Iho, (hat mIip 


II' uoll 

Id hi 

iiivr Imm-ii III 

(lii'ir rd'rnai damna(ioii. was (|ii> iiiiitln'r of all (h«* v\vv\ : that hIii' (ravailcd 

'riii< (\inHiH(«Mi( (Jnivi>i-HaliN(, " doi>M iio( con- for (lii> nliolo world (liat no IdcHHinu; t-oiild dr 

Hidi'r liiiii^i'lf nndi'r (In* law any more (liaii a Mcciid (o any person but only by and through her, 

woman eoiiHiders hernelf under (lie direi-(ioii or and (liii( in (he way of her being poHMeHseil of 

dominion of a linshand that is deail and buried— their sins, by (heir eoiifessing and repenting of 

nor is he afraid of death, being assured that .le-ius them, one by one, acrording to her dirertion. 

bath abolished death, and h>tl nothing of i( bill tloseph Meiichiiin, who a((aliied the reiiiitntion 

(he shadow." of a prophet iiiiKiiij^ (hem, sucreeded Whitaker 

The l'iiiverHalis(s of (his deiioniina(ion, in as (heir leader, 
eoiimion with other ('liris(iaiis, profess (hem- Their lending d<><'(rinal (eiie(s, uh given by 

selves (o be (he advora(es of pie(y, religion, and one of their own deiioinitia(ioii, are, " 'I'hat (he 

morality. They assert the duty of doing right lirs( resurrection is already eonie, and now is (Iir 

iis men as members of civil society -and as 
Christimis. '' Ah mere men," they hold, (hat 
" (hey iiius( follow nature, or they will sink be- 
neath (he level of the beiists of (he lield." And 
ve( (hey iisser(, that '^ all the righteousness found 
III the best of mere human nature is but a filthy 
rag." That as members of civil society, they 
must submit to the laws ; or, if thought t«io 
severe, they iiiiiy avoi<l them by a removal from 
the state.'' Tliat as ('hristiaiis (hey must be 
under the direction of ('hrist, and do whatso- 
ever he commands them ; and these are his com- 
niandments, " that wi* believe in him. and love 
one another." 

There urn but few of this denomination of 
Universalists in the United Stales. Of these 
ihw, some are in I'eiuniylvania ; some in dillereiit 
parts of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
and New Hampshire; but the body of them are 
in Itoston, and (iloticester, in tVlasHachuHetts. 
Tliey have several coiistidited churches, which 
are governed by an occlesi;»stical constitution, 
formed in I7H9, l>y a small convention of their 
ministers at Philadelphia. 

There is a small and singular sect of Chris- 
tians, called S/iribrs, which sprung up in 1774 ; 
when a few of this sect came from rjiigland to 
New York, and there being Joined by a few 
others, they settled at Nisruieunia, above Albany, 
which is their principal settleiiient : a few others 
are scattered in diHerent parts of (he country. 

The head of this party, while she lived, (lor 
notwithstanding her predictions and assertions to 
the contrary, she died in I7S4 ; and was suc- 
reeded by one James Whitaker, who also died in 
1787,) was Anna Ijeese, styled the lilect I^adv. 
Her followers asserted, that she was the woman 

VOL. V. 

time to judge themselves. That they have power 
to heal the sick, to raise the dead, and cast out 
devils. That they have a correspondence with 
angels, (lie spiri(s of the saints mid theirdeparted 
friends. That they speak with divers kind of 
loii!>iii<s in their public assemblieH. That it is 
lawful to practise vocal music with ilancing in 
the ('hristian churches, if i( be practised in prai«- 
iiig the lifird. That their church is come out of 
till' order of natural generation, to be as Clirist 
was; and that those who have wives are as 
tlioui;li they had none. That by these means 
heaven begins upon earth, anri they thereby lose 
their imrthly and sensual relaticni to Adam the 
first, and come to be transpurent in their ideas, 
in the bright and heavenly visions of (icmI. That 
some of (heir people are «)f the number of the 
l41,fK)(), who were rrvleemed from the earth, und 
were not defiled with women. That the word 
everlasting, when applied to the punishment of 
the wicked, means only a limited period, excejit 
in (he case of those; who fall from their church, 
und that for such there is no forgiveness, neither 
in this world nor that which is to come. That it is 
unlawful to swear, game, or ns(> compliments — 
and that water baptism and (he Lord's Supper 
are abolished. That Adam's fiiii is not iiiiiiited 
to his posterity — and (hat (he doctrines of^ elec- 
tion and reprobation are It) be rejected." 

The discipline of this denomination is founded 
on the supposed perfection of their leaders. The 
Mother, or the Elect Lady, it is said, obeys (lod 
throM.<T|i Christ. European elder* obey her. 
American labourers, and common people, oliey 
tlieiii; while confession is made of «-very .•lecret 
thing, from the oldest to (he youngest, llie peo- 
ple are made tobclievethat they are seen through j 






U N I T E J) 


A T !•: S. 


[and (liroiigh in Ihi? pospel jjlass of pfrft'cti(m,l)v 
tlioir teachers, who behold the slate of I lie doail, 
and iniiuinerablp worlds of Hoirils fl;ood and had. 

These people ure o;enerallv instriuted to he 
very induHtriouH, and to hrint; in arcordini; to 
their ability, to keep up the meolinij. They vary 
in their exercises. Their heavy dancing;, as it \^ 
called, is performed by a perpetual sprin«;ini{' 
from the house floor, almtit i'unr inches up and 
down, both in the men's and women's apartment, 
movinirabont with extraordinary transport, sinp- 
in^ sometimes one at a time, sometimes more, 
making a perfect charm. 

'I'his elevation art'ecls the nerves, so that they 
have intervals of sh udder ini>;, as if they were in 
a Htront»' fit of the a^ue. They sometimes clap 
hands and leap so as to strike the joists above 
their heads. They throw oft" their outside gar- 
ments in these exercises, and spend their strenffth 
very cheerfully this way. Tlieir chief speaker 
otteii calls fur attention ; when they all stop and 
hear some harangue, and then fall to dancing' 
tifraiii. They assert that their danciiiir is the 
token of the great joy and happiness of the new 
Jerusalem state, and denotes the victory over 
gin. One of the postures, which increases among 
them, is turning round very swift for an hour or 
two. This, they say, is to show the great power 
of God. 

They sometimes fall on their knees and make 
a sound like the roaring of many waters, in 
groans and cries to God, as they say, for the 
wicked world who persecute them. A larger 
account may be seen in II. Adams's Vieit) of . /fe- 
ll giotis ; article S/iaf;irs. 

The Jews are not numerous in the United 
States. They have syiiagoijiies at Savannah, 
Charleston (S. Carolina), Philadelphia, New 
York, and Newport. Besides those who reside 
at these places, there are others scattered in dif- 
ferent towns in the United States. 

The Jews in Charleston, among other peculia- 
rities in burying their dead, have these : — after 
the funeral dirge is sung, and just before the 
corpse is deposited in the grave, the colRii is 
opened, and a small bag of earth, taken from the 
grave, is carefully put under the head of the de- 
ceased; then some powder, said to be earth 
brought from Jerusalem, and carefully kept for 
this purpose, is taken and put upon the eyes of 
the corpse, in token of their remembrance of the 
HolyLand, and of their expectations of returning 
thitiier in God's appointed time. Whether this 
custom is universal among the Jews, is uncer- 

tain •, bill for the articles of their faith, itc. s«»e 
H.Adams's t^icw of Ittli^om; aiticle ./ra'f, 
p. 'i!)() : also Mellamy's J/hton/ of all Itvlifrions ; 

They generally expect a glorious return to the 
Holy hand, when they shall be exalted above all 
the nations of the earth. And they flatter them- 
selves that the period of their return will speedily 
arrive, though they do not venture to Kx tne pre- 
cise time. 

The whole number tif persons who profess the 
ilewish religion, in all parts of the world, they 
suppose to lie about y,()(j(),00(), who, as their 
phrase is, are witnesses of the unity of (jod in all 
the nations in the world. 

Besides the religious sects enumerated, there 
arc a few of the German inhabitants in Penn- 
sylvania, who are styled Swinseildians, and, in 
Maryland, a small number called Nicolaites, or 
New Quakers; but with the distinguishing sen- 
timents of these sects we are not ac(|uainted. 

Jfislori/. — III addition to what has been else- 
where said of the discovery and settlement of 
N. America, we shall here give a brief history of 
the late war with Great Britain, with a sketch of 
the events which preceded and prepared the way 
for the revolution. This general view of the 
history of the United States will serve as a suit- 
able introduction to the particular histories of 
the several states, which are given in their proper 

America was originally peopled by uncivilized 
nations, who lived mostly by hunting and fishing. 
The Europeans, who tirst visited these shores, 
treating the natives as wild beasts of the forest, 
uliich have no property in the woods where they 
roam, planted the standard of their respective 
masters, where they (irst landed, and in their 
names claimed the country by right of discovery. 
Prior to any settlement in N.America, numerous 
titles of this kind were acquired by the English, 
French, Spanish, and Dutch navigators, who 
came hither for the purposes of fishing and trad- 
ing with the natives. Slight as such titles were, 
they were afterwards the causes of contention be- 
tween the European nations. The subjects of 
different princes ot^en laid claim to the same 
tract of country, because both had discovered 
the same river or promontory ; or because the 
extent of their respective claims was undeter- 

While the settlements in this vast uncultivated 
country were inconsiderable and scattered, and 
the trade of it confined to the bartering of a I 

UNIT J*: I) S T A T E S. 


, vtC. H^O 

le ./ra'.f, 
Mi^iom ; 

irn to the 
lihovp nil 
lor tiu'in- 


( the pre- 

roft'Hs the 

»rld, tlioy 

lis tlioir 

[jod in all 

ted, there 
in Ponn- 
i, and, ill 
)lnitefl, or 
diing sen- 
Iwen elsp- 
lement of 
history of 
I sketcii of 
(I the way 
ew of the 
as a siiit- 
istorios of 
eir proper 

id fishing, 
se shores, 
he forest, 
here they 
pec live 
ill their 
tors, who 
and frad- 
tles were, 
LMition bc- 
ubjects of 
the same 
cause the 

crcd, and 
iiig of al 


ft'pw trinketH for furs, a trade carried on l»y a few 
adventurers, the inlerferini^ot claims produced no 
important controversy amoiiu; tiie settlers or the 
nati(ms of liluroiie. Hut iii proportion to the 
progress of population, and th** growth t>f the 
i\nierican trade, the Jealousies of the nations, 
which had made early discoveries and settlements 
on this roust, wore alnrined ; ancient claims were 
revived; and each power took measures to ex- 
tend and secure its own possessions at the ex- 
jH'nse of a rival. 

By the treaty of Utrecht in 17 1.?, the English 
claimed a right of cutting logwood in the Hay, of 
(.'ampeachy, in S. America. In the exercise of 
this right, the {'English merchants had frequent 
opportunities of carrying on a contraband trade 
with the Spanish settlements on the continent. 
To remedy this evil, the Spaniards resolved to 
annihilate a claim, which, though often acknow- 
ledged, had never been clearly ascertained. To 
effect this design they captured the English ves- 
sels, which they found along the Spanish main, 
and many of the British subjects were doomed to 
work in the mines of Potosi. 

Repeated severities of this kind at length, 
1739, produced a war between England and 
Spain. Porto Bello was taken from the Spa- 
niards by Admiral Vernon. Commodore Anson, 
with a squadron of ships, sailed to the S. Seas, 
distressed the Spanish settlements on the zi.\ shore 
of America, and took a galleon iaden with im- 
mense riches. But in 1741, a formidable arma- 
ment, destined to attack Carthageim, under the 
command of Lord Cathcart, returned unsuccess- 
ful, with the loss of upwards of 12,000 British 
soldiers and seamen ; and the defeat of the ex- 
))edition raised a clamour against the minister. 
Sir Robert Walpole, which produced a change in 
the administration. This change removed the 
scene of war to Europe, so that America was not 
immediately affected by the subsequent trans- 
actions, except that Louisburgh, the principal 
fortress of Cape Brefon, was taken from the 
French by General Pepperell, assisted by Com- 
modore Warren and a body of New England 

This war was ended in 1748, by the treaty of 
peace signed at Aix la Chapelle, by which resti- 
tution was made, on both sides, of all places dur- 
ing the war. 

Peace however was of short duration. The 
French possessed Canada, and had made con- 
siderable settlements in Florida, claiming the 
country on both sides of the Mississippi, by right 
of discovery. To secure and extend their claims, 

they eslalilished a lino of forts from Canada to 
I'lorida. They had secured the important pasn 
at Niagara, and erected a fort at the junction of 
the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, culled 
l'"ort Du (jiiesne. They took pains to secure 
(he frieiidsliip and assistance of the natives ; en- 
croachments were made upon the English posses- 
sions, and mutual injuries succeeded. The dis- 
putes among the settlers in America, and the 
measures taken by the French to command all 
the trade of the St. F^awrence River on the n, 
and of the Mississippi on the .v. excited a jea- 
lousy in the English nation, which soon broke 
forth in open war. 

The next year three other expeditions were 
undertaken in America against the French. On.' 
was conducted by (Jeneral Monckton, who h.:) 
orders to drive the I'rench from their encroach- 
ments on the province of Nova Scotia. This 
expedition was attended with success. (Jeneral 
ilolinson was ordered, with a body of troops, to 
take possession of Crown Point, but he did not 
succeed. (Jeneral Shirley commanded an expe- 
dition against the fort ut Niagara, but lost the 
season by delay. 

In 17."),"), (Jeneral Braddock marched against 
Fort l)n (^uesne, but in penetrating through the 
wilderness, he incautiously fell into an ambus- 
cade, and suffered a total ileleat. (General Brad- 
dock was killed, but the enemy not pursuing the 
vaiupiished across the river, being eager in plun- 
dering the baggage of the dead, a part of his 
troops were saved by (light under the cc:::!vct of 
(ieneral Washington, at that time a colonel, who 
then began to exhibit proofs of those military 
talents, by whicli ho atierwards conducted the 
armies of America to victory, and his country to 

The ill success of these expeditions left the 
English settlements in America exposed to the 
depredati nis of both the French and Indians. 
But the ivar now raged in Europe and the E. In- 
dies, and engaged the attention of both nations 
in those quarters. 

It was not until the campaign in 1758, that 
aff'airs assumed a more favourable aspect in Ame- 
rica. But upon a change of administration, Mr. 
Pitt was appointed prime minister, and the ope- 
rations of war became more vigorous and success- 
ful. General Amherst was sent to take posses- 
sion of Cape Breton : and after a warm siege, 
the garrison of Louisburgh surrendered by capi- 
tulation. General Forbes was successful in tak- 
ing possession of Fort Du Quesne, which the 
French thought fit to abandon. But Gonarall 



I J N I T 1^ I) S T A r E S. 



• •!•' 

(A biTcrombic, who coinmandrd tho troops tJes- 
tined (o act against tlie Frenc'i at Crown I'oiiit 
anil Ticonderoga, attacked the 'ines at Ticondr- 
roga, and was dcieatrd with a terrible slaughter 
of his troops. After his defeat, he returned to 
his onmp .it Lake (Jeorge. 

The next year, more eflecliial measures were 
taken to siibifue the French in America. General 
Prideaux and Sir William Johnson began the 
operations of tlie cainpaign by taking the French 
fort near Niagara. General Amlierst took pos- 
session of the forts at Crown Point and Ticonde- 
roga, which the French had abandoned. 

But the decisive blow which proved fatal to 
the Frencli interest in America, was the defeat of 
the Frenc!. army, and tlie taking of Quebec, by 
the brave General Wolfe. This hero was slain 
in tlie beginning of the action on the plains of 
.\bram, and Monsieur Montcalm, the F^rench 
commander, likewise lost his life. The loss of 
Quebec was soon followed by the capture of 
Montreal, by General Amherst, and Canada has 
remained ever since in possession of the English. 

Colonel Grant, in 17()l, defeated the Cliero- 
kees in Carolina, and obliged them to sue for 
peace. The next year Martinico was taken by 
Admiral Rodney and General Monckton ; and 
also the island of (»renada, St. Vincents, and 
others. The capture of these was soon folic. wed 
by the surrender of the Havannah, the capital of 
the island of Cuba. 

In 17()3, a delinitive treaty of peace was con- 
cluded at Paris, between Great Britain, Fiance, 
and Spain ; by which the Englisli ceded to the 
French several islands which they had taken from 
them in the W. Indies, but were confirmed in the 
possession of all N. America on this side the 
Mississippi, except the island of Orleans. 

But this war, however brilliant the successes 
and glorious the event, proved the cause of great 
and unexpected misfortunes to Great Britain. 
Engaged with the combined powers of France 
and Spain, during several years, her exertions 
were surprising and her expense immense. To 
discharge the oebts of the nation, the parliament 
was obliged to have recourse to iiew expedients 
for raising money. Prijvious to the last treaty in 
1763, the parliament had been satisfied to raise a 
revenue from the American colonies by a mono- 
poly of their trade. 

It will be proper liere to observe, that there 
were four kinds of government established in the 
British American colonics. The first was a 
charter government, by which the powers of le- 
gislation were vested in a governor, council, and 

assembly, chosen by the people. Of this kind 
were the covernments of Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. I'he second was a proprietary govern- 
ment, in which the proprietor of the province 
was governor : although he generally resided 
abroad, and administered the government by a 
deputy of his own appointment; the assembly 
only being chosen by the people. Such were the 
governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland ; and 
originally of New Jersey and Carolina. The 
third kind was that of royal government, where 
the governor and council were appointed by the 
crown, and the assembly by the people. Of this 
kind were the governments of New Hampshire, 
New York, New Jersey, (after the year 1702) 
Virginia, the Carolinas, after the resignation of 
the proprietors, in 1728, and Georgia. The 
fourth kind was that of Massachusetts, which dif- 
fered from all the rest. The governor was ap- 
pointed by the king ; so far it was a royal go- 
vernment ; but the members of the council were 
elected by the representatives of the people. The 
governor, however, had a right to negative a cer- 
tain number, but not to fill up vacancies thus oc- 
casioned. This variety of govornments created 
different degrees of dependence on the crown. 
In the royal government, to render a law valid, 
it was constitutionally required that it should be 
ratified by the king ; but the charter govern- 
ment'; were empowered to enact laws and no ra- 
tification by the king was necessary. It was only 
required that such laws should not be contrary 
to the laws of England. The charter of Connec- 
ticut is express to this purpose. 

Of the proceedings of all these governments 
those of Massachusetts were perhaps the most 
interesting; as giving the best leading fea- 
tures of the state of political influence prevalent 
throughout the colonies previously to, and about 
the period of, their separation. A diffuse account 
of the transactions that took place is therefore 
given under ;he article Massachusktts. 

At the beginning of the war with France, com- 
missioners from many of the colonies had assem- 
bled at Albany, and proposed that a great coun- 
cil should be formed by deputies from the se- 
veral colonies, which, with a general governor 
to be appointed by the crown, should be eni- 
powereu to take measures for the common safety, 
and to raise money for the execution of their de- 
signs. This proposal was not relished by the 
British ministry : but in place of this plan, it 
was proposed, that the governors of the colonies, 
with the assistance of one or two of their council, 
should assemble and concert measures for thej 

i I ' 



f thin kind 
and Rhode 
iry govern- 
e province 
lly resided 
iment by a 
e assenibiy 
:h were the 
yland ; and 
ilina. The 
lent, where 
ited by the 
,le. Of this 
year 1702) 
iignation of 
rgia. The 
i, which dif- 
lor was ap- 
a royal go- 
ouncil were 
leople. The 
jative a cer- 
cies thus oc- 
ents created 
the crown, 
ii law valid, 
it should be 
rter govern- 
s and no ra- 
it was only 
be contrary 
r of Connec- 

OS the most 
leading fea- 
ice prevalent 
o, and about 
ffuse account 
is therefore 

"ranee, com- 
s luul assem- 
great coun- 
Voin the se- 
al governor 
oul(i be eni- 
inuion safety, 
II of (heir de- 
shed by tlie 
(his plan, i( 
(he colonies, 
(heir council, 
ires for the J 

fgener.'.l defence ; erect forts, levy troops, and 
draw on the treasury of England for monies (hat 
sliouhl be wan(ed;'but the treasury to be reim- 
bursed by a tax on the colonies, to be laid by the 
English "parliament. To this plan, which would 
I imply an avowal of the right of parliament to 

.1 tax the colonies, the provincial assemblies ob- 

* jected >vi(h unshnken firmness. It seems there- 

fore that the British parliament, before the war, 
had it ill contemplation to exercise (he right they 
claimed of (axing the colonies at pleasure, with- 
out permitting them to be represeiUed. Indeed 
it is obvious that they laid hold of the alarming 
situation of the colonies, about the year I7.')4 and 
1755, (o force them into an acknowledgment of 
the right, or to the adoption of measures that 
might afterwards be drawn into precedent. The 
colonies, however, with an uncommon foresight 
and firmness, defeated all their attempts. 'I he 
war was carried on by requisitions on the colo- 
nies for supplies of men and money, or by volun- 
tary con(ribu(ions. 

Jiut no sooner was peace concluded, than the 
English parliament resumed the plan of taxing 
the colonies ; and to justify their attempts, said, 
that the m(»ney to be raised, was to be appro- 
{)ria(ed to defray the expense of defending tliem 
in ihe late war. 

The first attempt to raise a revenue in Ame- 
rica appeared in the fiicmorable Stamp Act, 
passed Niaich 22, i76'> ; by which it was en- 
acted, that cerdiiii ins(niinen(s of writing, as 
bills, bonds. Sec. should not bo valid in law, un- 
less drawn on stamped paper, on which a duty 
was laid. When this bill was brought in, Mr. 
Charles Townsend conchuled a speech in its fa- 
vour, with words (o the following effect : " And 
now, will these Americans, children planted by 
our care, nourished up by our indulgence, till 
they are grown (o a degree of s(reng(li and opu- 
lence, and pro(ected by our arms, will tliey 
grudge to contribute their mite to relieve us 
from the heavy weight of that burden which we 
lie under ?" To which Colonel Barre replied, 
" They planted by your care ! No, your oppres- 
sions planted them in America. They fled from 
tyranny to a then uncultivated and unhuspitable 
counfry, where (hey exposed (hemselves to al- 
most all the liurdsiii[)s (o which human nature is 
liable ; and among others to the cruelty of a sa- 
vage foe, the most subtle, and I will take upon 
me to say, the most formidable of any people 
upon (he face of God's earth ; and yet, actuated 
by principles of (rue English liber(y, (hey me( all 
Jiaidships wi(h pleasure, compared wi(h (hose 

who suffered in their own country, from (he 
hands of those who should have been their 
friends. They nourished up by your indulgence ! 
They grew by your neglect ot^them. As soon as 
j ou bega'> to care about them, that care was c\- 
en i««><l in sending persons to rule them in one 
dcparlment and aiio(her, who were perhaps (he 
depu(ics of depu(ies (o some members of (his 
house, sent (o spy ou( (heir liberdes, to mis- 
represent their actions, and to prey upon them. 
Men whose behaviour, on many occasions, has 
causiil the blood of those sonsof liber(y to recoil 
within tliem. Men promoted to the highest scats 
of justice, some, who to my knowledge were 
glad, by going to a foreign country, to escape 
being brought to the bar of a court of justice in 
their own. They protected by your arms ! They 
have nobly taken up arms in your defence, have 
exer(cd a valour amids( (heir cons(nnt and labo- 
rious industry, for the defence of a country whose 
frontier was drenched in blood, while its interior 
parts yielded all its little savings to your emolu- 
ment ; and believe me, remember I this day told 
you so, that (he same spirit of freedom which ac- 
tuated that people at first, will accompany them 
still : but prudence forbids me to explain myself 
farther. God knows, I do not at this time speak 
from any motives of party heat; what I deliver 
are the genuine sentiments of my heart. How- 
ever superior to me in general knowledge and 
experience, the respectable body of (his house 
may be, yet I claim to know more of America 
than most of you, having seen and been conver- 
sant in that country. The people, I believe, are 
as truly loyal as any subjec(s the king has, but a 
peonle jealous of their liberties, and who will 
vinuicato them if ever they should be violated : 
but the subject is too delicate. I will say no 

No sooner was this act published in America, 
tlian it raised a general alarm. The people were 
filled with apprehension at an act which they 
supposed to be an attack on their constitutional 
rights. The colonies petitioned the king and 

fiarliament for a redress of the grievance, and 
brmed associ.\tions for the pui-pose of prevent- 
ing the importation and use of British manufac- 
tures, until the act should be repealed. This 
spirited and unanimous opposition of the Ameri- 
cans produced the desired effect; and on 
March 18, 1766, the Stamp Act was repealed. 
The news of the repeal was received in the colo- 
nies with universal joy, and the trade between 
tlieni and Great Britain was renewed on the 
most liberal footing. | 








ill I 

[The parliament, by lepoalinjj this act so ob- 
noxious to their American brethren, did not in- 
tend to lay aside the scheme of raising a revenue 
in the colonies, but merely to chantye the mode. 
Accordingly, the next year, they passed an act, 
laying a certain duty on glass, tea, paper, and 
painters colours ; articles which were much 
wanted, and not manufactured in America. [We 
must be here excused, if entering into some re- 
capitulation of the text of Al9eda.] This act 
kindled the resentment of the Americans, and 
excited a general opposition to the measure ; so 
that parliament thought proper, in 1770, to take 
off these duties, leaving only three-pence a 
pound on tea. Yet this duty,' however trifling, 
Kept alive the jealousy of the colonists, and their 
opposition to parliamentary taxation continued 
and increased. 

But it must be remembered that the inconve- 
nience of paying the duty was not the sole, nor 
principal cause of the opposition ; it was the 
principle, which, once admitted, would have sub- 
jected the colonies to unlimited parliamentary 
taxation, without the privilege of being repre- 
sented. The right, abstractly considered, was 
denied ; 'and the smallest attempt to establish the 
claim by precedent, was uniformly resisted. Tlie 
Americans could not be deceived as to the views 
of parliament ; for the repeal of the Stamp Act 
was accompanied with an unequivocal declara- 
tion, " that the parliament had a right to make 
laws of sufficient validity, to bind the colonics in 
all cases whatsoever." 

The colonies therefore entered into measures 
to encourage their own manufactures, and home 
productions, and to retrench the use of foreign 
superfluities; while the importation of tea was 
prohibited. In the royal and proprietary go- 
vernments, and in Massachusetts, the governors 
and people were in a state of continual warfare. 
Assemblies were repeatedly called, and suddenly 
dissolved. While sitting, the assemblies em- 
ployed the time in stating grievances and fram- 
ing remonstrances. To inflame these discon- 
tents, an act of parliament was passed, ordaining 
that the governors and judges should receive 
their salaries of the crown ; thus making them 
independent of the provincial assemblies, and re- 
movable only at the pleasure of the king. 

1 hese arbitrary proceedings, with many others 
not here mentioned, but which may be seen in 
an enume^tion of grievances in the Act of In- 
dependence, and in a variety of petitions to the 
king and parliament, could not fail of producing 
a rupture. 

On the second of March, a fray took place in 
Boston, near Mr. Gray's rope- walk, between a 
private soldier of the '29th regiment, and an in- 
iial)itant. The former was supported by his 
comrades, the latter by the rope-makers, till se- 
veral on both sides were involved in the conse- 
qiionces. On the fifth a more dreadful scene 
was presented. The soldiers, when under arms, 
were pressed upon, in-iulted, and pelted by a 
mob, armed with clubs, sticks, and snow-balls 
covering stones. They were also dared to lire. 
In this situation, one of the soldiers who had re- 
ceived a blow, in resentment fired at the sup- 
posed aggressor. This was followed by a single 
discharge from six others. Three of the inha- 
bitants were killed, and five were dangerously 
wounded. The town was immediately in com- 
motion. Such was the temper, force, and num- 
ber of the inhabitants, that nothing but an en- 
gagement to remove the troops out of the town, 
together w ith the advice of moderate men, pre- 
vented the townsmen from falling on ihe sol- 
diers. The killed were buried in one vault, and 
in a most respectful manner, in order to express 
the indignation of the inhabitants at the slaug'i- 
ter of their brethren, l)y soldiers quartered 
among them, in violation of their civil liberties, 
("aplain Preston, who commanded tlie party 
whicli fired on the inhabitants, was committed 
to jail, and afterwards tried. The captain, and 
six of the men, were acquitted. Two were 
brought in guilty of manslaughter. It appeared 
on the trial, that the soldiers were abused, in- 
sulted, threatened, and pelted, before they fired. 
It was also proved, that only seven guns were 
fired by the eight prisoners. These circum- 
stances induced the jury to make a favourable 
verdict. The result of the trial reflected great 
honour on John Adams, and Josiah Quincy, 
Esqrs. the council for the prisoners ; and also on 
the integrity of the jury, who ventured to give 
an upright verdict, in defiance of popular opi- 

The consequences of this tragical event sunk 
deep in the minds of the people, and were made 
subservient to important purposes. The anni- 
versary of it was observed with great solemnity 
lor 13 years. Eloquent orators were succes- 
sively employed to deliver an annual oration to 
preserve the remembrance of it fresh in their 
minds. On these occasions the blessings of li- 
berty, the horrors of slavery, the dangers of a 
standing army, the rights of the colonies, and a 
variety of such topics, were represented to the 
public view under their most pleasing and alarni-j 





le aDiu- 
ation to 
in their 
igs of li- 
ers of a 
and a 
d to the 

fine forms. These annual orations administered 
fuel to the fire of liberty, and kept it burning, 
with an incessant flame. 

In 1773, the spirit of the Americans broke out 
into open violence. The Gaspee, an armed 
schooner bclonginff to his Britannic Majesty, had 
been stationed at Providence, in Rhode Island, 
to prevent smuggling. The vigilance of the 
commander irritated the inhabitants to that de- 
gree, that about 200 armed men entered the ves- 
sel at night, compelled the officers and men to 
go ashore, and set fire to the schooner. A re- 
ward of jg500, offered by government for appre- 
hending vny of the persons concerned in this 
daring act, produced no effectual discovery. 

About tins time the discovery and publication 
of some private confidential letters, written by 
the royal officers in Boston, to persons in office 
in England, served to confirm the apprehensions 
of the Americans with respect to the designs of 
the British government. It was now made ob- 
vious that more effectual measures would be 
taken to establish the supremacy of the British 
parliament over the colonies. The letters re- 
conuuended decisive measures, and the writers 
were charged, by the exasperated Americans, 
with betraying their trust and the people they 

As the resolutions of the colonies not to im- 
port or consume tea, had, in a great measure, 
deprived the English government of a revenue 
from this quarter, the parliament formed a 
scheme of introducing tea into America, under 
cover of the East India Company. For tliis pur- 
pose an act was passed, enabling the Company to 
export all sorts of teas, rtuty free, to any place 
whatever. The Company departed from their 
usual mode of doing business, and became their 
own expt>rters. Several sliips were freighted 
» ith teas, and sent to the American colonies, and 
tactors were appointed to receive and dispose of 
their cargoes. 

The Americans, determined to oppose the re- 
venue system of the EngHsIi parliament in every 
possible shape, considered the attempt of the 
E. India Company to evade the resc.utions of 
the colonies, and dispose of teas ia America, as 
an indirect mode of taxation, sanctioned by the 
authority of parliament. The people assembled 
in various places, and in the large commercial 
towns, took measures to prevent the landing of 
the teas. Committees were ap])ointed, and armed 
with extensive powers to inspect merchants 
books, to propose tests, and to make use of other 
expedients to frustrate the designs of the E.India 

Company. The same spirit pervaded the people 
from New Hampshire to Georgia. In some 
places, the consignees of the teas were intimi- 
dated so far as to relinquish their appointments, 
or to enter into engagements not to act in that 
capacity. The cargo sent to S. Carolina was 
stored, the consignees being restrained from offer- 
ing the tea tor sale. In other provinces, the ships 
returned back without discharging their cargoes. 

It was otherwise in Massachusetts. The tea 
ships destined for the supply of Boston were con- 
signed to the son, cousins, and particular friends 
of Governor Hutchiiison. When they were called 
upon to resign, they answered, " That it was 
out of their power." The collector refused to 
give a clearance, unless the vessels were dis- 
charged of dutiable articles. The governor re- 
fused to give a pass for the vessels, unless pro- 
perly qualified from the custom-house. The 
governor likewise requested Admiral Montague 
to guard the passages out of the harbour, and 
gave orders to suffer no vessels, coasters excepted, 
to pass the fortress, from the town, without a 
pass signed by himself. From a combination of 
these circumstances, the return of the tea vessels 
from Boston was rendered impossible. The in- 
habitants then had no alternative, but to prevent 
the landing of the tea, or to suffer it to be landed, 
and depend on the unanimity of the people not 
to purchase it, or to destroy the tea, or to suffer 
a deep laid scheme against their sacred liberties 
to take effect. The first would have required in- 
cessant watching by night, as well as by day, for 
a period of time, the duration of which no one 
could compute. The second would have been 
visionary to childishness, by suspending the liber- 
ties of a growing country, on the self-denial and 
discretion of every tea-drinker in the province. 
They viewed the tea as a vehicle of an unconsti- 
tutional (ax, and as inseparably associated with 
it. To avoid the one they resolved to destroy 
the other. About 17 persons, dressed as Indians, 
repaired to the tea ships, broke open 342 chests 
of tea, and without doing anv other damage, dis- 
ciiarged their contents into the water. 

No sooner did tiie news of this destruction of 
the tea reach Great Britain, than the parliament 
determined to punish that devoted town. On 
the King's laying the American papers before 
them, a bill was brought in and passed, to " dis- 
continue the landing and discharging, lading and 
shipping of goods, wares, and merchandises, at 
the town of Boston, or within the harbour." 

This act passed March 2.5, 1774, and called 
the Boston Port Bill, threw the inhabitants into] 



! M' 





! .- II 




[the prnatost consternation. The town of Boston 
passed a resolution, expression; their sense of this 
oppressive measure, and a desire that all the 
colonies would concur to stop all importations 
from Great Britain. Most of the colonies en- 
tered into spirited resolutions on this occasion, 
to unite with Massachusetts in a finn opposition 
to the severe measures of the parliament. The 
first of June, the day on which the Port Bill was 
to take place, was appointed to be kept as a day 
of humiliation, fastint^, and prayer throu«^hout the 
colonies, to seek the Divine direction and aid, in 
that critical and gloomy jinicture ofattairs. 

It ought here to be observed, that this rational 
and pious custom of observin»- fasts in times of 
distress and impending dnna^er, and of celebrating 
days of public thanksgiving, after having receive(l 
special tokens of Divine fiivour, has ever pre- 
vailed in New England, since its first settlement, 
and in some parts of other States. 

During the height of the consternation and 
confusion which the Boston Port Bill occasioned, 
and at the very time when a town meeting was 
sitting to consider of it. General Gage, who had 
been appointed to the government of IVTassachu- 
setts, arrived in the harbour. His arrival, how- 
ever, did not allay the popular ferment, or check 
the progress of the measures then taking, to unite 
the colonies in opposition to the oppressive acts 
of parliament. He was received with all the 
honours usual on such occasions. 

Bnt the Port Bill was not the only act that 
alarmed the apprehensions of the .Americans. 
Determined to compel the province of Massachu- 
setts to submit to their laws, parliament passed an 
act for " The better regulating government in 
the province of Massachusetts Bay." The object 
of this act was to alter the ii;overnment, as it 
stood on the charter of King William : and to 
make the judges and sheriffs oependent on the 
king, and removable at his will and pleasure. 

This act was soon followed by another, which 
ordained that any person, indicted for murder, or 
other capital offence, committed in aiding the 
magistrates in executing the laws, might be sent 
by the governor, either to any other colony, or to 
Great Britain, for his trial. 

This was soon followed by the Quebec Bill, 
which extended the bounds of that province, and 
granted many privilews to the Roman Catholics, 
f he object of this bill was, to secure the attach- 
ment of that province to the crown of England, 
and prevent its joiningthe colonies in their resist- 
ance of the laws of parliament. 

But these measures did not intimidate the 

Americans. On the other hand, they served to 
couHrm their former apprehensions of the evil 
designs of government, and to unite the colonies 
in their opposition. A correspondence of opinion 
with respect to the unconstitutional acts of par- 
liament, i)roduced an imiformity of proceedings 
in the colonies. The people generally concurred 
in a proposition for holding a congress, by depu- 
tation from the several colonies, in order to con- 
cert measures for the preservation of their rights. 
Deputies were accordingly appointed, and met at 
Philadelphia, October 26, 1774. 

In this first congress, the proceedings were 
cool, deliberate, and loyal ; but marked witli 
unanimity and firmness. Their first act was a 
declaration or statement of their claims as to the 
enjoyment of all the rights of British subjects, 
and particularly that of taxing themselves exclu- 
sively, and of regulating the internal police of 
the colonies. They also drew up a petition to 
the king, complaining of their grievances, anil 
|)raying for a repeal of the unconstitutional and 
oppressive acts of parliament. They signed an 
association to su .pend the importation of British 
goods, and the e»vportation of American produce, 
until their grievances should be redressed. They 
sent an address to the inhabitants of (Jreat Bri- 
tain, and another to the people of America ; in 
the former of which they enumerated the oppres- 
sive steps of parliament, and called on their 
British brethren not to aid the ministry in en- 
slaving their American subjects ; and in the latter 
they endeavoured to confirm the people in a 
spirited and unanimous determination to defend 
their constitutional rights. 

In the mean time every thing in Massachusetts 
wore the appearance of opposition by force. A 
new council for the governor had been appointed 
by the crown. New judges were appointed, and 
attempted to proceed in the execution of their 
office ; bnt the juries refused to be sworn under 
them. In some counties, the people assembled 
to prevent the courts from proceeding to business ; 
and in Berkshire they succeeded, setting an ex- 
ample of resistance that was afterwards followed, 
in violation of the laws of the State. 

In this situation of aftairs, the day for the 
annual muster of the militia approached. Gene- 
ral Gage, apprehensive of some violence, had the 
precaution to seize the magazines of ammunition 
and stores at Cambridge and Charlestown, and 
lodged them in Boston. This measure, with the 
fortifying of the neck of land which joins Boston 
to the main land at lloxbury, caused an univertai 
alarm and ferment.] 




y served tn 
of the evil 
the colonies 
:c of opinion 
acts of piir- 
ly concnrred 
<ss, by depu- 
>rder to con- 
r their rights, 
fl, and met at 

eedini|!;B were 
marked with 
rst act was a 
lims as to the 
tisli subjects, 
iselves cxcln- 
rnal police of 
a petition to 
ievances, anti 
ititutional ami 
hev sitjiK'd an 
tion of Britisli 
rican produce, 
ressed. They 
of (ireat Bri- 
if America •. in 
ed the oppres- 
lUed on their 
ninistry in en- 
nd in the latter 
people in a 
ition to defend 

by force. A 
been appointed 
appointed, and 
cution of their 
jc sworn under 
ople assembled 
ng to business-, 
, setting an ex- 
ivards followed, 


lie day for the 
jacheil. Gene- 
iolence, had tlie 
of ammunition 
arlestown, am! 
■asure, with the 
ic!> joins Boston 
sed an univertat 

[On this occision, an assembly of delegates 
from all the towns in Suffolk County was called ; 
the several spirited resolutions were agreed to. 
These resolutions were prefaced with a declara- 
tion of allegiance ; but they breathed a spirit of 
boldness pccidiar to the known character of the^ 
delegates, ''''ley declared that the late acts of 
parliament, and the proceedings of General (iage, 
were glaring infractions of their rights and liber- 
ties, which their duty called them to defend by all 
lawful means. 

This assend)ly remonstrated against the fortifi- 
cation of Boston Neck, and against the Quebec 
Bill ; and resolved upon a suspension of com- 
merce, an encouragement of arts and manufac- 
tures, the holding of a Provincial Congress, and a 
submission to the measiu'cs which should be re- 
commended by the Continental Congress. They 
recommended that the collectors of taxes should 
not pay any money into the treasury without fur- 
ther orders ; they also recommended peace and 
good order, giving it to be understood that they 
meant to act merely npon the defensive. 

In answer to their remonstrance, (iJeneral Gage 
assured them that he had no intention to prevent 
the free egress and regress of the inhabitants to 
and from the town of Boston, an J that he would 
not sulfor any person under his command to in- 
jure the person or property of any of his majesty's 

I'revious to lliis, a general assembly had been 
summoned by the governor to meet at Salem ; 
and notwif!ist;sntling the writs had been counter- 
manded by the governor's proclamation, on ac- 
count of the violence of the times, and the resig- 
nation of several of the new counsellors, yet in 
defiance of the proclamation, 90 of the newly- 
elected mem1)ers met at the time and place ap- 
pointed ; and soon after resolved themselves into 
a Provincial Congress and adjourned to Concord, 
19 miles from Boston, and after choosing Mr. 
Hancock president, proceeded to business. 

The Congress addressed the governor with a 
rehearsal of their distresses, and took the neces- 
sary steps for defending the principles they had 
adopted. They regulated the militia, made pro- 
vision for supplying the treasury aiul furnishing 
the people with arms; who, eager for change, 
listened with enthusiasm to the recommeiulations 
of the Provincial Congress. 

General (iiagc was incensed at these measures. 
He declared in his answer to the address, that 
Britain could never harbour the black design of 
enslaving her subjects, and published a proclama- 
tion, in which he insinuated that such proceedings 

VOL, v. 

aniOuiited to rebellion. Tic also ordered barracks 
to be erected for the soldiers ; but he found diffi- 
culty in procuring labourers, either in Boston or 
New York. 

In the beginning of 177.^), the fishery bills were 
passed in parliament, by which the colonies were 
prohibited to trade with Great Britain, Ireland, 
or the W. Indies, or take fish on the banks of 

The effects intended to be produced by these 
acts of parliament, especially with regard to the 
town of Boston, were in a great measure coimter- 
acted by the large supplies of provision furnished 
by the inhabitants of different towns from New 
llampshire to Georgia, and shipped to the relief 
of the sufferers. 

Preparations began to be made, to oppose by 
force thf execution of these acts of parliament. 
The militia of the country were trained to the 
use of arms ; great encouragement was given for 
the manufacture of gunpower, and measures were 
taken to obtain all kinds of military stores. 

In February, Colonel Leslie was sent with a 
detachment of troops from Boston, to take pos- 
session of some cannon at Salem. But the people 
who had by some means procured intelligence of 
the design, took up the draw-bridge in that town, 
aiul prevented the troops from passing, until the 
cannon were secured. 

Provisions and military stores were also col- 
lected and stored in different places, particiilarly 
at Concord. General Gago, though zealous for 
his royal master's interest, discovered a prevail- 
ing desire after a peaceable accommodation. He 
wished to prevent hostilities by depriving the in- 
habitants of the means necessary for carrying 
them on. With this view, he is supposed to nave 
had for his object the seiziu'e of the persons of 
Messrs. Hancock and S. Adams, who by their 
spirited exertions had rendered themselves ob- 
noxious to him, and to have determined to de- 
stroy the stores which he knew were collected 
for the support of a provincial army ; and wish- 
ing to accomplish this without bloodshed, ho 
took every precaution to effect it by stirpriso, 
and without alarming the country. At 1 1 o'clock 
at night SOO grenacliers and light infantry, the 
flower of the royal army, embarked at the com- 
mon, landed at Leechmore's Point and marched 
for Concord, under the command of Lieutenant- 
colonel Smith. Neither the secrecy with which 
this expedition was planned, the privacy with 
which the troops marched out, nor an order that 
no inhabitant should leave Boston, were sufficient 
to prevent intelligence from being sent to the] 

1 »'Jr 

fi S 1 it 



[country militia of what was ji;oiii^- on. About 
two in the niorninn-, 1,'iO of the |jexin^;ton militia 
had UHsenil>h'<i to oppose them, but the air bein^ 
chilly, and intelligence respecting the regulars 
uncertain, they were dismissed, with orders to 
appear a<;ain at the beat ol'druni. They collected 
a second time, to the Muini)er of 70, between four 
and five o'clock in the morning, and the British 
regulars soon after made their appearance. Ma- 
jor Pitcairn, who led the advanced corps, rode up 
to them and called out, *' Disperse, you reliels; 
throw down your arms and disperse." They 
still continued in a body, on whicli he advanced 
nearer, dischar|>;ed his pistol, and ordered his 
soldiers to fire. A dispersion of the militia was 
the consetpience, but not till after three or four 
of them had been killed. The royal detachment 
proceeded on to Concord, and executed their 
commission. They disabled two 2i pounders, 
threw 'lOOIb. of ball into rivers and wells, and 
broke in pieces about GO barrels of floiu'. Mr. 
Jolin Kiiterick, major of a minute re<>;iineiit, not 
knowiii"' what liad passed at l^exington, ordered 
liis men nut to give tlie first fire, under the idea 
t!iat tliey might thus prove themselves not to be 
the aggressors. Upon his approaching near tlie 
regulars, they fired, aiul killed Captain Isaac 
Davis, and one private of the provincial minute 
men. The fire was returned, and a skirmish 
ensued. The king's troops having done their 
business, began their retreat towards Hoston. 
This was conducted with expedition, for the 
adjacent inhal)itants had assembled in arms and 
began to attack them in every direction. In 
their return to Lexington tlu\v were exceedingly 
annoyed, both by those who pressed on their 
rear, and others who poured in from all sides, 
firing from t)ehind stone walls, and such like 
coverts, which supplied the place of lines and 
rcdoiil)ts. At Lexington the regulars were joined 
by a detachment of 900 men under Lord I'iercy, 
which had boe.i sent out by General Gage to 
support Lieutenant colonel Smith. This rein- 
forcein"ul, lnwing two pieces of cannon, awed the 
proN ir.cials, and kept them at a greater distance; 
bi>f (icy continued a constant, tliough irregular 
and lering fire, which did great execution. 
The iloso firing from behind the walls by good 
marksmen, put the regular troops in no small 
confu'^ion, but they nevertiif less kept up a brisk 
retreating fire on the militia and minute men. 
A little nfter sunset the regulars reached Bun- 
ker's Hill, worn down with excessive fatigue, 
hav ing marched that day between 30 and 40 miles. 
On the next day they crossed Charlestown ferry 
to Boston. 

There never were more than 400 provincials 
engaged at one time, and often not so many. As 
some tired and gave out, others came up and 
took their places. There was scarcely any disci- 
pline observed among them, Oflicers and pri- 
vates fired when they were ready and saw a royal 
uniform, without waiting for the word of com- 
mand. Their knowledge of the country enabled 
them to gain opportunities, by crossing fields ami 
fences, and to act as flanking parties against the 
king's troops, who kept to the main road. 

The American accounts state that the regulars 
had 6j killed, 174 wounded, and 24 made pri- 
soners ; and that of the provincials 49 were 
killed, and 39 wounded and missing. 

Here was spilt the first blood in the late war : 
a war which severed America from the British 
empire. Lexington opened the first scene to this 
great drama, which, in its progress, exhibited 
such striking ctiaracters and events, and closed 
with a revolution so important in its consequences 
to mankind. 

This battle roused all America, The Provin- 
cial Congress of Massachusetts being at this time 
in session, voted that "An army of 30,000 men 
be immediately raised ; that I3,G00 be of their 
own province, and that a letter and delegate be 
sent to the several colonies of New Hampshire, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island." The militia 
collected from all quarters, and Boston, in a few 
days, was besieged by 20,000 men. A stoj) was 
put to all intercourse between the town and 
country, and the inhabitants were reduced to 
great want of provisions. 

At this time General Gage made a proposal 
with some want of foresight, and which it was 
partly out of his power to fulfil. Knowing that 
there were a great quantity of arms concealed in 
the town, he gave out that such as should sur- 
render them up, should be entitled to leave the 
town with their effects ; accordingly, in the course 
of five days after the agreement, the inhabitants 
had lodged 1,778 fire arms, 634 pistols, 273 bayo- 
nets, and 38 blunderbusses, and several were per- 
mitted to depart; but the fatal tendency of this 
leniency was perceived too late, when the go- 
vernor discovered that whilst some arms were 
given up, others of more consequence were re- 
tained ; and that even the royal party were ob- 
liged to retreat in their own defence, alledging 
that the provincialists would return and set fire 
to the town. Hence circumstances arose, which, 
however irremidiable, were certainly of a some- 
what aggravated nature, and which formed 
grounds for some bitter complaints of the Con- 



nan}. Ah 
e u|) uihI 
any (Unci- 
i ami pri- 
ll w a royal 
il of com- 
ry enabled 
r'fields and 
igainst the , 
le i-egulars 
made pri- 
i 49 were 

; late war : 
the British 
ccne to this 
, exhibited 
and closed 

Ihe Provin- 
at this time 
30,000 men 
be of their 
delegate be 
' HampKhire, 
The militia 
on, in a few 
A stop was 
lie town and 
reduced to 

a proposal 
jvhich it was 
knowing that 
concealed in 
Khonld siir- 
to leave the 
in the course 
[e inhabitants 
)l8, 273 bayo- 
■ral were per- 
.idency of this 
^vhenthe go- 
le arms were 
Jence were re- 
arty were ob- 
Ince, alledging 
|n and set fire 
arose, which, 
[ly of a sonic- 
Uhich formed 
Its oftheGon- 

fAboHt the latter end of May a groat part of the 
reinft)rcrnu'nt8 ordered fromdreat Britain arrived 
at Boston. Tliree British generals, Howe, llur- 
goyne, and Clinton, whoso behaviour in the pre- 
ceding war had gained them groat reputation, 
also arrived about the same time. General 
Gage, thus reinforced, jirepared for acting with 
more decision ; but betoro he proceeded lo ex- 
tremities, he conceived it due to ancient forms to 
issue a proclamation, holding forth to the inhabi- 
tants the alternative of peace or war. ffo there- 
fore offered pardon in the king's imme, to nil who 
should forthwith lay down their arms, and return 
to their respective occupations and j)eacnable 
duties, excepting only from the benefit of that 
pardon " Samuel Adams and .Fohn Hancock," 
whose offences Hvfire said to be "of too flagitious 
u nature to admit of any other consideration than 
that of condign punishment." He also pro- 
claimed, that not only the persons above named 
and excepted, but also all their adherents, asso- 
ciates, and correspondents should be deemed 
guilty of treason and rebellion, and treated ac- 
cordingly. By this proclamation it was also de- 
clared, " that as the courts of Judicature were 
shut, martial law should take place, till a due 
course of justice should bo re-established." It 
was supposed that this proclamation was a pre- 
lude to hostilities, and preparations were accord- 
ingly made by the Americans. The heights of 
Cliarlestown wore so situated as to make the 
possession of them a matter of great consequence 
to either of the contending parties. Orders were 
therefore issued, June 16th, by the provincial 
commanders, that a detachment of 1,000 men 
should intrench upon Breed's Hill, for it should 
be observed, that historians, through mistake,havc 
called the hill where the battle was fought. Bun- 
ker's Hill, which is a quarter of a mile n. of 
Breed's Hill, where the battle was really fought. 
Here the Americans, between midnight and morn- 
ing, with uncommon expedition and silence, 
threw up a small redoubt, which the British hav- 
ing discovered on the morning of the 17th, began 
an incessant firing, and continued it till the 
afternoon ; though they could not eventually 
prevent the Americans from finishing their re- 
doubt, and throwing up a breastwork, extending 
e. of it to the bottom of the hill. About noon 
General Gage detached Major-general Howe aiul 
Brigadier-general Pigot, with the flower of his 
army, in two dctacliments, amounting in the 
whole to nearly 3,000 men. They landed at a 
point about 1.50 or 200 rods s. e. ot tlie redoubt, 
and deliberately prepared for the attack. While 

the troops, who first landed, weve waiting for a 
reinforcement, the Americans on the led wing, 
towards Mystic Hiver, for thoir security, pulled 
up some adjoining post and rail fence, and set it 
down in parallel Tines, near each other, ami filled 
the space between with hay, which the My before 
was mowed, and renmineci in the adjacent field. 
The British troops, in the mean time, formed in 
two lines, and about three o'clock advanced 
slowly towards the Americans. The hills and 
steeples in Boston, and the circumjacent country, 
were crowded with anxious spectators of the du- 
bious conflict. The attack commenced on the 
part of the British troops. The Americans had 
th(» precaution to reserve their fire, till the Bri- 
tish nad approached within 10 or 12 rods of their 
works. They then began a well-directed and 
furious discharge of small arms, which did great 
execution, aiul seemed likely, at three different 
periods, to turn the fiite of the day. But this 
conduct, on the part of the Americans, was pre- 
sently overruled by that of his Majesty's forces, 
who had now, under the unyielding gallantry of 
General Howe, attacked the redount on two 
sides. Under these circumstances, a retreat was 
ordered ; the left wing of the Americans, n. r. of 
the redoubt, still continuing their fire, ignorant 
of what had taken place on the right, till the 
British had nearly surrounded them. The re- 
treat was effected with an inconsiderable loss, 
considering the greater part of the distance they 
had to pass was completely exposed to the inces- 
sant fire of the Glasgow man of war and two 
floating batteries. 

During the heat of this bloody action, by order 
of General Gage, Charlestown was set on fire by 
a battery on Cops Hill, in Boston, and a party 
from the Somerset man of war lying in Charles 
River, and nearly 400 houses, including six pub- 
lic buildings, were consumed, with their furni- 
ture, ttc. the whole being valued at about 
£.156,900 specie. 

The number of Americans engaged in this 
memorable action amounted, accordinii^ to their 
own statements, to 1,500 only; but it is certain 
that the disparity between them and the British 
was by no means so great. There have been 
few inittles in modern wars in which, all circum- 
stances considered, there was a greater slaughter 
of men than in this short engagement. The loss 
of the British, as acknowledged by (ieneral ( Jage, 
amounted to 1,0.54 men. Nineteen commissioned 
officers were killed, and 70 wounded. The loss 
of the Americans, as allowed by tiiemsc^lvcs, was 
77 killed, 278 wounded and missing.] 






[The death of Major-doncral Warren, who 
four (la^s before had received his cotnmisHion, 
and who, having liad no command assigned him, 
fou<r]it this da^ as a volunteer, was a severe blow 
to the Americans: hut the loss in officers to the 
British seemed to be almost irreparable; 19 of 
whom were killed, and 70 more were wounded, 
a circumstance which is to be accounted for by 
their havin<; been picked out by the provincials, 
who, from liinitin"^ and amusements of the chase, 
had become distinj^uished marksmen. 

About tin's time a scheme was laid by a number 
of gentlemen in Connecticut, to take" possession 
ofTiconderoga, where a great quantity of military 
stores were lodged, and which is the key to Ca- 
nada. Having made the necessary preparhtions, 
and collected 270 men, chiefly Cfreen Mountain 
boys, they rendezvoused atCastleton, where they 
were joined by Col. Allen, and shortly after by 
Col. Arnold from Cambridge, under commission 
from the Provincial Congress. Col. Allen com- 
manded this volunteer party. Jlaving arrived at 
Lake Ciiamplain, opposite 'i iconderoga, in the 
night. Cols. Allen and Arnold, with 83 men, 
crossed over, and at the dawn of day entered the 
fort without resistance, and called upon the com- 
mander, who was in bed, to surrender the fort. 
Jle asked by what authority ? Col, Allen replied 
— " I demand it in the name of the Great Jeho- 
vah, and of the Continental Congress." Thus 
the fort was captured, with its valuable stores 
and 48 prisoners. Crown Point was taken at the 
same time by Col. Warren, and the possession 
of all Lake Ciiamplain was shortly after the con- 

Op. the loth of June, two days before the 
memoral)le battle on Breed's Hill, the Conti- 
nental Coi.gress unanimously appointed George 
Washington, Esq. a native of Virginia, to the 
chief connnand of the American army. It is but 
justice to say, that this gentleman had been a 
distinguishe(l and successful officer in the preced- 
ing war: that he accepted the appointment with 
a diffidence which was a j)roof of his modesty, his 
prudence, and his greatness, and that by his emi- 
nent skill, fortitude, and perseverence, he con- 
ducted America through (iifficulties as great as 
they were extraordinary. 

It cannot, indeed, be thought an improper di- 
gression from tlie subject, to give in (Ins place a 
short sketch of the lite of this distinguished man. 
Notwithstanding it has often been asserted, 
with confidence, that President Washington was 
a native of England, certain it is his ancestors 
went over from thence to America, bo long ago as 

the jear 1657. He, in the third descent of their 
migration, was born, February II, 1732, (old 
style), at the parish of Washington, in West- 
moreland County, in Virginia. His father's family 
was numerous, and he was the first fruit of a 
second marriage. His education having been 
principally conducted by a private tutor, nt 15 
years old he was entered a midshipman on board 
of a British vessel of war, stationed on the coast 
of Virginia, and his baggage prepared for embark- 
ation ; but the plan was abanaoned on account 
of the reluctance his mother expressed to his en- 
gaging in that profession. 

Previous to this transaction, when he was but 
10 years of age, his father died, and the charge of 
the family devolved on his eldest brother. His 
eldest brother, a young man of the most promis- 
ing talents, had a command in the colonial troops 
employed against Carthagena, and on his return 
from the expedition, named his new patrimonial 
mansion Mount Vernon, in honour of the admi- 
ral of that name, from whom he had received 
many civilities. He was afterwards made adju- 
tant-general of the militia of Virginia, but did not 
long survive. At his decease, the eldest son by 
the second marriage inherited this seat, and a 
considerable landed property. In consequence 
of the e.xtensive limits of the colony, the vacant 
office of adjutant-general was divided into three 
districts, and the future hero of ylmerica, before 
he attained his 20th year, began his military ser- 
vice by a principal appointment in that depart- 
ment, with the rank of major. 

When he was little more than 21 years of 
age, an event occurred which called his abilities 
into public notice. In 1753, while the govern- 
ment of the colony was administered by Lieute- 
nant-:, overnor Dinwiddle, encroachments were 
reported to have been made by the French from 
Canada, on the territories of^the British colonies, 
at the w, Mr. Washington, who was sent with 
plenary powers to ascertain the facts, treat with 
the savages, and warn the French to desist from 
their aggressions, performed the duties of his 
mission with singular industry, intelligence, and 
address. His journal and report to Governor 
Dinwiddle, which were published, announced to 
the world that correctness of mind, manliness in 
style, and accuracy in mode of doing business, 
w)uch have since characterised him in the conduct 
of more arduous affiiirs. But it was deemed, by 
some, an extraordinary circumstance that so 
juvenile and inexperienced a person should have 
been employed on a negociation, with which sub- 
jects of the greatest importance were involved ;] 


. 1 



t of their 

732, (old ,; 

in VVest- 

r's fuinily 

Viiit of II ; 

ing been ' 

or, at 15 

on hoard ^ 

the coast > 

r embark- ' 

n account ^ 

to his en- 

} was but j 

charge of i 

her. His I 

it promis- ^ 
iaI troops j 

liis return . ? 

Urimonial i^ 

;hc admi- ? 


lade adju- 

ut did tint 

st son by 

at, and a 


the vacant 

into three 

ca, before 

litary scr- 

at dcpart- 

years of 

s abilities 

e povern- 

)y Lieute- 

cnts were 

ench from 

1 colonies, 

sent with 

treat with 

lesist from 

ies of his 

;ence, and 


ounced to 

inliness in 


le conduct 

eemed, by 

; that so 

lould have 

ivhich sub- 

nvolved ;] 

I subjects, which shortly after became the origin 
of a war between England and France, that 
rajrcd for many years throughout every part of 
the globe. 

It would not comport with the intended bre- 
vitv of this sketch, to mention in detail the fa- 
tigues he endured, the plans he suggested, or the 
system he pursued for the defence of the fron- 
tiers, during this war, until tlic year 1738. 

Tranquillity on the frontiers of the middle 
colonies having been restored, and the health of 
Colonel Washington having become extremely 
debilitated by an inveterate pulmonary compliiini, 
in I7i39, he resigned his military appointment. 

His health was gradually reestablished. He 
married Mrs. Custis, a handsome and amiable 
young widow, possessed of an ample jointure ; 
and settled us a planter and farmer on his estate 
at Mount Vernon, in Fairfax County. 

After he left the army, until the year 1775, he 
cultivated the arts of peace. He was constantly 
a member of assembly, a magistrate of his county, 
and a judge ot the court. He was elected a 
delegate to the first Congress in 1774, as well as 
to that which assembled in the year following. 
Soon after the war broke out he was appointed, 
as we have mentioned, by Congress, commander 
in chief of the forces of the United Colonies. 

It would be less desirable to particularise, in 
this place, his transactions in the course of the 
late war, becaui-e they would form an invidious 
distinction to the outline we are now furnishing; 
but from them posterity might be taught, in what 
manner he transformed an undisciplined body of 
peasantry into a regular army of soldiers. Com- 
mentaries on his campaigns would undoubtedly 
he highly interesting and instructive to future 
generations. The conduct of the first campaign 
in compelling the British troops to abandon Bos- 
ton, by a bloodless victory, will meri^a minute 
narration. But a volume would scarcely contain 
the mortifications he experienced, and the hazards 
to which he was exposed, in 177G and 1777, in 
contending against the prowess of Britain, with 
an inadequate force. His good destiny and con- 
summate prudeiice, prevented want of success 
from producing want of confidence on the part 
of the public ; for want of success is apt to lead 
to the adoption of pernicious counsels, through 
the levity of the people, or the ambition of their 
deiiuigogues. Shortly after tliis ijciod, sprang 
up the only cabal that ever existed during his 
public life, to rob him of his reputation and 
command. It proved as impotent in eftect, as 
it was audacious in design. In the three suc- 

ceeding years the germ of discipline unfolded ; 
and the sources ot' America having been called 
into co-operation with the land and naval armies 
of France, produced the results of the catnpuign 
of 1781. I'rom this time the gloom began to 
disappear from the political horizon, and the 
affairs of the Union proceeded in a meliorating 
train, till a peace was negociated by the ambas- 
sadors in Europe in 1783. 

" Nt» person," says his biographer, " whr had 
not the advantage of being present when (General 
Washington received the intelligence of peace, 
and who did not accompany him to his domestic 
retirement, can describe the relief which that 
joyful event brought to his labouring mind, or 
"the supreme satisfaction with which he withdrew 
to private life. From his triumphal entry into 
New York, upon the evacuation of that city by 
the British army, to his arrival at Mount Vernon, 
after the resignation of his commission to Con- 
gress, festive crowds impeded his passage through 
all the populous towns; the devotion of a whole 
people pursued him with prayers to heaven for 
blessings on his head, while their gratitude 
sought the most expressive language of manifest- 
ing itself to him, as their common father and 
benefactor. When he became a private citizen, 
he had the unusual felicity to find that his native 
State was among the most zealous in doing jus- 
tice to his merits; and that stronger demonstra- 
tions of affectionate estee n (if possible) were 

ffiven by the citizens of hf.^ neighbourhood, than 
)y any other description rf men on the continent. 
But he constantly decli led accepting any com- 

pensation for his services, or provision tor the 
augmented expenses which were incurred by him 
in consequence of hispublic employment, although 
proposals were made in the most delicate manner, 
especially by the States of Virginia and Penn- 

The happiness of private life he did not long 
enjoy. In 1789, by the unanimous voice of his 
countrymen, he was called to the high office of 
chief magistrate of the United States of America ; 
which oilice he sustained with considerable dig- 
nity, prudence, and ability, till 1796, when he 
refused to stand the election, and was succeeded 
by Mr. Adams. 

But, to return to the history of the campaign. 
General Washington, with other officers appointed 
by Congress, arrived at Cambridge, and took 
command of the American army in July, 1775. 
From this time, the affairs of America began to 
assume the appearance of a regular and general 
opposition to the forces of Great Britain.) 








' i; 




U N I T E J) ST A T E S. 

[In autumn, a body uf troops, under tho coni- 
munrl otTSoneral Afonta^omrrv, l)osiei<;t<d and took 
the garrison nt St. Jolin'n, which connnnndH the 
entranrc into Canada. Tho prisoners amounted 
to about 700. General Montgomery pursued his 
success, and took Montreal ; and designed to push 
his victories to Quebec. 

A body of troops, commanded by General 
Arnold, nns ordered to march to Canada by the 
river Konncbeck, and through the wilderness. 
At\er suffering every hardship, and the most dis- 
tressing hunger, tfiey arrived in Canada, and 
were joined by (lencral Montgomery, before 
Quebec. This city, which was commanded by 
Governor Carleton, was immediately besieged; 
but there being little hope of taking the town by 

a siege. 

it was determined to storm it. 

The garrison of Quebec, at this time, consisted 
of about \,o20 men, of which 800 were militia. 
The American army consisted of 800 men. Ge- 
neral Montgomery having divided his forces 
into four detachments, ordered two feints to be 
made against the upper town, one by Colonel 
Livingston, at the head of the Canadians, against 
St. John's Gate; the other by Major Brown 
aa;ainst Cape Diamond; reserving to himself and 
Colonel Arnold, the two principal attacks against 
the lower town. At .'ve o'clock in the morning 
General Montgomery i. 'vanced against the lower 
town; he passed the first barrier, and was just 
opening to attack the second, when he was killed, 
together with his aid-de-camp. Captain M'Pher- 
son. The dispersion of the Americans innnedi- 
ately ensued, and Colonel Campbell, on wiioin 
the command devolved, was obliged to make 
the best retreat he was able. In the mean time 
Colonel Arnold, with 3.50 men, made a successful 
attack on another part of the town. In the at- 
tack of the first battery. Colonel Arnold was 
wounded, and was obliged to bo carried oft' 
the field of battle. His party, however, com- 
manded by Captain Morgan of V^irginia, pro- 
ceeded and entered tho town; but not being 
joined by the other parties, was obliged to sur- 
render to superior force. 

The loss of the Americans in killed and 
wounded was about 100, and .500 were taken 

Crisoncrs. Historians must do justice to the 
ravery as well of the provincial as of the British 
troops on this occasion. 

Ancr the defeat, Colonel Arnold, who now 
commanded the troops, continued some months 
before Quebec, although his troops were reduced 
in numbers, and sufl'erod incredibly from cold and 

The death of General Montgomery was greatly 
and sincerely regretted on both sides. " Hin 
many amiable qualitii^s had procured him an 
uncommon share of private aff'ection, and his 
great abilities, an equal proportion of public 
esteem." His name was mentioned in parlia- 
ment with singular respect : the minister himself 
acknowledged his wortli, while he reprobated the 
cause in which he foil. He concluded an invo- 
luntary panegyric, by saying, " Curse on his vir- 
tues, tliey have undone his country." 

He was descended from a respectable family in 
the w. of Ireland, and was born in the year lt.^7. 
His attachment to liberty was innate, and matured 
by a fine education and an excellent understand- 
ing. Having married a wife, and purchased an 
estate in New York, he was, from these circum- 
stances, as well as from his natural love of free- 
dom, and from a conviction of the justness of such 
a cause, induced to consider himself as an Ameri- 
can. From principle, ho early embarked in her 
cause, and quitted the sweets of easy fortune, the 
enjoyment of a loved and philosophical rural 
life, with the highest domestic felicity, to take an 
active share in all the hardships and dangers that 
attend the soldier's life. Before he came over to 
America, he had been an officer in the service of 
England, and had successfully fought her battles 
witn the immortal Wolfe at Quebec, in the war 
1736 ; and it is something extraordinary that he 
should have met with defeat and death on the 
very spot where he had once been victorious, and 
from the very standards under which he had 

About this time, the large and flourishing town 
of Norfolk in Virginia, having refused to supply 
his Majesty's ships with provisions, on the requi- 
sition of tho governor, Lord Dunmore, was, by his 
order, reduced to ashes ; and the same fate shortly 
after awaited Falmouth, a considerable town in 
the province of Main in Massachusetts. 

General Gage went to England in September, 
and was succeeded in the command by General 

The British government entered into treaties 
with some of the princes for about 14 
thousand n»en, who were to be sent to America 
the next year, to assist in subduing the colonies. 
The parliament also passed an act, forbidding all 
intercourse with America ; and while they re- 
pealed the Boston port and fishery bills, they de- 
clared all American property on the high seas, 
forfeited to the captors. 

Measures were taken to annoy the British 
party in Boston ; for this purpose, batteries were] 




IS grcntly 

». " II IH 

I him an 
and luH 

ol' public 

II pnrlia- 
>r niiiiself 
ibated the 
1 an invo- 
m his vir- 

! family in 
ear lli7. 
1 matured 
chascd an 
e circum- 
B of free- 
I9S of such 

III Aineri- 
ed in her 
rtune, the 
lical rural 
to take an 
ngcrs that 
lie over to 
service of 
ler battles 
n the war 
irv that he 
til on the 
rious, and 

he had 

iin<; town 
to supply 
the requi- 
vas, by his 
ite shortly 
town in 

y General 

to treaties 

about 14 


•■ colonies. 

lidding all 

! they re- 
i. they de- 
high seas, 

le British 
sries were] 




[opened on several hills, from whence nhot and 
bombs were thrown into the town. The batte- 
ries which were opened on Dorchester I'oiiit had 
!;reat effect, and eventually obliged General 
{owe to abandon the town. In March I77G the 
British troops embarked for Halifux, and General 
Washington entered Boston in triumph. 

In the ensuing summer, a small squadron of 
ships, commanded by Sir Peter Parker, and a 
body of troops under the Generals Clinton and 
Cornwallis, attempted to take Charleston, the 
capital of S.Carolina. The ships made a gallant 
attack upon the fort on Sullivan's Island, but 
meeting with a strong, the expedition 
was obliged to be abandoned. 

In July, Congress published their declaration 
of independence, which separated America from 
Great Britain. This great event took place 284 
years after the discovery of yVmerica by Columbus 
— 166 from the first effi'ctiial settlement in Vir- 
ginia, and I3G from tlie lirst settlement of Ply- 
mouth in Massachu etts, which were the earliest 
English settlements in America. 

Just after this declaration. General Howe, 
with a powerful force, arrived near New York, 
and laiuied his troops on Staten Island. General 
V/ashir.gton was in New York with about 13,000 
men, who were encamped either in the city or 
the neighbouring fortihcations. 

The operations of the British began by the 
action on Long Island in the month of August. 
The American Generals Sullivan end Lord Ster- 
ling, with a large body of men, were made pri- 
soners. The night alter the engagement, a re- 
treat was ordered, and executed with such silence 
that the Americans left the island without alarm- 
ing their enemies, and without loss. 

In September, the city of New York was taken 
by the British. 

In November, Fort Washington on York 
Island was taken, and more than 2,000 Americans 
made prisoners. Fort Lee, opposite to Fort 
Washington, on the Jersey shore, was soon after 
taken, but the garrison escaped. 

About the same time, General Clinton was 
sent with a body of troops to take possession of 
Rhode Island, and succeeded. In addition to all 
these losses and defeats, the American army suf- 
fered by desertion, and more by sickness, which 
was epidemic and very mortal. 

The northern army at Ticoiideroga was in a 
disagreeable situation, particularly after the bat- 
tle on Lake Champlain, in which the American 
force, consisting of a few light veisels, under 
the command of Generals Arnold and Water- 

ton, not thinking it prudent to follow up his vic- 
tory, landed at Crown Point, reconnoitered the 
posts at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, 
and returned to winter quarters in Canada. 

The American army might now be said to be 
no more. All that now remained of an army, 
which, at the opening of the campaign, amounted 
to at least 23,000 men, did not now exceed 3,000. 
The term of their engagements being expired, 
they returned in large bodies to their families and 
friends; the few, who, from personal attach- 
ment, local circumstances, or superior perseve- 
rance and bravery, continued with the Generals 
Washington and Lee, were too inconsiderable to 
appear formidable in the view of a powerful and 
victorious enemy. 

Ill this alarming and critical situation of 
affairs, General Lee, throighan imprudent care- 
lessness, which ill liecame a man in iiis important 
station, was captured by a party of Britisli liirht 
horse, commanded by Colonel Ilarcourt. TJiis 
circumstance gave a severe shock to the remain- 
ing hopes of the Americans, and rendered their 
situation truly distressing. 

While these things were transacting in New 
Jersey, General Washington, not discouraged 
by the loss of General Lee, and anxious to take 
every advantage to raise the drooping spirits of 
his handful of men, had made a stand on the 
Pennsylvania side of the Delaware. He collected 
his scattered forces, called in the assistance of 
the Pennsylvania militia, and on the night of 
December 25, 1776, when the enemy were lulled 
into security by the idea of his weakness, and by 
the inclemency of the night, which was remark- 
ably boisterous, as well as by the fumes of a 
Christmas eve, he crossed the river, and, at the 
breaking of day, inarched down to Trenton, and 
so completely surprised them, that the greater 
part of the detachment, which were stationed at 
this place, surrendered after a short resistance. 
The horsemen and a few others made their escape 
at the opposite end of the town. Upwards of 
900 Hessians were taken prisoners at this time. 

The success of this bold enterprise revived the 
desponding hopes of America. The loss of the 
Americans was, however, considerable; and, 
amongst the rest, they had to deplore that of Ge- 
neral Mercer. 

The following year, 1777, was distinguished 
by very memorable events in favour of America. 
On the opening of the campaign. Governor 
Tyroii was sent with a body of troops to destroy 
the stores at Danbury in Connecticut. This plan 
was exec'.ited, and the town mostly burnt. The 

bury, was totally dispersed. But Gcus-ral Carle- CiitishsuQered in their retreat, but the Ameri-1 




U N 1 T E 1) S T A r E S. 

t ■ .. 

'< li 


(onns lost fJrnnul Wofistrr, n brnvo iind ox- 
pcrionrod (iffiriT. 

(ipiii'inl PrcHcot wa« t.Tkrn from Iiis qnni'torN 
on Itluxlo IsIhihI, hy n forre iindor tlio roininniid 
of Colonel Hnrton, and convryod prisoner lo the 

(lonerni Uiirffovno, wlio ronimandrd tlio north- 
ern DriliHJi nrtnvi took possossion ot'Ticondoroga, 
nrtcr liavinjjdri'von llio Anirricans from that post. 
Mo pushed his siiccpssoh, rroHsed Lake (loorijo, 
and pnramped npon the banks of the Hudson, 
near Saratoj^u. His pro)i[reis. however, was 
elierked hy the defeat of Colonel liaum, near Ben- 
nington, in which the undisciplined militia, under 
(■eneral Stark, displayed great hraverv,and cap- 
tured almost the wluife detarliinent. 'I'he militia 
asisembled from all parts of New lCnf>;land to slop 
the progress of (loneral Burgoyne. 

These, with the regular troops, formed a ro- 
oppctablc armv, conunanded hv (ienernl (iates. 
After two severe actions, in which the (ienerals 
Lincoln and Arnold were woinided, (Jeneral 
Burgo^ne found himself surroiuided by superior 
nundiers, and alter a most desperate and valiant 
conflict, was forced to surrender his whole army, 
amounting to fj.T.Vi men, into the hands of the 
Americans. When Cieneral Burgovno left Ca- 
nada, his army consisted of 10,000 men, toge- 
ther with a line train of artillery. The above 
event, which happened on October 17, 1 777, was 
made the most of by the provincials. It was 
blazoned forth in the most li\ely colours, and is 
by them considered to have been instrumental 
to laying the foundation for their treaty with 

But before those transactions, the main body of 
the British forces had embarked at New York, 
sailed up the Cliesapeak, ami lauded at the head 
of Klk Uiver. The army soon be'^au their march 
for Philadelphia. (Jeneral Washington had de- 
termined to oppose then), and for this purpose 
nuide a stand, first at Ked Clay Creek, ami then 
upon the heights near Braudywine Creek. Here 
the armie-i engaged, and the Americans were 
overpowered, and sulVered great loss. The British 
soon pursued their march, and took possession 
of Phdadelphia towards the close of September. 

Not long after, the two armies were again 
engaged at (ilermantown, and in the beginning of 
the action, the Ainciicans had the advantagt^ ; 
but the fortune of the day was eventually turned 
in favour of the Bi itish. Both sides sufl'ered 
considerable losses ; on the side of the Americans 
was Gcr.cral Nash. 

In an attack upon the forts at Mud Island and 
Bed Bank, the Hessians were unsuccessfid, and 

their conunander, Ctdonel Dnnnn, killed. The 
British als(» lost the Augusta, a ship of the line. 
But the forts were afterwards taken, and the 
navigation of the Delaware opened. (Jeneral 
Washington was reinforced with a part of tin- 
troops whicli had composed the northern army, 
under (Jeneral dates; and both armies retired 
to winter rjuarter-. 

In October, the >iame month in which (Jeneriil 
Bnrgoy ne was taken at Saratoga, (General Vaiighan, 
with a small fleet, sailed up Hudson's Biver, and 
burnt Kingston, a beautiful Dutch settlement on 
the u>. side of the river. 

The beginning of the next year, 1778, was dis- 
tinguishe(Fby a treaty ofalliance between France 
and America; by which the latter obtained ii 
powerful ally. When the I'jiglisli ministry were 
informed that this treaty was on foot, they dis- 
patched commissioners to America, to attempt h 
reconciliation. But America would not now 
acci |)t their ofTers. ICarly in the spring. Count 
d'Kstaing, with a fleet of I.j sail of the line, 
was sent by the court of France to assist America. 

(Jeneral Howe left the army, and returned to 
Rngland ; the command then devolved upon Sir 
Henry Clinton. 

In .lune the British army let! Philadelphia, and 
marched for New York ; on their inarch they 
met, as was natural, with much 'uuioyance from 
the Americans ; but at IMonmo n very regular 
action took place l)et'.vepn pi the armies; 

when the latter were lepulsec, ...i great loss. 
(Jeneral lice, for his misconduct that day, was 
suspended, and was never aHerwards permitted 
to Join the army. 

(leneral Lee's conduct, nt several times before 
this, had been very suspicious. In December, 
I77t), he lay nt Chatham, about II miles from 
Elizabeth Town, with a brigade of troops, when 
a great quantity of baggage was stored at Eliza- 
beth Town, under a guard of only 500 Hessians. 
CJeneral Lee was apprised of this, and might 
have sur|)risod the guard and taken the bag- 
gage ; but he neglected the opportunity, and 
after several marches and counter-marches be- 
tween Troy, Chatham, and INIorris Town, he 
took up his (jiiarters at or near White's tavern, 
where he was surprised and taken by a party of 
the British horse. He was heard to say, repeat- 
edly, that (Jeneral Washington would ruin a fine 
army. It was suspected that he had designs to 
sup|)lant the general, and his friends attempted 
to place him at the head of the army, (jeneral 
Washington's prudent delays and cautious move- 
ments afforded CJeneral Lee's friends many oppor- 
tunities to spread reports unfavourable to his] 





UNIT i: I) s r A T E s 


ofl. Thr 
Iho lino. 
, 1111(1 tlio 
irt of llu' 
•rn army, 
I's rotirt'd 

fi (ipnornl 
{iv(M-, nnd 
Icmcnt on 

>♦, was (lis- 
cn Finnce 
>l)tainpd ii 
istry wore 
tlii'V dis- 
attcnipt H 

not now 
np, Count 
r tlio line, 
t AiiiPi'ica. 
'turned to 

upon Sir 

tpliia, and 
larch they 
ance from 
\vy rcg\\\i\r 

nrniics ; 

oat loss. 

ay, was 

nes before 

les from 

ops, wlien 
)t Eliza- 

nd niis;ht 
the batj- 
lity, and 
clies be- 
own, he 
s tavern, 
party of 
, repeat- 
uin a fine 
esinfns to 
us movp- 
ny oppor- 
Ic to his"! 

(chnmrter. It was insinuated with some hiicccsx, 
(hat (ieneral WashiiiKton wanted rouriif<e and 
ubilities. Krnorts of this kind, at one time, ren- 
dered (Jenerai Lee very popular, and, it is sup- 
p(»Hed, he wished to friistrate (ieneral VVashint;- 
ton's plans, in order to increase the suspicions 
already entertained of his f^enoralship, nnd turn 
the public clamour in his own favour. Mis con- 
duct at Monmouth was, by some, supposed to 
have proceeded fniin stich a desi<]r|) ; for he com- 
manded the Hower of the American army, and was 
not destitute of courage. 

In August, General Sullivan, with a large 
body of troops, attempted to take possession of 
Rhode Islanu, but did not succeed. Soon atlter, 
the stores and shipping at Hedford, in Massachu- 
setts, were burnt ny a party of the liritish troops. 
The same year. Savannah, the capital of Georgia, 
was taken by the British, under the command of 
Colonel Campbell. 

In the following year, 1779, General Lincoln 
was appointed to the conunnnd of the southern 

Uovernor Tryon and Sir George Collier made 
an incursion into Connecticut, and burnt the 
towns of Fairfield and Norwalk. But the Ameri- 
can arms were crowned with success in a bold 
attack upon Stoney Point, which w;is surprised 
nnd taken by General Wayne in the light of.luly 
15, 1779. Five hundred men were nuide prisoners, 
with little loss on either side. 

A party of British forces attempted this sum- 
mer to build a Ibrt on Penobscot river, for the 
purpose of cutting timber in the neighbouring 
forest. A plan was laid in Massachusetts to dis- 
lodge them, and a considerable fleet coUectefl for 
the purpose ; but the plan failed of success, and 
the whole nmrine force fell into the hands of the 
British, except some vessels which were burnt by 
the Americans themsolves. 

In October, General Lincoln iind Count d'Es- 
taing made an assault upon Savannah : but they 
were repulsed with considorahlo loss. In tin's 
action, the celebrated Polisli Count t'ulaski, wlio 
had acquired the reputation of a bra\x> .soldier, 
was mortally wounded. 

In this summer Gonrral Sullivan marched with 
a body of troops into the Indian country, in the 
w. part of the New York State, and burnt and 
destroyed all their provisions and sottlcineiUs 
that fell in their way. 

On the opening of the campaign the next year, 
1780, the British troops left Rhode Island.' An 
expetlition, under General Clinton and Lord 
Comwallis, was undertaken against Charleston, 

VOL. V. 

S. Carolina, where (ieneral Linrolu commanded, 
'riiis town, after a clo^e siege of about six weeks, 
was surreiulered to the British commander; ami 
General Lincoln, and the whole American garri- 
son, wen" n\ade prisoners. 

(ieneral (intes was appointed to the command 
in the ,». department, and another army collected. 
In August, Lord ('ornwallis attacked the Ameri- 
can troops at (Jamden, in S. ('aroKna, and routed 
them with considerable loss. He afterwards 
marched through the Southern States, and sup- 
posed them entirely subdued. 

The same summer the British troops made fre- 
quent incursions from New York into the Jer- 
seys, ravaging and plundering the country. 

In July a French fleet, under Monsieur de 
Ternay, with a body of land Ibrces, commanded 
by ("ount dc Rocnambeau, arrived at Rhode 
Island, to the great Joy of the Americans. 

This year was also distinguished by the trea- 
chery oi' General Arnold. General Washington 
having some business to transact at Weathers- 
field, in Connecticut, left Arnold to command the 
important post of W. Point, which guards a pass 
in Hudson's river, about 60 miles from New 
York. Arnold's conduct in the city of Philadel 
phia, the preceding winter, had been censured ; 
and the treatment he received, in consequence, 
had given him offence. 

He determined to toke revenge, and, for this 
purpose, he entered into a negociation with Sir 
Henry Clinton to deliver W. Point and the army 
into the hands of the British. While General 
Washington was absent, he dismoimted the can- 
non in some of the forts, and took other steps to 
render the taking of the post easy for the enemy. 

The plan was, however, wholly defeated. 
Major Andr6, adjutant-general in the British 
arnjy, aid-dc-camp to General Clinton, a brave 
oflic'er, who had been sent up the river as a spy, 
to concert the plan of operations with Arnold, 
was taken, condemned by a court-martial, and 
eX'M-uted. Arnold made his escape, by getting 
on boiird the Vulture, a British vessel which lay 

the river. General Washington arrived in 


camp just after Arnold made his escape, and re- 
stored order in the garrison. 

After the defeat of General Gates, in Carolina, 
General Greene was appointed to command in 
the southern department. From this period, 
things in that (|uarter wore a more tavourablw 
aspect. Colonel Tarletoii, the active commander 
of the Britisli legion, was (k'feated by (jreneral 
Morgan, the commander of the riflemen. 

After a variety of movements the two armiesj 

I *~: 






U X I T E I) S T A T E S. 




(nut at (itiildCord, in Cm-olina. Hero «va . one of 
till' Im's( foiijrht lU'Jions «hirinp tlio war. (Jcncral 
(iicoiie and Jjord ("ornwiillis oxiM'ted tlienisolvos 
111 the lu*ad cf tiioir respective arniios -. and al- 
tliuu^h the Americans were ohliged to retire tVoni 
the field, yet tlie British army sniVered an ini- 
niense loss, and coulil not pursue tlie victory. 
The at'.ion happened March i"), 1781. 

In the sprinpr, (uMieral Arnold, who was made 
a bripadier-jieneral in the Britisli service, with a 
^inall nundter of troops sailed tor Virginia, and 
pluiidered ' e country. This called the attention 
ol' the Trench fleet to that qnarter, and a naval 
enjiai>enient took place between the English and 
I'rench, in which sonic of the Eng;lish ships were 
niucii damaged, and one entirely disabled. 

After the battle of Guildford General Greene 
moved towards S. Carolina to drive the British 
iVoni their posts in that State. Here Lord Raw- 
don obtained an inconsiderable advantage over 
tl;e Americans, near Caaidon. But General 
Greene more than recover d this disadvantage, 
l)V a successful action at the Eutaw Springs; 
wl-»re General Marian distinguished himseii, and 
Colonel Washington was wounded and taken 

Lord Cornwallis, finding General Greene suc- 
cessful in Carolina, nuircjied to Virginia, col- 
lected his forces, and fortified himself in York 
Town. In the meantime Arnold made an in- 
cursion into Connecticut, burnt a part of New 
London, took Fort (Jriswold by storm, and put 
tlic garrison to the sword. The garrison con- 
sisted chiefly of nien collected from the little 
town of Groton. The attack was most violent : 
nnd in one hour almost all its heads of families 
were corpse <. Colonel Ledyard, who commanded 
tlie fort, was slain with iiis own sword after he 
had surrendere«l. 

The Martpiis de la Fayette, a brave and gene- 
rous nobleuuiu, iiad been dispatched with about 
'iOOO light infantry from the main arniy, to watch 
the motions of Lord Cornwallis in Virginia. He 
prosecuted this expedition with the greatest mili- 
tary ability. Although his force was much in- 
ferior to that of the enemy, he obliged them 
to leave Richmond and Williamsburgli, and to 
seek protection under their shipping. 

About the last of August Count de Grasse ar- 
rived in the Chesapeak(<, and blocked up the Bri- 
tish troops at York-town. Admiral Greaves, 
with a British fleet, appeared oft' the Capes, and 
an action succeeded; but it was not decisive. 

General Washington liad before this tinie 

the French troops, to the ,v. ; and as soon as he 
heard of the arrival of tlie French fleet in the 
Chesapeake, he made rapid marches to the head 
of Elk, where embarking, the troops soon arrived 
at York-town. 

A closfc siege immediately commenced, and 
was carried on with such vigour, by the combined 
forces of America and France, tliat Lord Corn- 
wallis was obliged to surrender. This event, 
which took place October 19, 1781, decided the 
contest in favour of America, and laid the foun- 
dation of a general peace. 

A few months after the surrender of Cornwallis, 
the British evacuated all their posts in 8. Caro- 
lina and Georgia, and retired to the main army 
in New York. 

The next spring, 1782, Sir Guy Carleton ar- 
rived in New Yoi-k, and took the command of 
the British army in America : immediately on 
his arri'il, he acquainted (leneral Washington 
and Con.Tress that negociations tor peace had 
commenced at Paris. 

On November 30, 1782, the provisional arti- 
cles of peace and reconciliation, between Great 
Britain and the American States, were signed at 
Paris : by which Great Britain acknowledged 
the independence and sovereignty of the Unite<l 
States of America. These articles were ratified 
by a definitive treaty, September 3, 1783. This 
peace was negociated on the part of (Jreat Bri- 
tain by Mr. Oswald, and the definitive treaty was 
signed i)y Mr. Hartley ; and on the part of the 
I'nited States by John Adams, John Jay, and 
Benjamin Franklin, Esqrs. The characters of 
these men having been such as to excite much 
interest, a short sketch of them will be here given. 

Mr. Adams was a descemlent of one of the flrst 
families that founded the colony of Massachiisett's 
Bay, in 1630. He was born at Braintrt>e, in 
Massachusetts, October 19, 173;). 

Mr. John Jay was a descendent of one of the 
French Protestant emigrants, who came to Ame- 
rica, in consecjuence of the revocation of the 
Edict of NantK, in UiHb. It is remarkable that 
among the descendants of tiiese emigrants, some 
of whom settled in New York and some in Bos- 
ton, there have been the following eminent cha- 
racters : James Bowdoin, Esq. who had been 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, nnd, at his death, was President of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Henry 
Laurens, Esq. who has been President of Con- 
gress and Ambassador to a foreign court ; Elias 
Boiidinot, E*"!- who has been President of Con- 
moved the main body of his army, together with gress ; and John Jay, Esq. who has been Presi-] 


)n as !io 

in the 
lie liend 


ed, and 
d Corn- 
s event, 
ided the 
lie Ibiin- 

S. Caio- 
aiii army 

leton ar- 
iinand oi' 
lately on 
eace had 

inal arti- 
en Great 
signed at 
le United 
re ratified 
^3. This 
ireat 15ri- 
reaty was 
ii-t of the 
Javj and 
racters of 
rite innch 
ere {jiven. 
)f the first 
intree, in 

me of the 
> to Aine- 
011 of the 
able that 
ints, some 
le in Bos- 
neiit cha- 
lad been 
iit of the 
t of Con- 
it: Klias 
t of Con- 
en Presi-] 






I dent of Conjjress, Ambassador toa foreij^n court, 
and Chief Jnstice of the American States. 

i)r. Frankliu was born in Boston, January 6, 
ITfH), O. S. He was educated to the bnsiness of 
printint;. In the (irst ^4 years of his life he 
passed thronsjh an uncommon variety of scenes, 
which he improved to valnalilc purposes. Ho 
oarly discovered a strona^and distins^uishing; mind, 
and a fertile and inventive genius. About the 
as;o of 24 he married Miss Read of Philadelphia, 
where he had established himself as a printer. 
In 1736 he was chosen Clerk of the General .As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania ; and the year following 
was anpointed Postmaster in Philadelphia. In 
1744, lie broached the idea of the American Phi- 
losophical Society, and had the pleasure to find 
it meet with all the success he could desire. He 
wus the principal instrument also in nlanning and 
establishing the Academy of Philanelphia, from 
which have sprung the College and University of 
that city. 

In liiJ, and for 20 years after, successively, 
he was chosen a representative to the Assembly 
for the city of Philadelphia ; in which situation 
he was highl respected and singularly useful. 
He was appo. ted joint Postmaster-general with 
Mr. William Hunter in 1753. He was greatly 
instrumental in carrying into effect Dr. Bond's 
plan t()r an hospital in Philadelphia, the advan- 
tages of which have been extensively experienced. 
By this time his chanicter as a philosopher was 
known in Europe as well as America; and he 
receive I the honorary degree of Master of Arts 
from Yale and Harvard Colleges. 

In 1754 he was appointed one of the Commis- 
sioners, from Pennsylvania, to attend the cele- 
brated AII^ iiy Congress, in order to devise a plan 
for defending the country against the French. 
Here he drew up his " Albany Plan of Union," 
which was unanimously agreed to by (longrest : 
but, though wisely adapted to preserve the har- 
n^oiiy between Great Britain and her colonies, 
'vas ultimately rejected. 

In 1757 the Assembly of Pennsylv:inia, indig- 
nant at the obstinacy of the governors who were 
shackled with instructions not tu assent to any 
tax bill, that did not exemjit the estates of the 
proprietors from contributing to the public ser- 
vice, determined to send an agent to London, to 
petition the King for redress. Mr. I'Vankiin was 
appointed for this purpose, and ably negociated 
the business; for which, on his relurn to Piiiia- 
delphia, he received the thanks of the General 

His distinguished literary reputation i)rocnred 

him, while in Enghiiid, the honorary title of Doc 
tor of Laws from Kdinburgh and Oxford Univer- 

Some time after this he was again sent to Eng- 
land, by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, with a 
petition to have a new form of government es- 
tablished, and to be taken under the royal pro- 
tection. Before his return to America he tra- 
velled, in 1766, into Germany, and, in 1767, into 
France ; and wherever he appeared he was re- 
ceived with the highest respect and veneration. 
His endeavours to prevent the enaction of the 
stamp act, the ability with which he sustained his 
examination at the bar of the House of Commons, 
his obtaining and forwarding to Boston the in- 
sidious letters of Governor Hutchinson, pro- 
cured for him, on his return to America, the most 
unbounded applause of his countrymen. He 
was soon elected a memlier of Congress ; and, in 
1776, was chosen with John Adams and Edward 
Rutledge, Escirs. a Committee of Congress to 
wait on Lor(^Howe, and to inquire into the ex- 
tent of his powers to treat of the restoration of 
peace. Lord Howe having expressed his con- 
cern at being obliged to distress those whom he 
so much regarded, Dr. Franklin assured him that 
the Americans, out of reciprocal regard, would 
endeavour to lessen, as much as possible, the 
pain he might feel on their account, by taking 
the utmost care of themselves. 

In 1776 a convention was called, in Pennsyl- 
vania, to establish a new form of government. 
Dr. Franklin was appointed President. The 
latter end of the same year he was sent to Franco, 
where, with the assistance of Mr. Silas Dean, he 
negociated a treaty with 5'iance, Feb. 1778. 

We have already mentioned his being one of 
the three commissioners who negociated the peace 
of 1783. He returned to America in 1785, aiuj 
was chosen President of the Suprenu> Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania, and in I7S7 was ap- 
jointed a delegate from that State to (lie august 
tody which formed the present frame of govern- 
ment of the United States. 

On April 17, 1790, afler a long and pttinful 
illness, he resigned a life which had i)een singu- 
larly devoted to the welfare of his country and 
the good of mankind. 

Among the many testimonies of respe<'t paid 
to his memory, the Congress of the United States, 
and th(> National Assembly of I'Vauce, went into 
mourning on his death. 

Dr. I'rnnklin possessed an origiuid genius 
The faculties of his mind qiiaiitied him (o pene- 
trate into every science ; and hi-; singular and | 



• t ,' 


( H. 

I iiiinMtiilling' diligence left no tiehi of knowledge 
unox|>lort>d. Ko wns oniincnilv dititinuuiHlied u» 
ii poliliriun and a Kriiolar, and if poissihle more 
so as a man and a ritizon. Ht> wuh ffrent in com- 
mon tlijngK, and his life was UHcfuloej'ond most 
men that have lived. Tliu whole tenor of his life 
waH a perpetual lecture aj>;ainst Hie idle, the ex- 
iravajs^ant, and the proud. It was his principal 
aim to inspire mankind with a love of indiistrv, 
itMnperance, and frugality. Hy a judicious divi- 
sion of time, he acquired the art of doing every 
thing to advantage. In whatever situation he 
was placed, by chance or design, he extracted 
something useful for himself or others. liis 
manners were easy and accommodating, and his 
address winning and respectful. All who knew 
him speak of him as an agreeable man ; and all 
who have lieard of him applaud him as a very 
useful one. A man so wise and so amiable, could 
not Init have many admirers and many friends. 
(American Museum, vol. viii.) 

Hut, to return to our history, we find that, 
arcordiiig (o the report <if the committee an- 
pointed for that purpose, the foreign debt of tlie 
(Wiited .States, incurred by the war, aaiouuted to 
7,885,083 dollars, and the domestic debt to 
:i4,llu,!^90, total at 4.v. 6d. each, equal to 
£.9,430,084 sterling, tlie interest of which, at 6 

Ser cent, is £.3()7,0()3. Hut the cost to Great 
Iritain is moderately computed at _jg.l 15,034,914 
since January, 1775. As to the loss of men dur- 
ing the unhappy war, the States of America, ac- 
cortiingto authentic estimates, lost, by the sword 
and ill prison, neiir 80,000 men ; and, by the 
British returns at New York, the number of sol- 
diers killed in the service amounted to 4J,()JJ. 

Sucii was the end of the contest between (Ireat 
Hritain and America. A contest by which the 
latter attained to an independent rank amongst 
the nations that may be productive of more im- 
portant consequences than may yet Ih» foreseen ; 
and in which the former, happily for herself, was 
forced to relinquish a sovereignty that served 
only to depress her own internal industry, and 
retard her prosperity. She has, in the event, only 
suffered a diminution of an unwieldy empire, 
which has been more than compensated by un in- 
crease of population, commerce, revenues, and 

Holland acknowledged the independence of 
the United States, April 19, 178'i: Sweden, Fo- 
bruary 5 ; Denmark. February "ib ; Spain, in 
March: and Russia, in July, t78J. 

Mo sooner was peace restored by the definitive 
treaty, and the British troops withdrawn from the 

country, than the United States began to expe- 
rience the defects of their general governmont. 
While an enemy was in the country, fear, which 
had first impellod the colonies to associatn in 
mutual defence, continued to operate as a band 
of political union. It gave to the resolutions and 
recommendations of Congress the force of lawa, 
and generally commanded a ready acquiescence 
on the part of the State legislatures. Articles of 
confederation and perpetual union had been 
framed in Congress, and submitted to the consi- 
deration of the States, in the year 1778. Some 
of the States immediately acceded to them ; but 
others, which had not unappropriated lands, he- 
sitated to subscribe a compact, which would give 
an advantage to the States which possessed large 
tracts i)f unlocated lands, and were thus capable 
of a great superiority in wealth and population. 
All objections, however, had been overrcnrit, and, 
by the accession of Maryland in March, 1781, 
the articles of confederation were ratified, as the 
frame of government for the United States. 

Thcf J articles, however, were framed during 
the rage of war, when a principle of common 
safety supplied the place ot a coercive power in 
government, by men who could have had no ex- 
perience in the art of governing an extensive 
country, and under circumstances the most criti- 
cal and embarrassing. To have offered to the 
people, at that time, a system of government 
armed with the powers necessary to regulate and 
controul the contending interests of 13 States, 
and the possession of millions 6f people, might 
have raised a jealousy between the States or in 
the minds of the people at large, that would have 
weakened the operations of war, and perhaps 
have rendered an union impracticable. Hence 
the numerous detects of the confederation. 

On the conclusion of peace these defects began 
to be felt. Each State assumed the right of dis- 
puting the propriety of the resolutions of Con- 
gress, and the interest of an individual State was 
placed in opposition to the common interest of 
the union. In addition to this source of division, 
a jealousy of the powers of Congress began to be 
excited in the minds of people. 

This jealousy of the privileges of freemen had 
been roused by the oppressive act of the British 
parliament ; and no sooner liad the danger from 
this quarter ceased, than the fears of people 
changed tiieir object, and were turned against 
their own rulers. 

In this situation there were not wanting men 
of industry and talents, who had been enemies to 
the revolution, and who embraced the opportu-] 




I to oxpe- 
L>nr, which 
iRocintfl in 
nn a band 
utionn and 
e of laws, 

irticles of 
had been 
the consi- 
IS. Some 
them ; but 
lands, he- 
I'uuld i^ive 
tRHed lartfe 
us capable 
(•crsc, and, 
irch, 1781, 
lied, aH the 

led during 
f common 
R power in 
had no ex- 
moHt criti- 
tred to the 
•riiliitc and 
i3 States, 
pie, might 
tatea or in 
vould have 
id perhaps 
e. Hence 

fects began 
ght of dia- 
1)8 of Con- 
State was 
interest of 
egan to be 

eemen had 
th(> British 
m^rpr from 
f people 
ed ngainpt 

tnting men 
enemies to 
' opportu-] 

fnity to multiply the apprehension" of people and 
increaise the popular niscontentn A remarkable 
instance of thi" hr.pp"iied in. ( .i. ;cticut. As 
soon iiK the tumults of war han ttubsided, an 
attempt was made to convince the people that 
the act of Congress, passed in 1778, granting to 
the oflicers of the army hnlf-pay for life, was 
highly unjudtand tyrannical ; ana that it was but 
the first step towards the establishment of pen- 
sions and an uncontrolable despotism. The net 
of Congress passed in 1783, conunuting half-pay 
for life for five years full pay, was desigiic([ to 
appease the apprehensions of people, and to con- 
vince them that this gratuity was intended merely 
to indemniiy the oiiicers tor their losses by the 
depreciating of the paper currer.-y, and not to 
establish a precedent for the granting of pensions. 
This act, however, did not satisfy the people, 
who supposed that the oflicers had been generally 
indemnified for the loss of their pay, by the grants 
made them, from time to time, by the legislatures 
of the several States. Besides, the act, while it 
{rave five years full pay to the officers, allowed 
l)ut one year's pay to the privates; a distinction 
which had great influence in exciting and con- 
tinuing the popular iennent, and one that turned 
a large share of the public rage against the offi- 
cers themselves. 

The moment an alarm was made respecting 
tliis act of Congress, the enemies of independence 
became active in blowing up the flame, by spread- 
ing reports unfavourable to the general gov^-ni- 
ment, and tending to create public dissensions. 
Newspapers, in some parts of the countrv, were 
filled with inflammatory publications ; while false 
reports and groundless insinuations were indus- 
triously circulated to tlie prejudice of Congress 
and the oflicers of the late army. Among u peo- 
ple feelingly alive to every thing that could afl'ect 
the rights for which tliey had been contending, 
these reports could not fail of having a powerful 
effect ; the clamour soon became general ; the 
oflicers of the army, it was believed, had at- 
tempted to raise their fortunes on the distresses 
of their fellow-citizens, and Congress become the 
tyrants of their country. 

Connecticut was tlie seat of this uneasiness ; 
although other States wore mudli agitated on the 
occasion. But the inhabitants of that Slate, ac 
customed to order and a due subordination to the 
laws, did not proceed to outrages; they took 
their usual mode of collecting the senseof the 
State--assembled in town meetings — appointed 
committees to meet in convention, and consult 
what measures should be adopted to procure a 

redress of their grievances. In this convention, 
which was hold at Middletown, some nugatory 
resolves were passed, expressing the disapproba- 
tion of the half-pay act, and the subsequent com- 
mutation of the grant tor five vears whole pay. 
The same spirit also discovereif itself in the as- 
sembly, at their October session, 1783. A re- 
monstrance against the acts in favour of the 
oflTicers was framed in the House of Representa- 
tives, and, notwithstanding the Upper House 
refused to concur in the measure, it was sent to 

During this situation of aflkirs, the public 
odium against the officers was augmented by 
another circumstance. The oflicers, just before 
the dislKinding of the army, had formed a society, 
called by the name of the Cincinnati, after the 
Ilomaii Dictator, Cincinnatus. 

Whatever were the real views uf the framers 
of this institution, its design was generally under- 
stood to bo harmless anu honourable. The os- 
tensible views of the society could not however 
screen it from populitr jealousy. A spirited 
pamphlet appeared in S. Carolina, the avowed 
production of Mr. Burke, one of the judges of 
the supreme court in that State, in which the 
author attempted to prove that the principles, on 
which the society was formed, would, in process 
of time, originate and estaldish an order of nobi- 
lity in the country, which would be repugnant to 
the genius of republican governments, and dan- 
gerous to liberty. This pamphlet appeared in 
ConiiecAcut, during the commotions raised by the 
half-pa^ and commutation acts, and contributed 
not a little to spread the flame of opposition. 

Notwithstanding the discontents of the people 
were general, and ready to burst forth in sedi- 
tion, yet men of information, viz. the oflicers of 
government, the clergy, and persons of liberal 
education, were mostly opposed to the uncon- 
stitutional steps taken by the committees and 
convention at Middletown. They supported the 
propriety of the measures of Congress, both by 
conversation and writing, proved that such grants 
to the army were necessary to keep the troops 
together, and that the expense would not be 
enormous nor oppressive. During the close of 
the year 1783, every possible exertion was made 
to enlighten tliu people, and such was the effect 
of the arguments used by the minority ; that i.i 
the beginning of the following year, the oppo< 
sitio'n subsided, the committees were dismissed, 
and tran(|uillity restored to the State. In May, 
the legislature were able to carry several mea- 
sures which lud betbre been extremely unpo-] 





I '''I \ • 

» *. I i m 


fptilar. An act was passed (^ranting tlie impost 
of 6ve per cent, to Congress ; another givinjy 
great encouragement to commerce ; and several 
towns were incorporated with extensive privi- 
leges, for the purpose of regulating the exports 
of the State, and facilitating the collection of 

The opposition to the congressional acts in 
favour of their officers, and to the order of the 
Cincinnati, did not rise to the same pitch in the 
other States as in Connecticut ; yet it produced 
much disturbanck^. in Massachusetts, and some 
others. Jealousy of power had been universally 
spread among the people of the United States. 
The destruction of the old forms of govern- 
ments, and the licentiousness of war, had, in a 
great measure, broken their habits of obedience ; 
their passions had been inflamed by the cry of 
despotism ; and like centinels, who have been 
suddenly surprized by the approach of an enemy, 
the rustling of a leaf was sufficient to give them 
an alarm. This spirit of jealousy operated with 
other causes to relax the energy of federal ope- 

During the war, vast sums of paper currency 
had been emitted by Congress, and large quan- 
tities of specie had been introduced, towards the 
close of the war, by the French army, and the 
Spanish trade. This plenty of money enabled 
the States to comply with the first reciuisitions of 
Congress ; so that during two or tnree years, 
the federal treasury was, in some measure, sup- 
plied. But when the danger of war had ceased, 
and the vast importations of foreign goods had 
lessened the quantity of circulating specie, the 
States began to be very remiss m furnishing 
their proportion of monies. The annihilation 
of the credit of the paper bills had totally 
stopped their circulation, and the specie was 
leaving the country in cargoes for remittances to 
Great Britain ; still the luxurious habits of the 
people, contracted during the war, called for 
new supplies of goods, and private gratification 
seconded the narrow policy of state interest in 
defeating the operations of the general govern- 

Thus the revenues of Congress were annually 
diminishing ; some of the States wholly neglect- 
ing to make provision for paying the interest of 
the national debt ; others making but a partial 
provision, until the scanty supplies received from 
a few of the richest States, would hardly satisfy 
the demands of the civil list. 

This weakness of the federal government, in 
conjunction with the flood of certificates or public 

securities, which Congress could neither fund 
nor pay, occasioned thoin to depreciate to a very 
)nsiderahle value. The otticers and soldiers 


of the late ar.ny, and those who furnished sup- 
plies for public exigencies, were obliged to re- 
ceive for wages these certificates, or promissory 
notes, which passed at a fifth, an eighth, or a 
tenth of their nominal value; being thus de- 
prived at once of the greatest part of the reward 
due for their services. Some indeed profited by 
speculations in these evidences of the public 
debt; but such as were under a necessity of 
parting with them, were robbed of that support 
which'they had a right to expect and demand 
from their countrymen. 

Pennsylvania indeed made a provision for 
paying the interest of her debt, both state and 
federal ; assuming her supposed proportion of 
the continental debt, and giving the creditors of 
her own State notes in exchange for those of the 
United States. The resources of that State are 
immense, but she was not able to make punctual 
payments, even in a depreciated paper cur- 

M'assachusetts, in her zeal to comply fiilly 
with the requisitions of Congress, and satisfy 
the demands of her own creditors, laid a heavy 
tax upon the people. This was the immediate 
cause of the rebellion in that State, in 1786. 
But a heavy debt lying on the State added to 
burdens of the same nature, upon almost every 
corporation within it ; a decline, or rather an 
extinction of public credit ; a relaxation and 
corruption of manners, and a free use of foreign 
luxuries ; a decay of trade and manufiictures, 
with a prevailing scarcity of money ; and, above 
all, individuals involved in debt to each other. 
These were the real, though more remote causes 
of the insurrection. It was the tax which the 
people were required to pay, that caused them to 
feel the evils which we have enumerated — this 
called forth all their other grievances ; and the 
first act of violence committed was the burning 
or destroy iiiff? of the tax bill. This sedition threw 
the State into a convulsion which lasted about a 
year; courts of justice were violently obstructed; 
the collection of debts was suspended; and a 
body of armed troops, under the command of 
General Lincoln, was employed during the win- 
ter of 1786, to disperse the insurgents. Yet so 
numerous were the latter in the counties of 
Worcester, llampsliire, and Berkshire, and so 
obstinately combined to the execution of law by 
force, that the governor and oouiicii of the State 
thought proper not to intrust General Lincoln] 






)viflion for 
I state and 
)portion of 
[•reditors of 
liose of the 
t State are 
ke punctual 
paper cur- 

mply fully 
and satisfy 
id a heavy 

e, in 1786. 
e added to 
most every 
• rather an 
xation and 
e of foreign 
and, above 
jach other, 
note causes 

which the 
sed them to 
rated — this 
and the 
le burning 
ition threw 
:od about a 
obstructed ; 
[led; and a 
omniand of 
iig the win- 
s. Yet so 
counties of 
ire, and so 
I of law by 
tt' the State 
al Lincoln] 

[with military powers, except to act on the de- 
fensive, and to repel force with force, in case 
the insurgents should attack him. The leaders 
of the rebels, however, were not men of talents ; 
they were desperate, but without fortitude : and 
even while they were supported with a superior 
force, they appeared to be impressed with that 
consiioHsncss of guilt, which awes the most 
daring wretch, end makes him shrink from bis 

f)iirpose. 'Ibis appears by the conduct of a 
arge party of tie rebels before the magazine at 
Springfield, when' General Shepard, with a small 
guard, was statioied to protect the continental 
stores. The insurgents appeared upon the 
plain, with a vast superiority of numbers, but a 
tew shot from the artillery made the multitude 
retreat in disorder with the loss of four men. 
This spirited conduct of General Shepard, with 
the industry, perseverance, and prudent firmness 
of General Lincoln, dispersed the rebels — drove 
the leaders from the State, and restored tran- 
quillity. An act of indemnity was passed in the 
legislature for all the insurgents, except a few 
of the leaders, on condition they should become 
peaceable subjects, and take the oath of alle- 
giance. The leaders afterwards petitioned for 
pardon, which, from motives of policy, was 
granted by the legislature. See an elegant and 
impartial History of this Rebellion, by George 
Richards Minot, Esq. 

But the loss of public credit, popular dis- 
turbances, and insurrections, were not the only 
evils which were generated by the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of the times. The emissions of bills 
of credit and tender laws were added to the 
black catalogue of political disorders. 

The expedient of supplying the deficiencies of 
specie, by emissions of paper bills, was adopted 
very early in the colonies. The expedient was 
obvious, and produced good effects. In a new 
country, where population is rapid, and the 
value of lands increasing, the farmer finds an 
advantage in paying legal interest for money ; 
for if he can pay the interest by his profits, the 
increasing value of his lands will in a few years 
discharge the principal. 

In no colony was this advantage more sensibly 
experienced than in Pennsylvania. The emi- 
grations to that province were numerous — the 
natural population rapid — and these circinn- 
stances combined, advanced the value of real 
property to an astonishing degree. As the first 
settlers there, as well as in other provinces, 
were poor, the purchase of a few foreign arti- 
cles drained them of specie. Indeed, for many 

years, the balance of trade must have necessarily 
been greatly against the colonies. 

But bills of credit, emitted by the State and 
loaned to the industrious inhabitants, supplied 
the want of specie, and enabled the farmer to 

[)urchase stock. These bills were generally a 
egal tender in all colonial or private contracts, 
and the sums issued did not generally exceed 
the quantity requisite for a medium of trade ; 
they retained their full nominal value in the pur- 
chase of commodities : but as they were not re- 
ceived by the British merchants, in payment of 
their goods, there was a great demand for specie 
and bills, which occasioned the latter at various 
times to appreciate. Thus was introduced a dif- 
ference between the En«;lish sterling money and 
the currencies of the colonies, which remains to 
this day. 

The advantages the colonies had derived from 
bills of credit, under the British government, 
suggested to Congress, in 1773, the idea of issu- 
ing bills for the purpose of carrying on the war ; 
and this was perhaps their only expedient. 
Money could not be raised by taxation — it could 
not be borrowed. The first emissions had no 
other effect upon the medium of commerce, than 
to drive the specie from circulation. But when 
the paper substitute! for specie had, by repeated 
emissions, augmented the sum in circulation, 
much beyond Hie usual sum of specie, the bills 
iiegan to lose their value. The depreciation 
continued in proportion to the sums emitted, 
until 70 and even 150 nominal paper dollars, 
were hardly an equivalent for one Spanish milled 
dollar. Still, from the year 1775 to 1781, this 
depreciating paper currency was almost the only 
medium of trade. It supplied the place of specie, 
and enabled Congress to support a numerousarmy ; 
until the sum in circulation amounted to 300 mil- 
lions of dollars. But about the year 1780, specie 
began to be plentiful, being introduced by the 
French army, a private trade with the Spanish 
islands, and an illicit intercourse with the Bri- 
tish garrison at New York. This circumstance 
accelerated the depreciation of paper bills, until 
their value had sunk almost to nothing. Ir 1781, 
the merchants and brokers in the Southern States, 
apprehensive of the approaching fete of the cur? 
rency, pushed immense quantities of it suddenly 
into New England — made vast purchases of 
goods in Boston — and instantly the bills vanished 
from circulation. 

The whole history of this continental paper is 
a history of public and private frauds. Old 
specie debts were often paid in a depreciated! 






I •■; 

[currency — and even new contracts for a few 
weeks or days were often dischan;ed with a small 
part of the value received. From this plenty 
and fluctuating state of the medium sprung hosts 
of speculators and itinerant trad«»rs, who left 
their honest occupations for the prospect of im- 
mense gains, in a fraudulent business, that de- 
pended on no fixed principles, and the profits of 
which could be reduced to no certain calcu- 

To increase these evils, a project was formed 
to fix the prices of articles, and restrain persons 
from giving or receiving more for any commodity 
than the price stated by authority. These regu- 
lating acts were reprobated by every man ac- 
quainted with commerce and finance; as they 
were intended to prevent an effect without re- 
moving the cause. To attempt to fix the value 
of money, while streams of bills were incessantly 
flowing from the treasury of the United States, 
was as ridiculous as an attempt to restrain the 
rising of water in rivers amidst showers of 

Notwithstanding all opposition, some States 
fVamed and attempted to enforce these regulating 
acts. The effect was, a momentary apparent 
stand in the price of articles ; innumerable acts 
of collusion and evasion among the dishonest ; 
numberless injuries done to the honest; and 
finally, a total disregard of all such regulations, 
and the consequent contenpt of laws, and the 
authority of the magistrate. 

During these fluctuations of business, occa- 
sioned by the variable value of money, people 
lost sight, in some measure, of the steady prin- 
ciples which had before governed their inter- 
course with each other. Speculation followed 
and relaxed the rigour of commcricial obli- 

Industry likewise had suffered by the flood of 
money which had deluded the States. The prices 
of produce had risen in proportion to the quan- 
tity of money in circulation, and the demand for 
the commodities of the country. This made the 
acquisition of money easy, and indolence and 
luxury, with their train of desolating conse- 
quences, spread themselves among all descrip- 
tions of people. 

But as soon as hostilities between Great Bri- 
tain and America were suspended, the scene was 
changed. The bills emitted by Congress had 
for some time ceased to circulate; and the 
specie of the country was soon drained off 
to pay for foreign goods, the importations of 
which exceeded all calculations. Within two 

years from the close of the wiir, a scarcity of 
money was the general cry. The merchants 
found it impossible to collect their debts, and 
make punctual remittances to their creditors in 
Great Britain ; and the consumers were driven 
to the necessity of retrenching their superfluities 
in living, and of returning to their ancient habits 
of industry and ceconomy. 

This change was, however, progressive and 
slow. In many of the States wliich suffered by 
the numerous debts they had contracted, anil 
by the distresses of war, the people called aloud 
for emissions of paper bills to supply the defi- 
ciency of a medium. The depreciation of the 
continental bills was a recent example of the ill 
effects of such an expedient, and the impossi- 
bility of supporting the credit of paper was 
urged by the opposers of the measure as a sub- 
stantial argument against adopting it. But no- 
thing would silence the popular clamour ; and 
many men of the first talents and eminence 
united their voices with that of the populace. 
Paper money had formerly maintained its credit, 
and been of singular utility : and past expe- 
rience, notwithstanding a change of circum- 
stances, was an argument in its favour that bore 
down all opposition. 

Pennsylvania, although one of the richest 
States in the union, was the first to emit bills of 
credit, as a substitute for specie. But the revo- 
lution had removed the necessity of it, at the 
same time that it had destroyed the means hj 
which its former credit had been supported. 
Lands, at the close of the war, were not rising 
in value — bills on London could not so readily 
be purchased, as while the province was de- 
pendent on Great Britain — the State was split 
into parties, one of which attempted to defeat 
the measures most popular witn the other — 
and the depreciation of continental bills, with 
the injuries which it had done to individuals, 
inspired a general distrust of all public pro- 

Notwithstanding a part of the money was 
loaned on good landed security, and the faith of 
that wealthy State pledged for the redemption of 
the whole at its nominal value, yet the advan- 
tages of specie as a medium of commerce, espe- 
cially as an article of remittance to London, 
soon made a difference of ten per cent, between 
the bills of credit and specie. This difference 
may be considered rather as an appreciation of 
gold and silver, than a depreciation of paper ; 
but its effects, in a commercial state, must bo 
highly prejudicial. It opens the door to firauds ! 



;^ ,'( 



of it, at the 


fofall ltindH,an(l frauds nve usiially practised on 
the honest and unsuspecting, especially upon all 
classes of labourers. 

N. Carolina, S, Carolina, and Georgia, had 
recourse to the same wretched expedient to sup- 
ply themselves with money ; not reflecting that 
industry, frugality, and good commercial laws, 
are the only means of turning the balance of 
tnide in favour of a country, and that this 
balance is the only permanent source of solid 
wealth and ready money. But the WUs they 
emitted shared a worse fate than those of Penn- 
sylvania ; they expelled almost all the circulat- 
ing cash from the States ; they lost a great part 
of their nominal value, they impoverished the 
merchants, and embarrassed the planters. 

The State of Virginia tolerated a base prac- 
tice among the inhabitants of cutting dollars and 
smaller pieces of silver, in order to prevent it 
from leaving the State. This pernicious prac- 
tice prevailed also in Georgia. A dollar was 
usually cut in five pieces, and each passed for a 
quarter ; so that tfie man who cut it gained a 
quarter, or rather a fifth. 

Maryland escaped the calamity of a paper 
currency. The house of delegates brought for- 
ward a bill for the emission of bills of credit to 
a large amount ; but the Senate firmly and suc- 
cessfully re><isted the pernicious scheme. The 
opposition between the two houses was violent 
and tumultuous ; it threatened the State with 
anarchy ; but the question was carried to the 
people, and the good sense of the Senate finally 

New Jersey is situated between two of the 
largest commercial towns in America, and con- 
sequently drained of specie. This State also 
emitted a large sum in bills of credit, which 
served to pay the interest of the public debt ; 
but the currency depreciated, as in other States. 

Rhode Island exhibited a melancholy proof 

of that licentiousness and anarchy which always 

ral principles. In 
a rage for supplying the State with money, and 

follows a relaxation of the moral principles. 

filling every man's pocket without obliging him 
to earn it by his diligence, the legislature passed 
an act for making 100,000 pounds in bills; a sum 
much more than sufficient for a medium of trade 
ill that State, even without any specie. The 
merchants in Newport and Providence opposed 
the act with firmness ; and their opposition 
added fresh vigour to the resolution of the as- 
'punbly, and induced them to enforce the scheme 
by a legal tender of a most extraordinary na- 
voi.. v. 

ture. They passed an act, ordaining that if any 
creditor should refuse to take their bills, for any 
debt whatever, the debtor might lodge the sum 
due with a justice of the peace, who should give 
notice of it in the public papers ; and if the cre- 
ditor did not appear and receive the money 
within six months from the first notice, his debt 
should be forfeited. This act astonished allhonest 
men ; and even the promoters of paper money- 
making in other States, and other principles, 
reprobated this act of Rhode Island, as wicked 
and oppressive. But the State was governed by 
faction. During the cry for paper money, a num- 
ber of boisterous, ignorant men, were elected 
into the legislature, from the smaller towns in 
the State. Finding themselves united wilh a 
majority in opinion, they formed and executed 
any plan their inclination suggested ; they op- 
posed every measure that was agreeable to the 
mercantile interest ; they not only made bad laws 
to suit their own wicked purposes, but appointed 
their own corrupt creatures to fill the judicial 
and executive departments. Their money de- 
preciated sufficiently to answer all their vile 
purposes in the discharge of debts — business 
almost totally ceased, all confidence was lost, the 
State was thrown into confusion at home, and 
was execrated abroad. 

Massachusetts Bay had the good fortune, amidst 
her political calamities, to prevent an emission 
of bills of credit. New Hampshire made no 

f)aper ; but in the distresses which followed her 
OSS of business after the war, the legislature 
made horses, lumber, and most articles of pro- 
duce, a legal tender in the fulfilment of con- 
tracts It IS doubtless unjust to oblige a creditor 
to receive any thing for his debt, which he had 
not in contemplation at the time of the contract. 
But as the commodities which were to be a tender 
by law, in New Hampshire, were of intrinsic 
value, bearing some proportion to the amount 
of the debt, the injustice of the law was less 
flagrant than that which enforced the tender of 
paper in Rhode Island. Indeed a similar law 
prevailed for some time in Massachusetts : and 
in Connecticut it is optional with the creditor, 
either to imprison the debtor or take land on 
execution at a price to be fixed by three indif- 
ferent freeholders ; provided no other means of 
payment shall appear to satisfy the demand. It 
must not, however, be omitted, thnt while the 
most flourishing commercial States introduced a 
paper medium, to the great injury of honest 
men, a bill for an emission of paper in Connec-] 






! i 

• I 



fticut, where there was very little specie, could 
never command more than one-eighth of the 
votes of the leeislature. The movers of the bill 
hard!)' escaped ridicule ; so generally was the 
measure reprobated as a source of frauds and 
public mischief. 

The legislature of New York, a State that 
had the least necessity and apology for making 
paper money, as her commercial advantages 
always furnish her with specie sufficient for a 
medium, issued a large sum in bills of credit, 
which supported their value better than the cur- 
rency of any other State. Still the paper raised 
the value of specie, which is always in demand 
for exportation, and this difference of exchange 
between paper and specie ever exposes com- 
merce to most of the inconveniencies resulting 
from a depreciated medium. 

Such is the history of paper money thus far ; 
a miserable sub>titute for real coin, in a coun- 
try where the reins of government are too weak 
to compel the fuliilment of public engagements, 
and where all confidence in public faith is 

While the States were thus endeavouring to 
repair the loss of specie by empty promises, and 
to support their business by shadows, rather than 
by reality, the British ministry formed some com- 
mercial regulations that deprived them of the pro- 
fits of their trade to the West Indies and Great Bri- 
tain. Heavy duties were laid upon such articles 
as were remitted to the London merchants for 
their goods, and such weretl . auties upon Ame- 
rican bottoms, that the States were almost 
wholly deprived of the carrying trade. A pro- 
hibition was laid upon the produce of the United 
States, shipped to the English West India 
Islands in American-built vessels, and in those 
manned by American seamen. These restric- 
tions fell heavy upon the Eastern States, which 
depended much upon ship-building for the support 
of their trade ; and they materially injured the 
business of the other States. 

Without a union that was able to form and 
execute a general system of commercial regula- 
tions, some of the States attempted to impose 
restraints upon the British trade that should in- 
demnify the merchant for the losses he had suf- 
fered, or induce the British ministry to enter into 
a commercial treaty, and relax the rigour of 
their navigation laws. These measures, how- 
ever, produced nothing but mischief. The States 
did not act in concert, and the restraints laid on 
the trade of one State operated to throw the 

business into the hands of its neighbour. Mas • 
sachusctts, in her zeal to counteract the effect of 
the English navigation laws, laid enormous du- 
ties upon British goods imported into that State; 
but the other States did not adopt a similar mea- 
sure ; and the loss of business soon obliged that 
State to repeal or suspend the law. Thus when 
Pennsylvania laid heavy duties on British goods, 
Delaware and New Jersey made a number of 
free ports to encourage the landing of goods 
within the limits of those States ; and the duties 
in Pennsylvania served no purpose but to create 

Thus divided, the States began to feel their 
weakness : most of the legislatures had neglected 
to comply with the requisitions of Congress for 
furnishing the federal treasury ; the resolves of 
Congress were disregarded ; the proposition for 
n general impost to be laid and collected by 
Congress was negatived, first by Rhode Island, 
and afterwards by New York, The British 
troops continued, under pretence of a breach of 
treaty on the part of America, to hold possession 
of the forts on the frontiers of the States. Many 
of the States individually were infested with 
popular commotions or iniquitous tender laws, 
while they were oppressed with public debts ; 
the certificates or public notes had lost most of 
their value, and circulated merely as the objects 
of speculation ; Congress lost their respecta- 
bility, and the United States their credit and 

In the midst of these Ciilamities, a proposition 
was made in 1785, in the House of Delegates in 
Virginia, to appoint Commissioners to meet such 
as might be appointed in the other States, who 
should form a system of commercial regulations 
for the United States, and recommend it to the 
several legislatures for adoption. Commissioners 
were accordingly appointed, and a recpiest was 
made to the legislatures of the other States to 
accede to the proposition. Accordingly, several 
of the States appointed Commissioners, who met 
at Annapolis in the summer of 1786, to consult 
what measures should be taken to unite the 
States in some general and efficient commercial 
system. But as the States were not all repre- 
sented, and the powers of the Commissioners 
were, in their opinion, too limited to propose a 
system of regulations adequate to the purposes 
of government, they agreed to recommend a 
general convention to be held at Philadelphia 
the next year, with powers to frame a general 
plan of government for the United States. This] 








rmcnsHrc appeared to the Commissioners ab- 
solutely necessary. The old confederation was 
essentially defective : it was destitute of almost 
every principle necessary to give eftect to k'gia- 

It was defective in the article of le«islatin^ 
over States, instead of individuals. All history 
testifies that recommendations will not operate 
us laws, and compulsion cannot be exercised 
over States without violence, war, and anarchy. 
The confederation was also destitute of a sanc- 
tion to its laws. When resolutions were passed 
in Congress, there was no power to compel obe- 
dience by fine, by suspension of privileges, or 
other means: it was also destitute of a ^..arantce 
for the State governments. Had:"" itate been 
invaded by its neighbour, the Union was not con- 
stitutionally bound to assist in repelling the inva- 
sion, and supporting the constitution of the 
invaded State. The confederation was further 
deficient in the principle of apportioning tl.e 
quotas of money to be furnished by each State ; 
in a want of power to form commercial laws, 
and to raise troops for the defence and security 
of the Union ; in the equal sulTragc of the 
States, which placed Rhode Island on a footing 
in Congress with Virginia ; and to crown all the 
defects, we may add the want of a judiciary 
power, to define the laws of the Union, and to 
reconcile the contradictory decisions of a number 
of independent judicatories. 

These and many inferior defects were obvious 
to the Commissioners, and therefore they urged 
a general convention, with powers to form, and 
ofier to the consideration oi the States, a system 
of general government that should be less ex- 
ceptionable: accordingly, in May, 1787, dele- 
gates from all the States, except Rhode Island, 
assembled at Philadelphia, and chose General 
Washington for their President. After four 
months deliberation, in which the clashing in- 
terests of the several States appeared in all their 
force, the convention agreed to recommend the 
plan of federal government, which we have 
already recited. 

As soon as the plan of the federal constitution 
was submitted to the legislatures of the several 
States, they proceeded to take measures for col- 
lecting tlie sense of the people upon the pro- 
oriety of adopting it.. In the small State of De- 
laware, a convention was called in November, 
which, after a few days deliberation, ratified the 
constitution without a dissenting voice. 

In the convention of Pennsylvania, held the 
f^ame month, there was a spirited opposition to 

the new form of government. The debates :verc 
long and interesting. Great abilities and firm- 
ness were displayed on both sides ; but, on the 
IStli of December, the constitution was received 
by two-thirds of the members. The minority 
were dissati'^ficd ; and, with an obstinacy that 
ill became the representatives of a free people, 
publisned their reasons of dissent, which were 
calculated to inflame a party already violent, and 
which, in fact, produced some disturbances in the 
western part of the State. 

In New Jersey, the convention which met in 
December, were unanimous in adopting the con- 
stitution ; us was likewise that of Georgia. 

In Connecticut, there was some opposition ; 
but the constitution was, on the 9tli of January, 
1788, ratified by three-fourths of the votes in 
convention, and the minority peaceably ac- 
quiesced in the decision. 

In Massachusetts, the opposition was large and 
respectable. The convention, consisting of more 
than 300 delegates, were assembled in January, 
and continued their debates, with great candour 
and liberality, about five weeks. At length the 
question was carried for the constitution by a 
small majority : and the minority, with that 
manly condescension which becomes great minds, 
submitted to the measure, and united to support 
the government. 

In New Hampshire, the federal cause was for 
some time doubtful. The greatest number of 
the delegates in convention were, at first, on the 
side of the opposition ; and some, who might 
have had their objections removed by the discus- 
sion of the subject, were instructed to reject the 
constitution. Although the instructions of con- 
stituents cannot, on the true principles of repre- 
sentation, be binding upon a deputy, in any le- 
gislative assembly, because his constituents arc 
but a part of the State, and have not heard the 
arguments and objections of the whole ; whereas 
his act is to affect the whole State, and therefore 
is to be directed by the sense or wisdom of the 
whdle, collected in the legislative assembly ; yet 
the delegates in the New Hampshire convention 
conceived very erroneously, that the sense of 
the freemen in the towns, those little districts, 
where no act of legislation can be performed, 
imposed a restraint upon their own wills. An 
adjournment was therefore moved and carried. 
TJiis gave the people opportunity to gain a far- 
ther knowledge of the merits of the constitution ; 
and at the second meeting of the convention it 
was ratified by a respectable majority. 

In Maryland, several men of abilities appeared") 



■ f 


[in (lie oppoBitioii, and were tinroniiUod in their 
endenvours to pcrKuude tlic people, that the pro- 
posed plin o^^overllnIent w;is nrlfullv ciilcnlated 
to deprive them of (heir de.ireHt rijjhtn ; yet in 
convention it ir>peared, (hat Hve-Hixth8 of the 
voices were in fivour of it. 

In S. Carol inu, the opposition was respecta- 
ble : but two-»!iir(!s of the convention appeared to 
advocate and vote for the constitution. 

In Viri;inia, many of the principal characters 
opposed the ratification of the constitution with 
great abilities and industry ; but, aller a full dis- 
cussion of the subject, a small majority, of a nu- 
merous contention, appeared for its adoption. 

In New York, two-thirds of the delegates in 
convention wore, at their first mee(in<r, deter- 
mined to reject (he constitution. Here, there- 
fore, the debates were the most interetinjy, and 
the event extremely doubtful. The arj3;unient 
was manatred with uncommon address and abili- 
ties on both sides of the nuestion. Rut dnrinn; 
the session, the 9th and lOtli Slates had acceded 
to the proposed plan, so that by the constitution. 
Congress were empowered to issue an ordinance 
for organizing the new government. This event 
placed the opposition on new ground ; and the 
expediency of uniting with the other States — the 
generous motives of conciliating all diftcrences, 
and the danger of a rejection, influenced a re- 
spectable number, who were originally opposed 
to the constitution, to join the tedera) interest. 
The constitution was accordingly ratified by a 
small majority ; but the ratification was accom- 
panied here, as in Virginia, with a bill of rights, 

declaratory of (he sense of the convention as to 
ci rtain great principles, and with a catalogue of 
amendments, wSich were to lie recommended to 
the consideration of the new Congress, and the 
several state legislatures. 

N. Carolina met in convention in July, to de- 
liberate on the new constitution. Afler a short 
session, they rejected it by a majority of 176 
against 76. In N«ivember, 1789, liowever, this 
State again met in convention, and ratified the 
constitution by a large majority. 

Rhode Island was doomed to be the sport of 
a blind and singular policy. The legislature, in 
consistency with the measures which had been 
b<>lbre pursued, did not call a convention to col- 
lect the sense of the State upon the proposed 
constitution ; but in an uncon*tittitionai and ab« 
surd manner, submitted the plan of government 
to the consideration of the people. Accordingly, 
it was brought before town-mce>ting8, and in most 
of them rejected. In some of the large towns, 
particularly in Newport and Providence, the 
people cofiected and resolved with great pro- 
priety, that they could not take up the subject ; 
and that the proposition tor embracing or reject- 
ing the federal constitution could come before 
no tribunal but that of the State in convention or 
legislature. On May 24, 1790, a convention of 
thus State met at Nfewport, and on the 29th, 
adopted the constitution by a majority of two 

Vermont, in convention at Bennington, Ja- 
nuary 10, 1791, ratified the constitution of the 
United States by a great majority. 



tijj |M^;| 

The following exhibits at one view the order, time, &c. in which the several States ratified the 
Federal Constitution : 

Delaware, - - December 3, 1787, - - unanimously, ^hpnti/. 

Pennsylvania, - December 13, 46 to 23 - 23 

New Jersey, - December 19, - - - - unanimously. 

Georgia, - - January 2, 1788, - - unanimously. 

Connecticut, - January 9, 128 to 40 - 88 

Massachusetts, - February 6, - - - - - 187 to 168 - 19 

Maryland, - - Ajpril 28, 63 to 12 - 51 

S. Carolina, - May 23, 149 to 73 - 76 

New Hampshire, June 21, 57 to 46 - II 

Virginia, - - June 25, 89 to 79 - 10 

New York, - July 26, .>0 to 25 - 5 

N.Carolina, - November 27, 1789, - - - 193 to 75 -118 

Rhodclsland, - May 29,1790, 2 

Vermont, - - January 10, 1791, - - - by a great majority. 




rFrom tliP momont the procpe<lin<(;«» of the ro- 
nernl convention 111 Philadclpliiii tranHpirerl, the 
public mind was cxcoedinply ajiitntod, and hhs- 
ppndpd between hone and tear, until nine States 
had ratified their plan of a federal Kovernmont. 
Indeed the anxiety continued until Virginia and 
New York had acceded to the system. Hut this 
did not prevent the demonstrations of their joy 
on the accession of each State. 

On the ratification in Massachusetts, the citi- 
zens of Boston, in the elevation of their joy, 
formed a procession in honojir of the happy 
event, whicli was novel, splendid, and ma<;nili- 
cent. This example was afterwards followed, 
and in some instances improved upon, in Kni- 
timore, Charleston, Philadelphia, Newhaven, 
Portsmouth, and New York, successively. No- 
thing could equal the beauty and s^randeur of 
these exhibitions. A ship was mounted upon 
wheels, and drawn through the streets: mecha- 
nics erected stages, and exhibited specimens of 
labour in their several occupations as they 
moved along the load; flags with emblems, dc- 
scriptive of all the arts and of the federal union, 
were invented and displayed in honour of the 
government : multitudes of all ranks in life as- 
sembled to view the splendid scenes ; while so- 
briety, joy, and harmony, marked the brilliant 
exhibitions, by which the Americans celebrated 
the establishment of their empire. 

On March J, 1789, the delegates from the 
11 States, whicli at that time had ratified the 
constitution, assembled at New York, where a 
convenient and elegant building had been pre- 
pared for their accommodation. On opening and 
counting the votes for President, it was found 
that George Washington was unanimously elected 
to that dignified office, and that John Adams was 
chosen Vice-President. The annunciation of the 
choice of the first and second magistrates of the 
United States occasioned a general diffusion of 
joy among the friends to the union, and fully 
evinced that these eminent characters were the 
choice of the people. 

On April 30, 1789, George Washington was 
inaugurated President of the United States of 
America, in the city of New York. The cere- 
mony was performed in the open gallery of Fe- 
deral Hall, in the view of many thousand specta- 
tors. The oath was administered by Chancellor 
Livingston. Several circumstances concurred to 
render flie scene unusually solemn. 

Tl'i« great man has been succeeded in the pre- 
sidency by Mr. Adams, Mr. Jefferson, and Mr. 

Maddison, the latter of whom at preiient holds 
that office, and of the policy of whose measures 
we shall be enabled to judge with some precision 
by the following retrospect of the relations in 
which the Americans seem of late years to have 
stood with the European powers. 

It would however not ne doing justice to the 
subject of which we are treating were it not ge- 
nerally to bo observed, that hitherto the delibe- 
rations of the legislature of the union, have been 
for the most part marked with wisdom, and the 
measures they have adopted have been produc- 
tive of great national prosperity. The wise ap- 
pointments to office, which, in general, have been 
made — the establishment of a revenue and judi- 
ciary system, and of a national bank — the as- 
sumption of the debts of the individual States, 
and the encouragement that has been given to 
manufactures, commerce, literature, and to use- 
ful inventions, have, it must be confessed, opened 
a fair prospect, if not of general peace or union, 
at least of increasing respectability and import- 
ance, and given a great additional preponder- 
ancy to that which they had at first enjoyed in 
the scale of nations. 

A)i<ili/sh of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, of the 
srxrral Onlrrs in Council, and of the American 
Seamen, Non-importation and Embargo Acts. 

From the importance and universal interest 
which have attached to the Orders of Council, it 
is desirable that a full and correct account of 
them should be recorded. The subject is un- 
questionably difficult to be understood, but it 
has been much simplified by an able publication, 
from which the following illustrations are, for the 
most part, selected ; intending to present the 
whole series of French, British, and American 
proceedings in one view, and to give an impar- 
tial, compendious, and chronological statement 
of the several official documents which have been 
produced, interspersing and subjoining such ob- 
servations as may tend to exhibit the whole case 
in the clearest and truest point of view. 

I. The first of these documents is the Berlin 
Decree, so called because it was issued from the 
camp near that city, on November 31, 1806. It 
consists of two parts : — 

1st. A statement of the wrongs done by Eng- 

2d. Of the measures which these wrongs have 
obliged the Emperor Napoleon to adopt. 

The first part states: " That England hasj 





' in 

( 8'h. 


fcruMcd to «»l»Horvo llio lawn ofoiviliHrd iiiitioiis — 
tliiit hIio considers the iiidivitliiuls of ii lidstiln 
nation a^ oncinicN — llial hIiu Hfixcs un pri/.o tlio 
proprrly of hiicIi iudividuHU — lliat hIio blockades 
commercial portH, bayH, and moiitlm of rivers, 
and othrr places not lin'tified — that nlie declares 
plnres to lie in a state of lilockade, wliere she has 
no actual force to enlorce the blockade -that this 
abuse is intended to a<;<;raiidise the commerce and 
industry of I'lnffhind, by means of the commerce 
and industry of the Continent — that those who 
traflic in Knglisli conunodilies on the Continent 
secoed her views and render themselves her ac- 
complices — that this conduct of l^n^land is wor- 
thy the a^;e of barbarism, and is advanta^;eouH to 
her at the expense of every other nation— that it 
is just to attack her with the same weapons which 
she employs," 

And in pursuance of this assertion the second 
part proceeds to decree ; — 

" — that the British islands arc in a state of 

" — that all commerce and correspondence 
with the Dritish isles are prohiltited. 

" — that letters and packets addressed to Eni;- 
land or to Eni^lishmen, or written in En^lisli, 
shall be intercepted. 

^' — that every Uritish individual whom the 
troops of France or those of her allies can lay 
hold of, shall be a prisoner of war. 

" — that every warehouse, any contmodity, 
every article of commerce which may belony; to a 
British subject, is ^ood prize. 

" — that the trade in English cfoods is pro- 
hibited, and every article that belongs to Eng- 
land, or is the produce of her manufactories or 
colonies, is good prize. 

" — that no shin from England or her colo- 
nies, or which shall have touched there, shall be 
admitted into any harlmur. 

" — that this Decree shall be communicated 
to all our allies whose subjects as well as those 
of France have been victims of the injustice and 
barbarity of the English maritime code. 

" — and this Decree is further stated to be in 
force, and considered as a fixed and fundamental 
law of the French empire, as long as England 
shall adhere to the principles herein complained 

The sum of this Decree is, that England shall 
be erased from the list of commercial and even 
civilised nations, until she abandons her mari- 
time code which has raised her to her present 
pitch of superiority over other nations, and that 

France and her allies and dependants are pledged 
and reipiired invariably to maintain this which 
has been since called the coiitiiu>ntal syKlem, till 
Englanil shall have been reduced to make these 

II. On Novenjbcr 24, IS(M», the above decn'o 
was recapitulated in a proclamation from th(; 
French minister to the senate of Hamburgh, 
which states : — 

" That us several of the citizens of Ham!)urgli 
were imtoriously engaged in trade with England, 
the Emperor of the French was obliged to take 
possession of the city in order to execute his 

This threat was the same day executed by Mar- 
shal Mortier, at the head oi' a division of tho 
French army. 

This proclamation and occupation of Ham- 
burgh was particularly important, as being the 
first act of that principle on which France has 
ever since, as we shall see, proceeded, of not only 
extending her continental system to all places 
w ilhin her reach, but actually seizing upon neu- 
tral countries, that she might extend the conti- 
nental system to them; so that the original vio- 
lence and injustice against England became the 
source and pretence of more violence and injus- 
tice against all rights and laws of nations, and an 
excuse for the most outrageous usurpation and 
hostile seizure of neutral territory that has ever 
been attempted. 

HI. These proceedings of the government of 
France produced, on the port of England, the 
measure which is called Lord Grey's Order in 
Council, lM>causc his Lordshin was Secretary of 
State at the tinie it was issuea— January 7, 1807. 
This order states : — 

" That the decrees issued by the Frencli go- 
vernment to prohibit the commerce of neutral 
nations with the British dominions, or in their 
produce or manufactures, are in violation of the 
usages of war. 

" — that such attempts on the part of the 
enemy would give his Majesty an unquestionable 
right of retaliation, and would warrant his Ma- 
jesty in enforcing against all commerce with 
France, the same prohibition which she vainly 
hopes to effect against us, 

" — that his Majesty, though unwilling to 
proceed to these extremities, yet feels himself 
bound not to suffer such measures to be taken by 
the enemy, without some step on his part to re- 
strain this violence, and to retort upon them the 
evils of their own injustice.] 



U 'II*' 


A I 


l) N I T E I) .S 'I' A T li S. 


J"« — nnil llinl tlicrofiiro il is ordoroil, lluit no 
veHMcl Hhttll ho porrnittrd »o triiilo from «in<» port 
to niintlier lM>loiii];iii^ to Friinrr or Iilt allies, or 
to liir uiuUt hor roiilrol that Itritisli vos»cls may 
not fnTly trach* thereat." 

TliiM was, aH it ex|ire<*spH itself to be, a miti- 
gated measure of retaliation, one intended rather 
to cnll France to a "jeiise of her injustite, and the 
neiilraU to a sense of their own duly, than to in- 
iiirt a veno^eanre on the enemy adequate to his 
ugirresMion -, hut it very properly states the right 
in (treat liritain to go the whole length of rom- 
plete '-etaliation; and it strongly intimates that 
if this moderate proreeding should Ihil of its el- 
feet, more eflective, but equally justiliabic modes 
of retaliation would be adopted. 

Shortly after the publiration of this order, 
liord Grenville's and Lord (trey's ministry went 
out of power, and that of the Duke of Portland, 
which included Mr. IVrcoval and Mr Canning, 
came in. Their lirst proreeding in this mutter 
was on November i I, 1807: wTien finding the 
measures of further retaliation, threatened in 
Lord Grey's order of January preceding, were 
become alisoluloly necessary from the increasing 
violence of the French, and the continued supine- 
ness of the neutrals, they publisiud -ui Order in 
Council, which is the next document that fol- 
lows : — 

IV. On Novriuber M. 1S07, the Duke of Port- 
land's administration issued two Orders in Coun- 
cil ; the first of which states: — 

" — that the Order of the 7th January has nnt 
effected the desired purpose either of compelling 
the enemy to recall his Orders, or of in<lucing 
neutral nations to interpose against them; but, 
on the contrary, that they have been recently en- 
forced with increased vigour 

" — thot his Majesty is therefore obliged to 
take further measures for vindicating the just 
rights and maritime powers of his people, which 
are not more essential to our own safety, than to 
the independence and general happiness of man- 
kind ; and in pursuance of these principles of re- 
taliation (already inserted in the first Order) all 
the ports of France and her allies, and all other 
ports or places in Europe from which the British 
flag is e.xcluded, shall lie considered in a state of 
blockade ; and all their goods and manufactures 
shall be considered as lawful prize, thus reta- 
liating upon France and her allies, their own vio- 

. " — that his Majesty would of course be jus- 
tified in making tHis retaliation, as unqualified 
and without limit, as the original oil'cnce ; but 

that iMiwilling t<i subject neutrals to more incon- 
venience than is necessary, he will permit to neu- 
trals such trade with the' enemy's ports, as may 
be carried on directly with the ports of his Ma- 
jeHty's dominions, under several specificationi) 
unci conditions which are set forth as favourabln 
exccpti«fUH lo the general rules of blockade." 

'i'he second Order in Council of this date sets 
forth : 

" — that articles of the growth or manufucturo 
of foreign countries cannot be by law (nameljr, 
the Navigation Act), imported into (treat Bri- 
tain, exce|)t in British shins, or the native ship- 
ping of tlie country itself which produces the 

" — that in consequence of the former order 
of this date, which says, that all neutral tratio 
with France must toiich at a British port, it is 
expedient to relax, in some degree, this law, and 
to permit the shipping of any friendly or neutral 
country to import into (treat Britain the produce 
or manufactures of countries at war with her. 

" — that all goods so imported hImU bn liable 
to the same duties, and under the same ware- 
housing regulation us if imported according to the 
Navigation Act." 

The sum of tliese Orders in Council is, that 
France having declared that there shall be no 
trac'^ in communication with England, his Ma- 
jesty resolves that the ports of France, and every 
riort from which, by the control of France, the 
Iritisli flag is excluded, shall have no trade ex- 
cept to or from a British port ; but that his Ma- 
jesty is still desirous to encourage and protect 
neutral commerce, as tiir as is consistent with 
such an opposition to the enemy's measures, as is 
essential to the safety and prosperity of the Bri- 
tish dominions. 

Next comes the Decree, dated Milan, Decem- 
ber 17, and published in Paris, December 26, 
1807, reciting: 

" — that the ships of neutral and friendly 
powers are, by the English Orders in Council of 
the 1 1th of November, made liable not only to 
be searched, but to be detained in England, and 
to pay a tax rateable per centum on the cargo. 

" — that, by these acts, the British govern- 
ment denationalizes ships of every nation ; and 
that it is not competent to any sovereign or coun- 
try to submit to tliis degradation of the neutral 
flag, as England would construe such submission 
into an acquiescence in her right to do so, as she 
has alrca<ly availed herself of the tolerance of 
other governments, to establish the infamous 
principle that free ships do not make free goods,] 




\ ■/ 




\ ' 

s) ;fl 







[and ia givpthc ria^lit of blockade an arliiJrarv ox- 
tcnsioii, which inrrin»'CH on the soveroi^niv of 
every state, and it is therefore decreed, 

" — that every ship, to whatever nation it 
may belong, whicii shall have submitted to be 
searched by an English ship, or to a voyage to 
lilngland, or shall have paid any English tax, is, 
for that alone, declared to bo denationalized, to 
have foifeited ;'ie protection of its own sove- 
reign, and to have become English property. 

"■ — that all such ships, whether entering the 
ports of France, or her allies, or met at sea, are 
good prizes. 

•' — that the British islands are in a stPtc of 
blockade, both l)y sea and land, and that all ves- 
sels sailing from England, or any of her colonies, 
or the port of any of her allies, to England or 
her colonies, or tlie port of an ally, are declared 
good and lawful prize. 

" — that these measures (which are resorted 
to only in just retaliation of the barbarous system 
adopted by England, which assimilates its legis- 
lation to ttiat of Algiers), shall cease to have ef- 
fect with respect to all nations who shall have 
the firmness to compel the English government 
to respect their flag. They sli'dl continue to be 
rigorously enforced as long as that government 
does not return to the principle of the law of na- 
tions, which regulates the relation of civilised 
states in a state of war. The provisions of the 
present Decree shall be abrogated and null, in 
fact,^ as soon as the English abide again by the 
principle j c*' the law of nations, which are also 
the principles of justice and hoiumr." 

A good deal of discussion arose with America 
about the operation of these Decrees and OhIsms 
upon the American trade : an«l in order to sim- 
plify the construction of the latter, and to apply 
the principle of retaliation more directly against 
France herself, and with less injury to neutrals, 
the Orders of November 1807, were supersttied 
by that of April 26, 1809; which declare, "the 
whole coast of France and her dominions, as far 
northward as the river Ems, and southward to 
Pesaro and Orbitello in Italy, to be under 
blockade, and all vessels coming from any port 
whak'ver to any French port, liable to ca|)ture 
and condemnation ;" the eflfect of this order was 
to open all ports, not actually ports of France, 
even though the British flag should be excluded 
therefrom, to neutral conunerce, and to place 
France, and France only, in the precise situation 
in which, by her decrees, she endeavours to place 
Great Britain. 

V. By a decree of the French government. 

isscied at Fontainbleau on October 19, 1810, ii 
was expressly declared, " that in pursuance of 
th» 4lh and !ii\\ articles of the Berlin decrees, all 
kinds oi British merchandise and manufactures 
which may i>e discovered in the custom-houses, 
or other places of France, Holland, the Gr..iid 
Duchy of Berg, the Hans towns, (from the 
Mayne to the sea), the kingdomof Italy, the Illy- 
rian provinces, the kingdom of Naples, and in 
such towns of Spain and their vicinities as may 
be occupied by I'Vcnch troops, shall lie confis- 
cated and burned." 

Tims then the matter stood; on the side of 
France the decrees of Berlin and Milan were in 
force, and t<» them were opposed the British 
order of April i?(), 1809; and as long as the 
blockade of England by France remained unre- 
pealed, so long did England possess an undoubted 
right to persist in her system of retaliation. 

It now lM»comes necessary to explain shortly 
the conduct of America towards England and 
France respectively: from which we shall judge 
whether Anu'rica has always acted with a strict 
impartiality towards the two belligerents, and 
whether slie really had any fair ground of com- 
plaint against (Jireat Britain. 

\'I. A very short time before France began 
to act upon these new principles, a treaty of com- 
men-e had been, in 180(), negotiated at London 
(between Lords Holland and Auckland on the 
part of England, and Messrs. Mnnroe and Pinck- 
ncy on that of America), and sent over to America 
to be ratified : but the Berlin decree having 
appe;ir('d almost at the moment of the signature 
of this treaty, it was accompanied by a declara- 
tion by Lords Holland and Auckland on the part 
of England : 

" 'i'hat in consequence of the new and extra- 
ordinary measures of hostility on the part of 
France, as stated in the Berlin Decree, (Jreat 
Britain reserved to herself (if the threats should 
be executed, and that neutrals shoultl acquiesce 
in such usurpations) the right of retaliating on 
the enemy in such manner as circumstances might 

VII. This treaty, the President of the United 
States refused to ratily ; principally " because the 
question of impressing seamen was not definitively 
settled." The British government replied, " that 
this v,i.s a subject of much detail, and of consid^•^r- 
able difh^-ulty, arising out of the almost impossi- 
bility of distinguishing British subjects from 
Americans : ami, it added, that it would be 
highly inexpedient that the general treaty should 
be lost, of even delayed on this account : that | 





), 1810, it 
'simiicc of 
ecrccs, all 
the Grai.ti 
(from the 
[>8, and in 
iea as may 
be confis- 

he side of 
an were in 
he British 
)ng as the 
uned unre- 
lit ion. 
i»in shortly 
island and 
snail judjjc 
tith a strict 
erents, and 
ind ot'com- 

incc began 
■aty of com - 
at London 
and on the 
and Pinck- 
to America 
ree liavinj; 
e signature 
a declara- 
on the part 

and extra- 
[he part of 
■ree, (Jreat 
leats should 
d acquiesce 
|aliating on 

mccs might 

the United 
jccause tlie 
]lied, " that 
|)f consid^r- 
Ut impossi- 
bjects from 
would be 
?aty should 
lunt : tiiat I 

[Great Britain was ready immediately to prweed 
in a separate negociation in this point ; and that 
in the mean time, her officers should be ordered 
to exercise the right of search and impressment, 
with the greatest possible forbearance. ' 

These arguments and this proposition did not, 
however, induce the American President to ratify 
the treaty. 

It unfortunately happened, that in June, 1807, 
the commanding officer of his Majesty's ship 
Leopard having understood that some deserters 
from his ship nad been received on board the 
American frigate Chesapeake, and having in vain 
required their release from the .\merican captain, 
attacked the Chesapeake at sea, and obliged her 
to strike ; but lie tlien contented himself with 
taking out of her his own men, and restored the 
ship to the American commander. / n event of 
this nature called for, and received th' immediate 
disavowal of his IVfjnesty's government ; the cap- 
tain was tried, and his admiral superseded ; and 
Mr. Rose was sent without loss of time to America 
to offer reparation, and to state to the American 
government, " that Great Britain did not pretend 
to u right to demand by force any sailors what- 
ever from the national ship of a power with 
which she was on terms of peace and amity." In 
the mean time the President had issued a procla- 
mation, excluding all English ships of war from 
the American harbours. 

X. E.\rlu8ivc of this affair of the Chesapeake, 
America appeared, in the spring of 1808, to 
have considered herself equally aggrieved by the 
acts of both countries. 

In this view they laid a general embargo upon 
all the shipping in their ports, and denied them- 
selves all commercial intercourse whatever with 
any European State. 

XI. This act of the American government was 
very unpopular throughout the Union, and on 
March I, 1809, the non-intercourse law was sub- 
r'ituted in its place, " by which the commerce of 
. .merica ivas opened to all the world except to 
England and Fiance, and British and I'rench 
ships of war were equally excluded prospectively 
from the American ports." 

XII. In the interval, Mr. Canning had in- 
Rtriicted Mr. Erskine, his Majesty's minister, to 
offer to America " n reciprocal repeal of the pro- 
hibitive laws on both sides upon certain ternis ; 
namely, Ist. The enforcement of the non-inter- 
course and non-importation acts against France. 
2dly, The renunciation on the part of America 
of all trade with the enemies' colonies, from which 
she was excluded during peace. 3dly, Great 

VOL. V. 

Britain to enforce the American embargo against 
trade with France, or powers acting under her 

XIII. In the mean time the French govern- 
ment, in a decree dated from Rambouillet, March 
23, 1810, declared, " that from May 90, 1809, all 
American vessels which should enter the French 

Korts, or ports occupied by French troops, should 
e sold and sequestered." This act however was 
not made known till May 14, 1810. 

XIV. Notwithstanding these acts of violence 
on the part of France, America could not be per- 
suaded that her honour and interests demanded 
some immediate act of retaliation, and nothing 
was done till the non-intercourse act expired, 
when an act of the Congress was passed, ev.'utu- 
ally renewiugrertain parts of the non-intcicourse 
act in certain events. By this act it was decreed. 
" that in case either of the belligerents sliould 
cease to violate the neutral rights of Ameri<"a be- 
fore February 2, 1811, the non-importation arti- 
cles of the non-intercourse act should be revived 
against the other." By this act, America still 
contenqdated France and England enually injur- 
ing her commerce ; and contented fierself with 
merely conq)laining, through her minister, of the 
operation of the K ambonillct decree, though it 
was, at the same time, characterised by America 
" as a signal aggression on the principles of jus- 
tice and good faith." 

XV. The condition thus offered by America, 
France determined speciously to accept ; but in 
accepting it to act in such a manner as still to 
reap the advantages accruing from her decrees, 
witliout relieving England from her part of the 
j)ressure occasioned by them. 

XVI. As England could not, upon this insidi- 
ous offer, accept the first part of the alternative 
offered by France, America in her turn accepted 
the second, and declared that she would cause 
her flag to be respected : but as there would bo 

ome inconvenience in demanding from England 
the abandonment of her most sacred maritime 
rights, such as the right of visiting and searching 
a neutral ship for enemy's property — the right of 
blockading, by actual force, the ports and har- 
bours and rivers of the enemy's coast— the riglit 
of precluding a neutral from carrying on, in 
time of war, the trade of a l»elligerent, to which 
she is not admitted in time of peace, (all of which 
and more indeed was demanded by France, and 
apparently acceded to by America) the Govern- 
ment and Congress of the I'nited States deemed 
it to be sufficiently conformable to the demands 
of France, '■^ that' they should exclude British | 




i * 


I !■ * 

., i 

[ships of war from their ports, and prohibit all 
importation oP British produce ;" and France 
seemed to consent to consider " tliese restrictions 
as tantamount to causing; the American flag to he 
respected, and as rescuing the American ships 
from the imputation of iKMng denationalized." 
Upon this principle the President proclaimed the 
renewal of the non importation articles of the 
non-intercourse act agi-.inst Great Britain on 
November 2, 1810, and the Congress enacted the 
same by law on February 28, 1811. When this 
act passed, the relations of peace and commercial 
intercourse were restored between France and 
America, and French ships were allowed to enter 
into American ports, at a lime when " FVauce 
still retained many millions of American property 
seized under the Kamboiiillet decree," which had 
had a retrospective eftcct for the space of 12 
months, and when the operation of the burning 
decree was carried into effect, without any regsird 
whether or not the produce of British industry, 
so destroyed, had legally become, by purchase or 
barter, the " bona fide property of neutral mer- 

With respect to England, who by the act of 
February 28, 1811, was put upon the footing of 
an enemy, the only source of complaint which 
America possessed, was that the blockade of the 
French coast was still persisted in and enforced, 
as the only effectual means of retaliating upon 
the violent and unjust decrees of the enemy. 

XVir. On November I, 1811, Mr. Foster, his 
Majesty's minister in America, was at length 
enabled to bring to a conclusion the differences 
which had arisen on the Chesapeake affair, with- 
out sacriticing the rights of Great Britain, or 
derogating from the honour of his Majesty's 
crown; but it cannot be said, that the American 
government accepted the concession and atone- 
ment with either dignity or grace. 

XV'III. While America was thus asserting that 
the French decrees were repealed, tlio minister of 
foreign relations at Paris put an end to all doubt 
on the subject, by an otHcial report to the b^tnpe- 
ror, dated March 10, 1S12, which sets forth, (irst, 
an explanation of the maritime laws of the 
nations, viz. 

" The flag covers merchandise ; the gools of 
an enemy under a lliig are neutral, and 
the goods of a neutral under an enemy's flag are 
rneiny's goods —the only goods not covered by 
tlie flig, iscontr.ibind of war; and the oiilv con- 
trabiind o' war are arms antl aininunition. — In 
visiting neiitraU, a belligerent must send only a 
few man in a boit, but the belligerent ship must 

keep out of cannon shot. — Neutrals may trade 
between one enemy's port to another, and be- 
tween enemy's and neutral ports — the only ports 
excepted, are those really blockaded ; and ports 
really blockaded, are those only which are actu- 
ally invested, besieged, and in danger of being 
taken — such are the duties of belligerents anu 
the rights of neutrals." The report then pro- 
ceeds to state, " that the Berlin and Milan de- 
crees have rendered the manufacturing towns of 
Great Britain deserts — distress has succeeded 
prosperity ; and the disappearance of money and 
the want of eniployment endangers the public 
tranquillity ;" and then it denounces that, " until 
Great Britain recalls her orders in council, and 
submits to the principles of maritime law above- 
mentioned, the French decrees must subsist 
against Great Britain, and such neutrals as should 
allow their flags to be denationalized ;" and 
finally, the report avows, " that nothing will 
divert the French Emperor from the objects of 
these decrees, — that he has already, tor tliis pur- 
pose, annexed to France, Holland, the Hans 
Towns and the coasts from the Zuyder Zee to 
the Baltic, that no ports of the Continent must 
remain open, either to English trade or denation- 
alized neutrals ; and that all the disposable force 
of the French empire shall be directed to every 
l)art of the continent, where British and dena- 
tionalized flags still find admittance ; and, finally, 
this system shall be persevered in, till England, 
banished from the continent and separated from 
all other countries, shall return to the laws of 
nations recognized by the treaty of Utrecht." 

The sum of this report is, that the Berlin and 
Milan decrees arc in full force, and must continue 
to be so, until England shall not only recall her 
orders in council, but shall also abandon all her 
great maritime rights : and that these decrees 
subsist against not England alone, but America, 
and all other countries which shall not unite in 
an endeavour to overthrow the ancient system of 
maritime law ; and further, that France considers 
herself authorized to invade and seize any neutral 
territory whatsoever, for the sole object of ex- 
cluding all British trade from the Continent, and 
that all his violent and outrageous usurpations in 
Ifollaud, Germany, and the shores of the Baltic, 
have been prompted, and are attempted to be 
justified by this motive. 

XIX. In order to bring to a distinct issue the 
ver!>al discussion between England and America, 
and to place the relative measures of England 
and France clearly before the neutrals ; the 
British government on April 21, 1812, put torth] 


% I 

* '. 

/ ' >■ 

I,. ■'! 




J 23 

jr trade 
nnd be- 
ly porta 
id ports 
ire actu- 
jf bein 


>nt9 an 
len pro- 
[ilan de- 
towns of 
)ney and 
e public 
t, " until 
ncil, and 
w above- 
t subsist 
as should 
d;" and 
liin<; will 
)bjpcts of 
tliis nur- 
lie Hans 
er Zee to 
[lent must 
able force 
i to every 
ind dena- 
d, finally, 
ited from 
laws of 
ierlin and 
t continue 
•ecall her 
)n all her 
unite in 
system of 
ly neutral 
■ct of ex- 
nent, and 
intions in 
he Baltic, 
ted to be 

issue the 

rals ; the 
jut forthl 

[to the public a declaration and order in council, 
detailing " the present state of the contest be- 
tween the two belligerents"— and stating " that 
as soon as the Berlin and Milan decrees are 
revoked, the orders in council are abrogated— 
and engaging beforehand that a proof of the ab- 
solute repealof the P'rcnch decrees produced in 
an Admiralty court shall be held, in fact, to be a 
satisfactory proof of the absolute revocation of 
the British orders in council. 

XX iSince this declaration, but before it 
reached America, an embargo was laid on by an 
act of Congress for 90 days, from April 4, ISiy. , 

XXI. Also, by a bill brought into Congress 
in the spring of this year, entitled " a bill for the 
more effectual protection of American seamen," it 
is enacted, " that any British or other subject>i, 
proved to have been guilty of impressing Ameri- 
can seamen, shall bo deemed pirates and felons, 
and punished with death ; -such persons to be 
tried on the spot, wherever they may be found. 

" That the President be authorized toorder the 
shipsof warof the United States, to bring in any 
foreign armed vessels that njay be found on the 
coast, molesting American ships, or hovering on 
their shores. 

" That American seamen who shall have been 
impressed, shall he authoi'ized to levy on British 
debts, or British property in America, as an in- 
demnification for '.he time of detention, at the 
rate of 30 dollars a month each." 

By the farther clauses of this bill, the American 
tlag is made to cover all persons on board, ex- 
cepting such as may be in the actual service of 
Great Britain ; and it is ordered that the govern- 
ment do seize so many British subjects in the 
United States, or in the territories of Great Bri- 
tain, as may be equivalent to the number of 
Americans detained on board the British navy ; 
these hostages to be detained luitil a regular ex- 
change by the usual way of cartel. 

XXII. On the 18th of June war was actually 
declared by the United States against (Jreat Bri- 
tain ; but the revocation of the Orders in Conn- 
cii, which took place June "23, had not then 
reached them, whereupon the government " for- 
bore, at that time, to direet Ja tiers of JMarque and 
Riprisal to he issned against the ships, goods, and 
citizens of the said United States of America, under 
the e.rpecttdion that the said government uonid, 
tipon the notification of the Order in Council of the 
^M of June last, forthwith recall and annul the 
said declaration of war against Jlis Majest/y." 

Tliis leniency, (communicated by an Order in 
Council, October 18, 1812), had no effect, and 

we accordingly find that, on December 18 of the 
year following (1813) an embargo law passed 
both Houses of Congress to continue for one year, 
wherein it was enacted, that " all neutral vessels 
would discharge and clear out, on pain of confisca- 
tion, icithin II dat/s." 

XXIII. On the 7th ofApiilofthis year (1814) 
the eniliargo and non-importation acts were re- 
pealed, by a majority of I If) to 37. By a clause 
in this act all Britisli produce and manufactures 
are allowed to be imported into the United States, 
even in neutral bottoms : it is also enacted, 

" Sec. 3. That no tbreign ship or vessel shall 
receive a clearance, or be permitted to depart 
from the United States, whose officers and crew 
shall not consist wholly of the citizens or subjects 
of the country to which such ship or vessel shall 
l)elong, or ot'a connhy in amity with the United 
States." And no citizen of those States is per- 
mitted to depart in such ship or vessel without 
a passport from the President. 

XXIV. On the 25th of April the blockade was 
extended to all the American ports by Sir Borli»*S 

Conclusion. — It may be observed by way of a 
summary view of the above decrees, that it was 
impossible that Great Britain could relinciiiish 
the principle of retaliation. Great. Britain, who 
is herself the main spring of the commerce of tin; 
world, must more than any other country regret 
and suffer from the interruptions of trade but 
would trade have revived if she had receded .' 
Will commerce thrive, if she abandons her ancient 
maritime rights ? For it is nothing less than this, 
that France demanded, and America endeavoured 
collaterally to enforce. 

If America admits tlmt France, under the pre- 
tence of municipal regulations, had a right to 
prohibit all commerce witii (ireat Britain; and 
that British produce and manufactures (to whom- 
soever belonging «»r wherever found, not only in 
France itself, but in countries under hercontroul, 
or in territories adjoining to I'Vance, and subject 
to invasion from her on this very pretence), were 
to be seized, confiscated, and burned ; if, we say, 
America suffered all these inrractions of neutral 
rights, without remonstrance or complaint, it is 
plain, that, as far as she was concerin'tl, she 
played into the hands of Fiance, and lent her 
assistance to the ruin of iMigland. 

But what effects would the re[H'al of the Orders 
in Council actually have had, had not the decrees 
of lierlin and Milan been virtually nullified by 
the impracticability of their entbreement f We 
will enumerate them.] 

.f. ■ ' 




''1 i "'''Jl 

ri. It would have restored the Amtrican trade, 
and that portion of manufactures which are usually 
consumed in America itself would immediately 
have revived. 

2. It would have opened to En<r]and no other 
market for any branch of manufacturing what- 
soever than the Iiome market of America — for 
France having a right, by municipal regulations, 
to exclude British articles from her territory, and 
to extend for this purpose her territory over the 
whole face of Europe ; any article of British pro- 
duce and manufacture, imported by an American, 
would have been as liable to be confiscated or 
burned as before such repeal. 

3. France would have been relieved from all 
the pressure she then fplt. America would have 
supplied her with all kinds of raw materials, as 
well as of colonial produce, and would have con- 
veyed to her, from the distant parts of Europe, 
all kinds of stores and timber, and the various 
materials of naval strength. France would have 
had just what trade she pleased; she would have 
continued the prohibition, all over Europe, of 
British manufactures, with a double view, hrst to 
encourage her own, and next to ruin that of her 
enemy. And all inconvenience and pressure 
being thus removed from her, there would no 
longer have existed any means or hopes of forcing 
her to a system more equitable towards Great 

4. America would have become the carrier of 
the world. — She and France would have divided 
the trade of the globe ; and Great Britain, with 
all her command of the sea, would have the mor- 
tification to have seen the ocean covered with the 
commerce of France, protected under the Ameri- 
can flag. 

5. 'Ihe British shipping interest would have 
been annihilated, and tfiiit of America would have 
risen up in its stead. — The E. and W. Indies and 
the home-coasting trade would alone have re- 
mained to Britain ; and the two former she should 
not long have possessed, in competition with a 
rival wliose means of ship building are inex- 
haustible ; whose flag would have been the only 
neutral flag in the world ; whose ships alone 
could have traded at the ports of the continent 
of Europe ; whose rates of freight and insurance 
would have been proportionably small ; in short, 
who would have had all possible advantages, 
while Great Britain would have had to labour 
with every possible disadvantage. 

6. All British produce and manufacture would 
have declined and expired, except only those for 
American or home consumption ; because Ame- 

rica, which would then have brought the produce 
of all other countries to France, would nave re- 
turned with the manufacture of France to all 
other countries. It may be said, that England 
would have undersold France : and so she cer- 
tainly would in a fair state of trade ; but, excluded 
from Europe and rivalled by America, there 
would have remained to her neither the means nor 
motives of commercial enterprise. 

7. Nor would the American market itself have 
been of the advantage to Great Britain that at 
first appears ; much of the ironwork, and all the 
linens of Germany would soon have undersold 
the similar articles of English or Irish manufac- 
ture ; and the increased intercourse between 
America and France, would inevitably have 
obliged the merchants of the former to have taken 
returns in the produce of France, or the continent 
of Europe ; and, by degrees, it would have been 
found that the natural result of such an inter- 
course would have lieen the advancement 


GREAT BRITAIN. — To the Steady prevention of 
which the British councils have so mutually and 
so successfully been exerted. 

Notices of the Campaign of 1812 and 1813. 
Russian Mediation. 

We have already said that war had been offi- 
cially declared, June 18, 1812. On the 12th of 
the following month the invasion of Upper 
Canada took place, under the command of Briga- 
dier-general Hull, who secured a post at Sand- 
wich, and succeeded in forcing Major-general 
Brock, who commanded the troops o^ his Britan- 
nic Majesty, to surrender Fort Detroit, August 
16 ; but, before the end of the year, the whole of 
General Hull's army surrendered to the English. 
It is true, however, that the attacks of the Bri- 
tish on Craney Island, on Fort Snugs, on Sarketts 
Harbour, ana on Sandusky, were vigorously and 
successfully repulsed ; and the movements of the 
American army had been followed by the reduc- 
tion of York, and of Forts Georj^e, Erie, and 
Maiden ; by the recovery of Detroit, and the ex- 
termination of tiie Indian war in the w. 

The campaign of 1813 consisted of a series of 
defeats over the Americans, commanded by the 
Generals Harrison, Wilkinson, and Hampton, 
who had, with a simultaneous operation, at- 
tempted the invasion of the lower province. 
Harrison crossed over with his force, at the head 
of Lake Erie, to Detroit, causing General Proctor] 




# * ' r» *- V 

have re- 
ce to all 
she cer- 
ca, there 
neans nor 

tself have 
n that at 
nd all the 
bly have 
lave taken 
have been 
an inter- 


vention of 
tually and 

i 1813. 

been offi- 
ce 12th of 
of Upper 
1 of Briga- 
t at Sand- 
it, August 
e whole of 
le English. 
)f the Bri- 
)n Sarketts 
rously and 
ents of the 
the reduc- 
Erie, and 
ind the ex- 

a series of 
ded by the 

ration, at- 

at the head 
■al Proctor] 




[to withdraw beyond York. Wilkinson cro««ed 
over, with a powerful division of the army, at the 
bottom of Lake Ontario to Kingston, and was 
completely and disgracefully beaten by Colonel 
Morrison, by a handful of Canadians. Hampton 
crossed over the St. Lawrence at Montreal, and 
was also severely chastised for his boldness at 
Chateauguay, bv Colonel De Salubury, and 
forced back to Pfattsburg. Thus, upon the close 
of the campaign in 1813, the theatre of the war 
became transferred into the American territory ; 
where Niagara, their strongest fortress, and the 
important poHts of Black Rock and Buflalo, were 
wrested from them l)y British valour and enter- 

f>rise, under the able administration of Sir George 

The British forces, in the above conflicts, at 
no time exceeded 15,000 men. Of the American 
army we have no means of procuring a very ac- 
curate statement ; but one account, inserted in 
f-e Quebec paper, November 19, 1813, gives it 
at upwards of 41,000 men. -' 

In January, 1814, Messrs. Bayard and Adams 
were appointed to conduct the negotiations for 

Seace, proposed between England and the United 
tates by the Russian Mediation. Mr. Henry 
Clay, Speaker of the Ifouse of Representatives, 
and Mr. .Tonathan Russell, were subsequently 
added to the commission, Mr. Russell being also 
appointed Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court 
of Sweden. 

Table of Post-Offices, shewing the Distance from the Post-Office at Philadelphia to every other Post- 

Office here mentioned! 

Abbevim^e Court-house, S.C. - - - - 782 

Abbotstown, P 

Abingdon, Va. - - - - 
Accomac Court-house, Va. 
Albany, N.Y. - - - - 
Alexandria, Va. 

- - - - 103 

- - - - 511 
... - 199 

- - - - 265 
. - - - 156 

Allen's Fresh, Md. 203 

Amboy, N.J. - - 74 

Amherst, N.H 384 

Andover, Ms. 372 

- - - - - 132 

- - - - 583 

- - - - 482 

- - - - 763 

Annapolis, Md. 
Anson Court-house, N.C. 
Averysborougli, N.C. - 
Augusta, G. - - - - 

Baltimore, Md - 102 

Bairdstown, K. 875 

Barnstable, Ms. 423 

Bath, Me. 512 

Bath, N.Y. 248 

Bath, c. h. Va. 337 

Beaufort, S.C. - - 836 

Bedford, P. 204 

Belfast, Me. 590 

Bel Air, Md gfi 

Benedict, Md, 191 

Bennington, Vt. 302 

Bermuda Hundred, Va. 302 

Berwick, Me. 432 

Bethania, N.C 538 

Bethlehem, P. . 58 

Beverly, Ms 367 

Biddcford, Me. 451 


Blackhorse, Md. - 101 

Bladensburgh, Md 140 

Bluehiil, Me. 623 

Boonetou, N. J. 116 

Boston, Ms. - - .-..--- 347 

Bourbontown, K. -...--_. 749 

Bowlingreen, Va. -.- 230 

Brattleborough, Vt 311 

Brewers, Me. - .-. 745 

Bridgehampton, N.Y 196 

Bridgetown east, N.J. - ----- 74 

Bridgetown west, N.J. - ----- 57 

Bristol, R, L 306 

Bristol, P. 20 

Brookfield, Ms 278 

Brookhaven, N.Y 161 

Brownsville, P. --------- 341 

Brunswick, Me 500 

Brunswick, New, N.J. 60 

Burlington, Vt. .- 429 

Butternutts, N.Y. 375 

Cabbin Point, Va. 329 

Cabellsburg, Va --- 352 

Cambridge, S. C. - -- 762 

Camden, Me. -----571 

Camden, S. C. - - . - 643 

Canaan, Me. 577 

Canaan, C. 257 

Cantwell's Bridge, D 52 

Carlisle, P 125 

Cartersville, Va. - - ------ 323 

Centreville, Md. 98] 

♦ * ' 




f )■ 



Y. - 

rCentre Harbour, N.H. 
Cnlskill, N.Y. - - - 
CaHtino, Me. . - - ■ 
ChaiiibcrHbiiri^, P. - - 
Cliaiidlor's River, Mo, 
Chnpol Hill, N.C. - 
Chaptico, iVtd. - - - 
Cliarlp«»"«"y N. II. 

Charleistowii, Md. - - 
Chaiu.kston, S. C. 
Clmrlotfo, c. h. Va. - - 
Charlotte, c. h. N.C. - 
Cliarlottosvillo, Va. 
Chatliam, c. Ii. N.C. - 
Clioiiaiijjo, N. Y. - - 
Choraw, S.C. 
Cherry Valley, N. 
Chester, N.H. - - 
Chester, P. - . . 
Chester, c. h. S. C. - 
Chester 'I'ou n, Md. - 
Christiana, D. - - 
Ciiicinnati, N.T. - 
Claveiack, N.Y. - 
Clermont, N.Y. - - 
Clowes, D. - - - 
Colchester, Va. - - 
Columbia, Me. - - 
Columbia, Va. • - 
Columbia, S.C-. - - 
Ci)najohar\, N.Y. - 
Concord, N.H. - - 
Concord, Ms. - - 
Cooperstown, N.Y. 
Coosawatchy, S.C. - 
Culpepper, Va. - - 
Cumberland, Mid. - 
Cumberland, c. h. Va. 




a IT) 







Dagsboroi.^h, D. 
Danbury, C. - - 
Danville, K. - - 
Dedham, Ms. 
Dighton, Ms. - 
Dover, N. H. - 
Dover, D. 
Downington, P. - 
Duck Creek, D. - 
Duck Trap, Me. - 
Dumfries, Va. 
Duplin, c.h. N.C 
Durham, N.H. - 
Dresden, Me. 

East- Greenwich, 11. 1 
Kaslon, P. - - - 
Easton, Md. - - - 
Edenlon, N.C. - - 
Ed^^artown, Ms. - - 
Edgefield, c. h. S.C. 

Elberton, (J. j<;)9 

Elizabeth Town, N.J. yo 

Elizabeth 'I'own, N.C. .547 

Elktou, Md. 4!) 

E|ihrata, P. 74 

Exeter, N.H. 402 

Fairlicid, Mc. - -----... 5(jj 

Fairfield, C. --I6I 

Falmouth, Ms, .-----... 429 
Falniuulh, Va. -------.. 007 

Fayettcville, N.C. 
Fincastle, Va. 
Fishkill, N.Y. - 
Flcmin<rton, N. ,T. 

Frankioht, K. -. 790 

Franklin, c. h. G. 

Frederica, D, ------- - 

Fredericksbur^j^, Va. 20s 

Fredericktown, Md. • - - - - - 
Frceport, Me. -.-_--.. 

Gallipolis, N.T, - ..-.--. ' r^^^f) 

Geneva, N,Y. - 4^,7 

Georgetown, ('. R. Md. (j;) 

Georgetown, Ptk. Md, J4,s 

Georgetown, S.C. - - - . . . . . {y^\ 

Georgetown, (». S73 

Germanton, N.C 50^ 

Gettisburg, P, ||() 


Gloucester, Ms. 
Gloucester, c. h. Va. 
(foldsonV, Va. - - 
(ioochland, c. h. Va, 
Goldsborouglt, Me. 
(ioshen, N.Y. - - 
(iray, Me. - - . 
Greene, Me, - - 
(Jreenlield, Ms. - - 
Greenbrier, c. h. V^a, 

Douty's Falls, Me, - - - - 





439 Hacketstown, N.J. 

Greensborough, G. - - - ... -841 
Greensburg, P. ---.-.... 272 

Greensville, T 577 

(Jreenville, N.C 445 

Greenville, c.h, S.C. ....... 7g| 

Guillbrd, C. -----_... . 2OI 


« 15 







■ «K 

















► ♦ 

4 > 














J 48 

' .0.59 

J 48 



Hamburg, N. J. 
Hampton, Vn. - 
Hancock, Md. - • 
Hanover, N. H. - 
Hanover, Ms. 
Hanover, P. - - 
Ffanovcr, c. h. Va. ■ 
Hanovcr-Town, Va. 
Harford, Md. - - 
Harpersfield, N. Y. 
Harrinbiir^, P. - - 
Harris's, Va. - - - 
Harrodsburg, K. 
Hartford, C. 



fHagerstown, Md. -..---- 
[alilax, N.C. - - 

Halifax, c. h. Va. 

Hallowell, c. li. Me. 

Hallowell Hook, Me. 542 


Haverhill, N. H. 412 



----- 458 









Haverhill, Ms. 

Havre-de-Grace, Md. - 

Hertford, N. C. - - - 

Hicks's F'ord, Va. - - 

Hillsborouffh, N. C. - 

Hingham, Ms. - - - 

Hoetown, N.C. - - 

Holmes's Hole, Ms. - 

Horntown, Va. - - - 

Hudson, N. Y. - - - 
Huntington, Md. 

Hunts ville, N.C. 553 

Fndian-Town, N.C. 492 

Ipswich, Ms 377 

Iredell, c. h. N.C 592 

Johnsonsburg, N.J. 
Johnston, N. Y. 
Jonesborough, T. - 


Kanandaigua, N.Y. --.-._. 473 

Keene, N. H. 344 

Killingworth, C - gio 

Kindorhook, N.Y 244 

Kingston, (Ksopus) N.Y 192 

KinSale, Va. 305 

Kingston, N.C 522 

K.NoxviLLE, T. _-_ 652 

Lansingburg, N. Y. 
Laurens, c. h. S. C. 
Lavtons, Va. 

Lancaster, Ms. - 
Lancaster, 1*. 
liuncaster, c. h. Va. 








Lebanon, p. .-.-.--..- 88 

Leesburg, Va. ..------- 173 

Lcesburg, N. C. . 610 

Leominster, Ms. .-....-. 390 

Leonard-Town, Md. 227 

Lewisburg, P. .--.----- 132 

Lexington, Va. .-.------ 322 

Lexington, K 769 

Liberty, Va. - - 393 

Lincolnton, N. C. -- 652 

Litchfield, C. 207 

Little German Flats, N. Y 348 

Londonderry, N. H - - 403 

Louisburg, N.C. -....-.- 415 

Louisville, K 913 

Loi/isviLi.E, G. -..--..- 825 

Lumberton, N.C. 539 

Lower Marlboro', Md. ---..- 162 

Lynchbnrgh, Va. .--..-.- 38! 

Lynn, Ms. ... - 361 

Machias, Me 705 

Manchester, Vt 324 

Marblehead, Ms. 372 

Mahiktta, N.T. 456 

Martinsburg, Va. .--_---. 168 

Marlborough, N. II 350 

Martinsville, Va. 478 

Martinville, N.C 504 

Mecklenburg, Va. -.---.-- 395 

Mendon, Ms. -.__ 295 

Middlebury, Vt. 392 

Middletown, C. - 208 

Middletown, D 49 

Middletown Point 93 

Milford, C. 173 

Milford, D 95 

Millerstown, P 34 

Monmouth, Me. .----..--- 524. 

Monmouth, c. h. N. J. - - - - - - - 64 

Montgomery, c. h. Md. .--._. J58 

Montgomery, c. h. Va. ...... 408 

Montgomery, c. h. N. C. 607 

Moore, c.h. N.C 547 

Mooreficlds, Va. .-- 267 

Morgantown, Va. ._-..-.. 203 

Morganton, N. C. 661 

Morristown, N. J 108 

Morrisville, P. 29 

Mount Tizrah, N.C. - - 480 

MurfreeBborougb, N. C. - . - - - ■ 422] 



•t I, 

; c: 

i V 


tl^antiicket, Ms ggg 

farra^uaguH, Me. ------.. 673 

Nash, c. h. N.C. 443 

Nashvillo, T. 1015 

Newark, N.J. 8(j 

New-Bedford, Ms. 392 

Newbiirri, N.C, 501 

Newburfy, N. Y. - 170 

Newbnrv, Vt. 417 

New-Brunswick, N.J. CO 

Newbury, c. h. S. C. 723 

Newbur>'-Port, Ms. 389 

Newcastle, Me. .----.--- 535 

Newcastle, D. 33 

New-Germantown, N. J. ----- - 73 

New-Gloucester, Me. ------- 499 

New-Hartford. C. 242 

New-Haven, C. 183 

New Kent, c. h. Va 308 

New-Lebanon, N.Y. 293 

New- London, C 237 

New-London, Va. 393 

New-market, Va. 242 

New-Milford, C. 187 

New-Miiford, Mc. 538 

Newport, R I. 292 

Newport, D. 31 

Newport-Bridfje, G. 959 

Newtown, N.Y. 250 

New -York city, N.Y. 95 

Nixonton, N.C. 468 

Norfolk, Va. 389 

Northampton, Ms. 270 

Northampton, c. h. Va. 239 

Norridpcworth, M*?. --.-... 587 

Northumberland, P. ----... 124 

Northumberland, c. h. Va. - - . - - 317 






North-Yarmouth, Me. 
Norwalk, C. - - • 
Norwich, C. - - 
Nottingham, N. H. 
Nottingham, Md. 

Passamaquoddy, Me. - 

Peekskill, N. V. - - - 

Pendleton, c. h. S. C. - - 
Penobncot, or Castine, Me. 

Peterborough, N. H. - - 

Petersburg, P. - - - - 

Petersburg, Va. - - - - 

Peter nburg, G. - - - - 

Philadelphia, P. - - 

Pinkney ville, S. C. - - ■ 

Piscataway, Md. - . . 

Pittsburg,' P. - - . . 

Pittsfield, Ms. - - - • 

Pittsylvania, c. h. Va. - ■ 

Pittston, Me 

Pittston, N. J. - - - - 

Plunistoad, P. - - - . 

Plymouth, N. H. - - - 

Plymouth, Ms. . - - . 

Plymouth, N. C. - - . 

Poinfret, C. - - - - ■ 

PonxLAND, Me. - - ■ 

Port-Royal, Va. - - 

PoKTSMOUTH, N. H. - ■ 

Old-Fort Schuyler, N. Y. 364 

Old-Town, Md - - 213 

Onondaigua, NY. 422 

Orangeburg, S. C. - 721 

Orange, c. h. Va 273 

Orford, N. IJ. 395 

Ouliout, N.Y. 325 

Owega, N.Y. 284 

Oxford Ac. N. Y. 395 

Portsmouth, Va. 

Port-Tobacco, Md. 

Pottsgrove, P. -.----..- 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y. - - - - - - 

Powhatan, c. Ii. Va. ------ 

Prince-Edward, c. h. Va. - - - - - 

Princess-Ann, Md. ------- 

Princeton, N. J. ------- 

Princeton, N.C. 419 

Prospect, Me. .---.-_.- 602 
Providence, R. L 291 









Queen-Ann's, Md. 
Quincy, Ms. - - 

Raleigh, N. C. 




Randolph, c.h. N.C. 585 

Reading, P, ---------- 54 

Redhook, N.Y. 206 




Rhinebeck, N.Y. 

Richland, N. C 

Richmond, Va, 

Richmond, c. h. Va. ------- 273 

Richmond, c. h. N. C. 563 


Rid^efield, C. - 
Rockaway, N.J. 
Rockford, N. C. 
Rockingham, c. h. Va. 
Rockingham, c. h. N.C. 

Oi . t 

Painted Post, N. Y 230 Rocky-Mount, Va 433] 













■ 299 

■ 418 
• 347 

■ 38 

- 36 

- 443 

- 393 

- 4C3 

- 264 

- 469 

- 230 

- 411 

- 390 

- 194 

- 37 

- 180 

- 310 

- 338 

- 178 

- 42 

- 419 

- 602 

- 291 

- 141 

- 360 

. 448 

- 685 

- 54 

- 206 

- 198 

- 551 

- 278 

- 273 

- 563 

- 161 
. 123 

- 573 

- 262 

- 536 

- 4331 




[Rome, N. Y. 
Rutland, Vt. 
Romnejr, Va. - 

Sagff-Hurbour, N. Y. 

St. ficonaid's, Md. - - 

St. Mary's, G. - - - 

St. Tammany'8, Va. - 

Salem, Ms- - - - - 

Salem, N.J. - - - • 

Salem, N.C. - - - - 

Salisbury, Md. - - - 

Salisbury, N.C. - - 

Sampson, c. h. N. C - 

Sandwich, Ms. - - - 

Sanford, Me. - - - - 

Savannah, G. - - - 

Sawyer's Ferry, N.C. - 

Saybrook, C. - - - 

Scotland Neck, N. C. - 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Scipio,N.Y. - - - 

Sharpsbure^h, Md. - - 

Sheffield, Ms. - • . 
Shppherdstown, Va. 

ShippensburfT, P. - ■ 
Shrewsbury, N.J. - 

Smithfield,' Va. - ■ - 

Smithfield, N.C. - - 

Smithtown, N. Y. - - 

Snowhill, Md. - - ■ 

Somerset, Ms. - - • 
Southampton, c. h. Va. 
Sparta, N. J. - - - 

Spartan, c. h. S. C. - - 

Springfield, Ms. - - 

Sprina;(ieltl, K. - - ■ 

Staintbrd, C. - - - ■ 

Statesburg, S. C. - - 

Staunton, Va. - - ■ 

Stevensburg, Va. - ■ 

Stockbridsfe, Ms. - • 

Stonin^ton, C. - - - 

Strasburg, Va. - - - 

Stratford, C. - - - - 

Suffield, C. - - . . 

Suffolk, Va. - - - ■ 

Sullivan, Me. - - • 
Sumner, S. C. 

Sussex, c. h. N. J. - - 




Sunbury, P. --------- 

Sunbury, G. --. 

Sweedsborough, N.J. 20 

Sweet Springs, Va. 380 

VOL. V. 


Taneyton, Md. 181 

Tappahaunock, V.-------- 263 

Tarborough, N. C. 420 

Taunton, Ms. 312 

Thomnston, Me. - 364 

Todds, Va. - - - - 283 

Tower Hill, R. I. 282 

Trenton, Me. - 633 

Trenton, N.J. - - 30 

Trenton, N.C 521 

Troy, N. Y 271 

Union Town, P 327 

Union, N. Y 340 

lipper Marlborough, Md. . - . . - 162 

Urbaiina, Va. - 291 

Vassalborough, Me. ...-_-- 551 

VergeuiH'H, Vt. --.----.- 407 

Vienna, Md 130 

Waldoboroiigh, Me. ----..- 545 

Wallingford, C. 195 

Wdpole, N.H. 330 

Wardsbridge, N. Y 156 

Warminster, Va. 332 

Warren, Me. ---------- 5.57 

Warren, R. I. 302 

Warren, Va. 326 

Wnrrenton, N. C 390 

Warwick, Md. 57 

WASHINGTON city 144 

Washington, P. 325 

Washington, K. 709 

Washington, N.C- • 460 

Washington, G. 813 

Waterbury, Me. ---.---.- 456 

Waynesborough, N. C 498 

WaVnesborough, G 800 

Wells, Me. 441 

Weslerley, R. I. --- S'iG 

Wcstfield, Ms 260 

West Liberty, Va. 348 

Westminster, Vt .329 

Westmoreland, c. h. Va. ------ 289 

Weatherstleld, C 218 

Wheeling, Va 3(i3 

Whitestown, N. Y. .%8 

Wilkes, N.C. - - - - 611 

Wilkesbarre, P 118 

Williamsborongh, N. C. ------ 407 

Williamsburgh;N.Y. - 288 

Williamsburg, Va. 338 

Wiiliamsport, Md. -- - 135 1 



130 I) IN ir i: n st a t ns 

Mllr.. IMII. .. ( I. 

[WilliHimton. N.r. Ui Ovn JiO not .-^.-rnlinv - - ]l>0 10 

\vLU.n. N r tm OwMl'M. - - - ...... ... - V.M. I, 

w • M^^^^^ - i»« Ov,mv:..>- - - .1..... . - - :i:,o ^i 

w!ni,.l;.r r.n ;;''•';;';; ""• - • - '*^'» :i^ 

Win.lH..., VI. V.M «>».'.»..) «.'! 

Win.lM.... \. r. IHI 

... I .. h; i' TOM NIII1' i.i'.rriim 

Ur. I . .■ . r.r.n I(.'.'(«i\i'.l 1»v l»ll\ll.«' MliiiiM WW 11.. nl ... 1 .'.'IHH 

mslow, i\i.v .-,.--.--.».)!» 1 •!. ,1 'III 4 .1 .1 »ii) Mt' ft^M «MH'h, i.ii.l il .licy iir.' ....wiinl.'.l l»\ pfml, lln« 

Wi.i. .11 1\ (' ....----- l.'Ji .».' .1..' ...(lii.i.iv iiilcM nf liiiid |i(»H.«u;.i. 

VViKiiiHC. Ml' .--.-.--- .W» Shin |(<|.i«r» |»HMMilt^ i.i |*i«.-k.'. I».n..h i»r vchhoIh 

W.>.'.tl.ii.l'uv. N .1. ........ 10 I»<»V''««''I ''.y «"« t'ii'«<'<l^, Hi.> iH(«><l n» 

W II VI I «1 I'olliiM- : 

.>.>.ll...iv, M. .1. --.-..-- V 

Wo,..M...k, V... - - ^liJ SiM^V lHl..r«, .«. 8 

\V...>.ls.,m.. N..I. VO 1)„„|,|,,, „« |(i 

W.>r,.'^..«r. Mh W9 rj,^- ,^, ^,j. „.,^,,,^^ „, ^4 

\<oi.. M'*. - - W" 

Wy.n.\ .'. I.. \ II. .-...-- l,')'l H Ai r-!. 01 roRTA.ii; 111' NKH H-i'APi,n«. 

Yi.nn.M..I.. ^1-.. 'lV?7 Knelt pnpcr .' mil over MM) iniloH . |' 

Yoiik.Mv. N Y. . - 114 Ovn- KM) ...ilcH -..--... || 

Ynrk. M.'. 4tfl |)u( if (<iin-i«<.l .l«. niiy |»..s| .»llif.' in llio 

Y.>ik 'r.M»n. \a. ."iW Stu<.> in uliirli i. is priii.tMl, wli».(<vi'r 

Yurk. IV .....--. 88 1m. (||,. iliNtinur, <l..< ii...< is - - . - | 

,, ,, ,, '■•'/''"'""'<"' MAnA/INKH ANn rAMPHM-.TS AHR HATKI* 

M.- .... >1...n.- »v .„,.,.m,.... 
N.ll. >o« Mnmpshno. 

♦ '• \.Miii.>n.. Cnn-ir.l not ov.T .''>().'H, pi'r hIi.'o( - - | 

Ms. Mi.>isa.l.iis<..s. Ov.'i .'iO. and n.». ov.M- 1(H) - .li(.o - - 1; 

H.I. Kl...<l.> Island. Any jjira...- tf 

V. ('.)n.i<>.(.riit. 

>. ^ . >.'« > «)rk. y,r, . , 1 . 1 • 1 

\ I Now .I.Mscv WImm.'H anM-haifr.'d .«»». Iiipli, Hucli ni. 

i' iVniis\l\aiii'» u sinj^lo L.tcr «liaix«'d as »lonhl.<. tin nlta.finrnt 

N.T. >.,.<h w..sin.. r.'ni...rv. "*'•'"; i.'""*"^^'' "*'.' '»;; """'*'' *'' •'"; \''**^^ '"• 

n n,i , pHokct is o|)*<ni<d in .l.i> i.i.'s.mhc «)I (h«> iMwt- 

Md Mai\land ni«s..M-, or h.s l.' .arnr.-, I..1. not odu'rwiHr. 

Va ViV'Mni. l.«'.t.Ms I).> .l(<li\.<i-<<d a. tlio otTiCN of 

w K...r...L'. Hoston, N. Yo.k. I'liiladoliiliia, and Haltitnor.', 

X r V,..«li i ..r-.i;.,.. ""•' """'" '»•■''»'•' "»«' •""•' •'^'•<' '«»«• t"«' drnartnre 

'P 'p ,^^,> ol tlio ina.l, and a. o.Ii.t oll.i'«<s hall an hour, or 

^>',, ^- ,, -. 'i thov will lii> until .).(< n.<\l post. 

J-. Ccor^i'. li«Mti'r carriers a..' .'...plov.'d at Inrjfi' post- 

i>Vl v\i ... ..... .L towns, who d«>liv.T l.'.t.Ts a. the rcsidonro of in 

C K Ci-oss W v. is dividnals ; they aio o.iti.lcd to two !•«'..<« lor 

c h (\iii7. Il'o.iso ouch lottor or pack.'. whi.-h they d.'livcr, in ntl- to th«' pos.a^;.'. Any p.'rson innv, how. 

Post Office li<s;u/tUio>is. v\or, n'roiv.' his'. at the post oilirr, on 

RATF<5 OK rosTAc;!-. KHH sixM.K t.F.TTrH*. Civinjj llio postinas.ora written direction to 

Miir«. (IS. that pnrimso. 

Anv dintanre no. <»\(V.^iinu - - - .'iO (i Tostaij.'s of loiters or packets may be paid in 

Over .S(1. and not e\ooediiij; - - - (iO 8 advance at the oflicc where the letter is entered] 

I) M T 15 1) STAT !■: S. 




[((> lio rnnvi'Vi'il liy (Kwt, or Hti'v imiv l>r Mi>n( im- 

Iiiiiil lit llio wnl«>r°H < Imirr. I'oMlitvoN iiiiihI iihviiyi 
H' niiiii hcliiif <lcli\i'riiiK **' ''*'' I*"*'''''- 

l'<iHliMii»-)i'i'< HIT i'<')|niiril t)i Ih' vny i iiiiliniM 
ill <l<'tiv(*i°inu Irllcru, llini' Im-Iiik in huiim' tiM\ iim 
sovrriil iti'i'MoiiN III' IIm' hiiiim' iiiiiim>: IIm* iIiitiIiuiis 
hIiiimIiI Ih' imrliciiliir in him'Ii ('iih(<m. 

Till' iliriM liiiii hIiiiiiIiI iiImii>h inriilioii llif Slnlr, 
mill Kriirnillv lh*< roinilv in tvhirli llii> |iliiri' i^ 
NiliiHl4Ml : liir Ukti! urr |)liir«'N of (lir hiiiim' iitiMir 
ill Mt'vrnil oC tli*' Mliitrx, iiiiil in hoiim' SIiiIi'm 
filiiri'M of lh«' Ntiiiii' niiiiii' in Hilli'i) nl louiitii'H. 
/\h ill IViiiiHylviiirtii lliiTK Mil' llii'ff iiliii«'K nilli'il 
lliiiiiivcr ; oiif ill York Coiiiity, Mlirn* ii |if)Ml- 
oHici' i« kr|)l : iinr in l)iiii|iliin, iiiiil (lii< ollirr in 
l.ll/i'llir Coniilv. 
VVIirii a l«>l()>i' id il)<K(iiii>(i lo 11 plnrp wIkti' iki 

fitiKt oIluT in kciit, lli(> ni>iir«'st |i(iMl-oiii«c hIhhiIiI 
ii> iiirnliiMH'il. iniif |iliirr is not on ii iioMt loiiil, 
iinii il in niHlii'il llml }iii< |iosliiumii<r slioiilil liit- 
Miinl Uio IfUiT l»v |>riviili' riMivi-viinii', tliiil 
niMli mIioiiIiI III' i-x|)ti'Mm<il on JIh' li'llcr, iiikI llir 
|iiiMtH|ri- nIiouIiI Ih' piiitl III llip ofiire wlirrc lhi> 
Ji'llf'r ivi I'lili'i'i'il. 

U'Ih'ii li'llrm nil' ilrvtiiiiMJ lorCtiiiiiilii, or Nova 
Srolia, Im-Imi-i'ii \i liirli iiiiil llii- l'nili>(l Stall'* 
lliori' \H a ri'iriiliir roniiiiMiiiralion Itv |himI, I|ii< 
|>ostni{;<* must In- |iaiil in nilvanco ui the o(Kri« 
wliiTi' llio Ictli-r it inlt'iftl, no liir hh IIim liii<rtoii ; 
Vrnnoiil in our iiiHtaiiii', anil liiiuirH Maine in 
(li«Mitlii>r iiislaiKT. 

When li'tterx ur«' wiil liy poxt lo ho roiivi'vil 
hryoiiil Ki-a, Ilii- |ii>«ta<ri' iiiiist Ik> pniil as (iir as 
till- iiDNl-iiHiir mIii'it (III- Icllrrs art' intniilril lo 
Im' Nlii|»|ii>il. 'rin« postniaslrr llirrc will lorMaiil 
mkIi li'ltiTM liy till- first ronvcyanri'. 

Till' posi-olliri' (Iocs not iiisnn- muiify orotlirr 
lliinj;M Ki'iit hy poM : it is always loiivi-ynl al 
till' risk of iIh' pi-rsoii who nriidH, or rcijiiircH il 
to hf sent. 

No sla»o ownrr, or drivi-r, «ir (omiiiun rarrirr, 
may rarry Irlti-rs on a post road, i'x<'rptin:r only 
Hiicli li'lti-rs as may la- for thr owni'rol snrli roii- 
vcyaiuf, anil rchiiiii^ to llip Manic, or lo tlip pi-r- 
«oii lo whom any package or iMinille in Biith ion- 
veyanci' is aililrcssiil. 

When letters an- delivered l»y a post-rider, lie 
is entitled to two ceiitH for eaeh' letter, in addilion 
lo lh<' poslnpc. 

Fnrr t.KTTriis, 

The follow iiiff persons have a riffht to iVank 
their own letters, and receive (hose directed to 
them free of postaKe : the I'lesident and V ice 
Prohideiit of the United States, Secretary of 

Stale, Secretary of I he TreaMiiry, Serrrtary at 
War, I'oHlimiKter ( teneral, ( omplrollrr, lleffiHler 
mid ,\iiditi)r of Ihe'l'reaviiry of the I 'niled Hlnln*, 
t'ommisuiiiiier of the Krveniie, I'lirveyor Ar- 
loniptant of the War (Mlice, and /\«iKiNlant I'ohI 
iiiiiNter (iineial . Ihe \1rmlieis of the Senate and 
iloMse III' KepreNeiilalives of Ihe |l|iiled Slates, 
and the Seiritary of the Senate and i'lrrk of the 
lloiiNe iif Wrpri'si'iilaliveN, during their artiial 
atli'iidanre on f'oii|;reMH, and '-i^O ihtyn afler tin 
close of the session, tvheii their lellerH do iiol 
exceed two ounces in weight, and Ihe deputy 
postiniiHters wlieu their letterH do not exceed hall' 
an ounce in weii^hl. No person may frank othei 
letters than his own. If letters are incloMed to 
either of the der^cription of oflicers above iinmed 
for a person who has not the piivile((r of I'rank- 
iii|r, he must reliirn the letter lo the post oHice, 
mmkiiiK iipoti the letter the place frrmi whence il 
<'ame, ifiat Ihe postmaster may chari^e postage 

'I'lie distances in the talde are taken chiefly 
from the iiironiiaiion of Congress, and of post- 
masters li\iii|( on the routes, ami it is presumed 
that they are pretty generally itccnrate. 

AnU/\ri\!V1 liKADI.KY, .hinior, 

Clerk in the (leiieral Post Oliice, 


Nn» V, I7'IC, 

Xiili- --'{'he distances are calculated liy the 
post route on which the mails are usually car- 
rieil. Some alterations have proliahly taken 
place as tvi-lj in the niimlier ol Ihe post oHices, 
as in the rei^iilations, since the y<'ai ITfWi ; liiil 
not such as materially to depri.'ciate the value of 
this information. 

Tiihlc: of Citing, r..n/wnf^r, SfC. 
The currencies of the ({ritish coloiiioM in N. 
America have flm tiiated and varied so much that 
they have dilfeieil (greatly both as to time and 
place, Heldoiii Itiing the same in two diflTereiit 
provinces at a time, and oOen chaiitririir value in 
the same place. In Home of the provi lers so 

f;real has iM'en the depreciation, that 'li.i. sterlinjf 
latli become equal lo ^1 nominal ciirrencv, or 
ijl Hterliiiff, o(pial tojJJiO. At Hoslim, in N. 
Hjiiglaiid, the exchange rvn on in n roiitinuai 
course of deprei iatioii in tin? space of 47 ywirs, 
in an irreffiilar, progressive advance, from .£1".'? 
ciiireiicy liir ^ 100 sterliiifr, to ^ 1,100 < iirrenry 
for jCIOt) slerlinjr. A state of all ilie (lei,'re»s 
of depreciation in the rcHpective years, lllc va- 
riations or clianifes happened, from the year 
170'^ to the year 174f), fojrether with the value] 





li [\ I T V. I> 

i : 


I III' xilvor, holli Itv lln" miiiro iinil tlolliir, cor- 
nN|ioiiiliii(r willi llit> Miiiil ili<|tn*<-inti«>ii| arc m>I 
ilitwii ill till' lulliiwiiiK liilili>. 

ix. iirsiUiM 


1 iirii'ni'«. 


f. < 

1. rf. 

<i lu; 

4 (i 


4 (ii 


i 7; 

M :i 

1 7 


» 7; 


4 (i; 


I 7 


4 7; 

VNi (» 

4 (i 


4 :. 


4 8{ 

Pennsylvania and W. ilorsev 

133 { 
17:) or 

hiT) or 

160 ^ 

s r A T !•: s. 

\ nirniiii ...•••• 1^5 

MiiivliHul Il'» 

N. ("^nruliiiii I l.'i 

S, Ciiroliiin ..-.-. 7(Kl 
(mmm'kiii .....--. UKI 
•lii'oiiini ...-..- 140 

H.vilm.lo.'H 13ft 

N«'vi« Miul Moiilnornil • - I7.'> 

Aiiliiiiiii mill HI CliriHtnplM'r - l<».'> 
In (^m-liiT, Monti-ful, lliiliriix, Novii Srntin, 
Aniiii|»olii. mill ll. liny of FiinHv, On' nirrcnrio* 
iniirhl In< IuimI iiI I()S, 1(H), or III), whon (he 
(loiliir wiiM iiiiul)' to pnim lor .'t.i. IIm* piNloIr for 
IR». (Iio Kiinlisli giiiiioa lor './V*. Iw/., Ilio johunnp* 
or !i(it. \iu'i'v lor 3H«. ()i/.,iiiitl Iheiiioiilon* for SW,t. 
in (iM'ir r«'H|)iH'li\«' pliiri'. 

Tlio niiirm' ol" fxcliiiiiKO lit N. York linn vnrird 
witliiii llio proHont _v«'i«r, IHll, iVoin 4 lo ?! prr 
n>nl. iliMi-oiinl. 

Tlioir nionov liaviiii; lliiis run on lo j(^ 1,100 
iMinrncv lor ^ 100 Morling, or II lor I, a Hlop 
was pill lo llio I'lirllu'r tloproi iaiion ol' llir inonov 
ol' (lio pro\iiirt< of IMasHiiciiiisftlM Hay, in llio 
yoar I7:)0, l>v a roinitlaiKc in iiionry mmiI ovi>r 
from Kngland, lo llio anioiinl of j^ !S3,000 stor- 
liiii;, lo irimhnrsr llio oxpnwo llial pro\in<*i> 
hai) l)oon at in (ho roiliu-lion of Capo liroloii, in 
the Kronch war. Tlio iiionoy was inoNlly foni- 
posoii of Spnnisli dollars. Tlio iloprooiatod 
papor inonov, or pro\iiu'o bills. w«>ro i"allo«l in 
and paid orf, at tlio rate of 4.'»,». ciirrorcv for oarli 
dollar, and llio hills hnrnt, dostroyod, and a law 
mado In whirh tho par of rxclianjjo was li\od nt 
^ 133; nirnMiry for J^ HX) slorling, and llio ilol- 
lar a( (>.«. the saino t'lirronry , hiil, lioloro tho 
lapso of ihroo yoars, Iho oxclianfjos had hoconu' 
us iinfavoiirahlr as ovor. 

The ciirroncv of Rhode Island had run on in 
a deprociation from the year 174 I lothe year I7.')f>, 
from 4J430 to £^,300 curionry for i* 100 ster- 

The currencies of several of the Provinces 
have at times p;one backwards and forwards in 
varying their exchanges with Knglund. The pars 
of exchange, with the several provinces, l>egan 
to be more settled about the year 1761, and wert 
as follows : 

Boston, in N. Kngland - • 
N. York and E. Jers«'v - - 


Ill New Kngland and V'irginia, a dollar iit 

New Jersey - ■\ 

Pennsylvania - (^ 

Delaware • " i 

Maryland - - » 

S. Carolina and (ieorgia ------ 

Neyv York and N. Carolina - - - - 


7 6 


r.Nlil.lRII MONKV. 





100,000 - 























































































r N IT i: l) STATKS. 


I rAiii.r UK I UK v»mi; ov « 


I <VlU. Is |>(|I|)|I li 



4 8 




n 1 

N htkh- 

AT 4 

J. (id. 

































10 . 

II . 
ly . 

13 . 

14 . 

1.5 . 

Hi . 

n . 

18 . 

If) . 

ai . 

99 . 

93 . 

94 . 

95 . 

86 . 

87 . 

88 . 

89 . 

30 . 

31 - 
3a . 

33 . 

34 . 

35 - 

36 . 

37 . 

38 - 

39 . 

40 . 

41 . 
48 . 

43 - . 

44 . . 

45 . 

46 - . 

47 - , 

48 . . 

49 . . 

50 - . 


I 0,.'W 

I V,|M 

V 0,J»i 

'/ V,M 

n .'j (),<»(» 

4 l,"H 

4 .'MJ 

I ,(iO 

»» (» l,f>« 

7 (),(>H 

7 'i,y| 

O H 0,40 

H i»„'i(i 

it OJtf 

f) y,MH 

10 |,(H 

10 :j,yo 

M l,.'J6 

M .V»a 

1 |,(iH 

I :iM 

I I 9, 

I a 0,16 



I 3 ?,fi4 
i 4 0,8 
I 4 «,fMi 


- - I 6 1,44 

- - I 6 3,6 

- - I 7 1,76 

- - I 7 3,«« 

- - I 8 a,08 

- - I 9 0,a4 

- - I 9 2,40 

- - I 10 O/iS 

- - I 10 2,78 

- - I M 0,88 

- - I II 3,04 

- - 8 1,20 

- - 8 3,36 

- - 8 I 1,52 

- - 8 I 3,68 
--82 1,84 

- - 8 3 0, 


54 . 
.5,5 . 

rui - 

.57 - 

.58 - 

,59 - 

60 - 

61 - 
♦•2 - 

63 - 

64 - 
6.5 - 

m ' 

HI • 

68 - 

6?> - 

70 - 

71 - 

72 - 

73 - 

74 - 
7.5 - 

76 - 

77 - 

78 - 

79 - 

80 - 

81 . 
88 . 

83 - 

84 - 
8.5 - 

86 - 

87 - 

88 - 

89 - 

90 - 

91 - 
98 - 

93 - 

94 - 

95 - 

96 . . 

97 - . 

98 - - 

99 - . 
100 • . 

•• <•. hr. 
--23 2,16 
--84 0,.W 
--24 2,48 
•-25 0,()4 
•-25 a,80 

- 2 (» 0,f)fl 

- 2 6 ,'*,I8 

- 2 7 |,v«8 

- 2 7 .3,44 

- 2 8 t,m 

- 2 8 3,70 

- 2 9 |,«)2 

- 2 10 0,08 

- 2 10 2,24 

- 2 M 0,40 

- 2 11 y,,5a 
■ 3 0,78 

- 3 «,88 

- 3 I 1,04 

- 3 I .1,S!0 

- 3 2 |,.36 

- 3 2 3,.52 

- 3 3 1,68 

- 3 3 3,84 

- 3 4 a, 

- 3 5 0,16 

- 3 5 »,.^ 

- 3 6 0,48 

- 3 6 a,64 

- 3 7 0,HO 

- 3 7 y,fW5 

- 3 8 J, (2 

- 3 8 3,28 

- 3 9 llu 

- 3 9 3,fi() 

- 3 10 1,76 

- 3 10 3,92 

- 3 11 2,08 

- 4 0,24 

- -t g,40 

- * I 0,56 

- 4 I 2,72 

- 4 2 0,88 

- * 2 3,04 

- 4 3 |,'>o 

- 4 3 3,36 

- 4 4 1,52 

- 4 4 3,68 

4 6] 





[table of the value of cents in pence*, 
as computi.d at the banks of the united 
states and north america. 

'I i 



•» 3 






- I 

24 - 27 

47 - 32 

70 - 




23 - 2S 

48 - .53 

71 - 



- *i 

26 - 29 

\9 . 34 

72 - 



- 4 

27 - bO 

30 - 33 

73 - 



- :> 

28 - ^'1 

31 - 37 

74 - 



- 7 

29 - 12 

32 - 3S 

75 - 



- 8 

30 - :i3 

33 - 39 

76 - 



- 9 

31 - 34 

54 - 60 

77 - 



- in 

32 - 35 

33 - 61 

78 - 



. 11 

33 - 31 

36 - (i'i 

79 - 



- 12 

34 - 3S 

37 - 63 

80 - 



- 13 

33 - 39 

58 - 64 

81 . 



- U 

36 - 40 

39 - 63 

82 - 



- ir> 

37 - 41 

60 - 67 

83 - 



- 17 

38 - 42 

61 - 68 

84 - 



- 18 

3^ - 43 

(S'-2 - 69 

83 - 



- IM 

40 - 44 

W3 - 70 

8() ■ 



- 20 

41 - 43 

64 - 71 

87 - 



- 21 

42 - 47 

63 - 72 

88 . 



• 22 

43 - 48 

66 - 73 

89 - 



- 23 

44 - 49 

67 - 74 

90 - 



- 24 

43 - 30 

()8 - 73 


- 23 

46 • 31 

69 - 77 

1 16 

of 11 dollar, 6^ cents. 


do. 121 «<"• 


do. 23 do. 


do. 50 do. 


I pisfarocn, 10 '\o. 

1 pi 

slarocn, 20 do. 


Tlmt i> 

IM'iice in currency, wliorein one 


iiirrrnc> U 

nqiial to ^ of u penny sli'ilinji;. 

1793, VIZ. 

I'Vancc, Spiiin, ami 

till- Uunii- 

(ireat Britain an 



■liiuiK III' S|> 


Or. Ct«. 




Or. Ct«. 


Dol. ft". 

I 3 



1 3 



2 7 




2 7 


1 73 

3 11 




3 II 


2 63 

4 14 




4 14 


3 30 

3 18 




5 18 


4 38 

6 22 




6 22 


3 23 

7 23 




7 23 


6 13 

8 29 




8 29 


7 1 

9 33 




9 33 


7 88 

10 37 




10 3ii 


8 76 

11 40 




II 40 


9 63 

12 44 




12 44 


10 51 

\3 48 




13 47 


11 .39 

14 31 




14 31 


12 26 

13 33 




13 .53 


13 14 

16 .59 




16 ,5S 


14 1 

17 63 




17 62 


14 8<) 

18 67 




IS 6(i 


13 76 

19 70 




19 69 


16 64 

20 74 




20 73 


17 .52 

21 78 




21 76 


IS 39 

22 81 




22 S!) 


19 27 

'i>3 83 




03 S4 


20 14 

24 89 




24 87 


21 21 

.1 <! 

I A 




[tADI.E of the weight and VAT.UK of SUNDHY (;0IN«, A« THEV PA89 IN OHEAT BRITAIN ANO 


till- Uuiiii- 




















































Namrs of Coins. 

Gii^lish Guineas 

F'lciich ditto - - •- 

Hii(!;Iisli Ciowiis - - 

Kroiich ditto - - - 

b^iii^lish Sixpence - 

SpaniHli Dollars - - 

.loliannes - - . - 

llalf-Johannos - - 

Trench Pistoles - - 

Spanish ditto - • - 

Doubloons - - . 

Moidoros - - . . 


Stcrlinc; Mo- 
ney ofOreal 

dw. gr. 

5 6 

3 4 



I 21 

17 6 


l(i 21 
ti 18 


Sow .Irrspy, 



I I 
I i 


4 C 
3 12 

1 16 
16 0» 

16 6 
3 6 

1 7 

New Hanipsliiff, 
Kliflde Inland, 
Con. Virginia. 

£. s. d. 

1 15 

1 14 6 

8 4 

8 4 





7 6 




5 12 
2 5 

£. t. 

I 8 

1 7 
^ 6 

4 16 

2 8 

1 2 
1 2 
4 8 
1 16 

New York & 
N. Carolina. 

«. *. d. 

1 17 4 

1 16 


9 0, 


6 8 
3 4 

1 8 

1 9 
5 16 

2 8 

S. Carolira «c 


£. ». d. 

1 1 9 

1 I 3 




4 8 



17 6 


3 10 

1 8 

* It will lip n^cfiil ti> rpiiipnibcr, 1st. that Penuiylvaniu purrcnry is rcdiicpd to stprlinj;, by ninltiplying by 3 and dividing by .S. 
£.ino slerlin!;, makin); at £.it>(>^ Ppiinsylvania currcnry. That is, a incrcliant, wlipu pxcliangp is at par, will give a draft on 
Pennsylvania lor i;.l(>ri^ on receiving £.100 sterling. 

1. That New York currency i» rednced to iterling, by multiplying by 9 and dividing by 16. A shilling, New York currenry, ii> 
Oj sterling. 

5. That New Englanil and Virginia currency is reduced to sterling, by innlliplying by 3 »nd dividing by 4. 

4. That S. Carolina and Oeoigia currency is reduced to sterling, by deducting ^] 

U?TDERHILL, a township of Vermont, Chit- 
tendon County, 12 miles e, of Colchesler, and 
contains 65 iiiliuhitants. 

f UNION, a county of S. Carolina, Pinckncy 
district, containing;, ip 1790, 7,693 inhabitants, 
of whom 6,430 were whites, and 1,215 slaves. 
It sends two representatives and one senator 
to thb State legislature. Chief town I'inckiiey- 

[Union, a rocky township in Tolland County, 
Connecticut, w. of Woodstock, and about 10 
miles n. c. c** Tolland.] 

[Union, a township of the district of IViainc, 
fiincoln County, containing, in 1790, 200 inha- 
bitants. In was incorporated in 1786.1 

[Union, a post town of the State ot N.York, 
Tioga County, on the n. side of Suspuehannah 
river, and w. of the mouth of the Chenango, 90 
miles s. e. by e. of Williamsburg, on Genessc 
river, 22 c. w. e. of Athens, or Tioga Point, 
56 s. w. of Cooperstown. In 1796, there were 

in the township 284 of the inhabitants qualified 

[Union River, or Plantation, No. 6, in the 
district of Maine, is situated in Hancock County, 
25 miles «. e. of Penobscot,] 

[Union River, in the county of Hancock, di.s- 
trict. of Maine, empties into Blue Hill Ray, on 
the e. side of Penobscot Bay. Long Island, in 
this Bay, is in lat. 44^ 25' aiid long. 68^^ 16'.] 

[Union Town, a post town of Pennsylvania, 
Fayette County, on liedstonc Creek. It contains 
a church, a stone gaol, and a brick court-house, 
and about 80 dwelling houses. Near it are two 
valuable merchant mills. It is the seat of the 
county courts, and is 14 miles s. by c. of Browns- 
ville, where Redstone Creek enters the Monon- 
gahcla, 37 miles s. of Pittsbur j;, 18 n. e. of Mor- 
gantown mi Virginia, and 2i2 w. of Philadel- 

[UNITAS, avillaffcof N. Carolina, sitiiated 
at the head of Gurgal's Creek.] 



!1 U 


■iH . -i.<iii . 







•1 I 

. I 

.> ^ 

*!■;;( .1 

I I, ■ 

rNITlMONI, n river of the province nnd 

^ovcrniiKMit of (iiinvniia or Niicvn Aiidnliicia, 
wliiih rises n( tlio noginiiini( of tlio surraii n( 
Piiriino : iind, iorniiiig a curve to the w. eiilrrs 
the MiiKiiiriliiriH. 

f l'NrrY,a setdi'inent in Linrolii ronnly, tlix- 
triot of Maine. Iiefwi'en the West I'miils, seven 
or ei<;h( miles tT. of Sithn\y, opposite lo Viisk.iI 
boron^li. iiiul l.> miles u. uk of lliillowell. It 
lies on Sandy Hiver, nlwul Iti niileH from its 

(I'NiTV, n township of New Hampshire, si- 
tnated in Cheshire County, a tew miles n. «\ of 
(^hnrleston. it was incorporated in I7()4, and 
contained, in I7f)(), /)^S inhabitants | 

(I'mty Town, in M«>nt!jomery Conntv, INlary- 
tnnd, lies two or three miles from I'atnxeiit 
Kiver, II tVom IMont^onu'ry court house, and 'i4 
w. of the citv of Ua-diiiiijlon. J 

I'Ml'l iMl'HI, a small river in the pro- 
vince and count v of' I. as .Ania/oiias, ami in the 
Portuijnese terrilorv, which runs r. hetweeii the 
ri\ers Nef>ro and TSlarunon, and enters the lake 
I 'nannuinema. 

I'PA, a river of the prov inc(< ami ijovernment 
of Antiotpiia. in the new kingdom ot' (iramida. 
which runs;/., and turnintj; iminediatelv lo the ;.". 
enl«'rs tlw jiriiiid river Maijdal<'n,i. 

IPAIMKN' A, a seltleiiieiit of the jurisdiction 
of Santiago tie las Alalavas, and tt<>vernment of 
San Juan de ^)^ l.lanos, in the ncu kiiii;don) of 
(iiranada. It is very reducetl and poor, of a hot 
teni|HM-attire, prodiu ini; niai/.e. ////r«,«, plantains, 
and some ((um': it i- close to llie capital 

A river of tlie piovince and cniUaiiiship of 
Scara in Hra/il. wliuh runs n. and tnrnint; to u. 
n. i. enters the sea hetween Cap<' Corso and 
the river llanaiiiina. 

I I'ANt). a I nil of tlie province and ijovern- 
ment of t^niso^ aixl Macas. in the ki'iy;di)m of 
Quito, formed l>v the rivers /una, V'idcano. and 
Ahanico. Il lavi-s to the city of Macas : and 
beiiiji allervvards united vvitli others. I'liruis tlie 

I I'AU.or I 1' VHi. a loiiij and iMMUtiful vallev 
of the province a\u\ i;()\ eminent of Simla Marta, 
in the new kin^doni ofCiranada. It was dis- 
cov«»red l>y (ion/alo \imines ile I'ni'sada in 
1.").);') : it is tiaversed iVoni «. to s. and fertili/ed 
by tb" river Ccsnr •. is of a hot temperature, and 
produces miK'li ^w^v.v cane, and all kinds of pro- 
ductions, as well I'.iiri' as Viiu-riian: it is 
{(dcraldv wet! pcdplcd. aii<l In the iiiouiitains of 
it^ viiinilv are ■•oiiu' ii'ines of sliver, copper, 
iron, and h ad ■ ! is more than 40 miles iow" 

from n. to .f., nnd more than 'JO wide from e. 
to w. 

ITA'I'A, a town of the province and (["overn- 
ment of (ill lyami or Nueva Andalucia; situate 
on tlie skirt «il'a inoiintaiii. 

I'i'ATA, a vaMey of the Hame province, on the 
Hide of the river l*.irafi;iia^ near the mouth hy 
which it «-iiler>; I'le Orinoco. 

rriMTt IIAUANAN, or Timis< amain, a 
Canadian mUthnieiil in N. America, in hit. 47' 


I '1*1 A, a rivir of the province and <j;overnment 
of San .Inaii de los Idanos, in the new kiiiirdom 
of (iiranada, which rises in the moiintaiiis he 
tvveen the city of 'rniija and that of Sanlia|ro dc 
las Alalayas, jind enters the IMeta. 

I PllsNI, a river of the provimc and vapliiin- 
ship <il' Scara in lira/.il, which rises from a lake, 
and enters the sea helween the river Aciiinn and 
the Point of Arecifes. 

(CPPKH AM.OWAYS Cui;rK, in Salem 
County, New,lersey.| 

[I '(»PKIl HA I.I) KA(;LK,a township of Penn 
svlvania, in IMilllin County. { 
■ (I'PPKU' DlSTUIC'I'.a division oftMHnjria. 
which c<nitaiiis the counties of Moiit^imierv. 
Wasliiu<>;lon, Hancock, (Jreeii, I'rankl'r, Oijle- 
•horp, I'jihert, Wilkes, Warren, Coliimliia, and 

fl PPKU DIHI.IN, a township ol' Pennsvl- 
v'linia, in Moiil^:oiiierv Conulv.| 

( I PPKU IKKKllOI.I), il township of N.w 
,lers(>y, Mtmmonth Conntv. a(ljoinin<;' to Iturliiii;^ 
ton anil Middlesex Counties oii the //. and v.;.' 
and I'leehold on the r. It contained in IT!'(t, 
nW'i inhahitants. ' 

|l PPKU (;Uf;AT MONADNDCK, in the 
township ol' l.emiiii>'ton. in the it.i. corner ol' 
\'<M-mont, on Connecticut Hiver. | 

j CPPi:i{ HANOVKU, a township of Penn- 
sylvania, Montijoinerv Conntv. I 
' IIPPKU MAin.UOIJOl (;ll, a post-town <.r 
iVIarUand. II miles v. (. ol" Hladenshniij;, and 1 "> 
//. r. of Piscalavvav. | 

[IPPKU Mll.rOlU), a lownsiiip of Penn- 
svl vania, Noi'thanipton Conntv . { 
' ! UPPKU PKNNS NKCk, a township «t 
New .Fei-sev, Salem Conntv.] 

[IPPI'.U SAI UA, a place in N. Carolina, 
on Dan Hiver. aliotit 1,'iO miles ». from Ha- 

fl'PPKU SA\ A(U<: IsiANOs. in Hudson's 
ll.iy. {V> :V2' IW n. I.on-. 70' IS' u'.J 

OPKKJirr, a cape on the s. coast ol tlir 
Strait of Majjeilan, nt the s. eidtance of the thin*. 



do from e. 

1(1 j»;ov»'rn- 
iit; siluntc 

nrr. on t!ir 
nuiutli \>y 

I' A MAIN, n 

ill la(. 47' 

w liiiiirdiitii 
iindiiiis be 

NillltillgO (l<* 

ml captniu- 
'OMI )l liiKo, 
Aciiiiiii iiiid 

ill Sjilcin 


of (icdrsjiii. 

ik::;-, okU'- 

iiuiliiii, and 
of Poiiiis\l- 
hip of Nt'u 

tt liiirliii!; 
iiiul v. .\". 
1 in ITMO, 

"K, ill till" 

j'drncr tif 

) of Ponii- 

)OSt-(0«l'l ol 

;>;. and !.'» 
) of Ponii- 
o«iisliij) of 

si. Carolinii, 
from Ha- 
ll Hudson's 

IS' ic] 
oa«t ol (lir 

of the thiiii 



(J R A 

Marrow cliniin<d. ralli-d Del PaHajrc. ^of the I'a^ 


( I'l'TON, a t«>\vnslii|>of MasHacliiisotts, Wor- 
(Tstcr Count V : (•oiitainins', in I7f)(). ?M)() inlialii- 
laiits, dis|»crM(l on l.'J,()(K( acirs of land. fa\oiir- 
■ildc for oiTliardiiii>-, pa-^linairo, and -jras«. It is 
,v. of Shcrlniriic, in Midiili'xox County, !•» iiiilc- 
«. c. of \V orct'stcr. and .'iS v. w. of llosluii. | 

I (^>l AKil.VUA.a rivor <if the <;\»\v |»ro\inic 
and Uiimd(»in as tlio loriin-r, wliicli outers tlio sea 
liiMtVfcii the l'|iani>Mia and tlio Point of Val. 

I (^rK'r.A, a lako of the iirovincc and frovorn- 
inciit ofCiiminiii. formed l)\ llio Hasic ualors ol 
llic Oriiiorn. in tin- part «lirir llio amis (d" tlii- 
ri\('r arc <iivid«'d into \arions cliannols lo ciilrr 
llio sea. 

1(^1 I U I'll, S\N .Ir AN Di: I, A I, \i,. N A ni;, a 
s(>l(|<>iii<>iit id' llio province and ^iMcrnincnl of 
Vonc/iicla, in tlir iiou kingdom of (jiranada. 

I (^1 I'l'OA. San Antonio ni., a sitlloinont 
of till- pro\iii('o and •>'ovcriinioiil of Soiiora in 
\iir\a I'.-ipafia: •-ilnatc near a liM'r, iii'tMoon tin- 
sotllcnu'nis of Addi and San l.nis dc Hanipa. 

rU All A, a pro\in(-(>oftlu- w\\ kiiii;(loni of(ira- 
nada, to llif ;." of llial of Carlai>'('na, and lioiindcd 
liv that (d'Daricn. It (•xlondsalona; llictdasl of I he 
S. Sea, and was discovoriMl l>y Prdro do llcrcdia, 
in l.).'JI. Its rapital was San Schaslian do llcl- 
lavista, a «i(\ uliirli is at the prc-onl day dc- 
stnucti. Il <'<niiprohonds Ihi' provinco of Cali- 
dcniia « lioro the Scolcli oslahlishcd (lirnisclM's : is 
of a hot loinpcratiiro, and of a inoisi soil, and 
roNcrcd with woods, liciiii>- irrii>alrii In I he riM'i- 
.\trato or San .loan. Tho ICn^lisli of .laniaica 
<'oiii(> liidior to trade with the Indians, and to 
carry hack trold, of which there is an ahnndance. 
Its native-^ are very warlike, and ii^e ^uords and 
lire anus, and have made the S|MiMiarils ali"iid of 
them whenever these have altenipled lo in\ade 
(heir proxiiico. This they ha\e endeavonri'd lo 
i!o fre(Miently, Imt without eHecl. These Indians 
are allies of tiii> l)arie;>> and id'iiie l'iiii>'lish. 

la Ml \, a ;;'real jiiilph of the same province, 
called also of Darieii, formed liy the cape San 
Sehastian to tiie i . and that ol 'rihniini lo the ;.'. 
dis(«)\ered by llodriifo liastidas in l,'*()'J. lis ex- 
tent is ^(i loii<.>iies iVoiii s. to ;/. and its width nine 
from r. to w. lis coast is full of sharp and inac- 
cessible shoals, and only towards the ,,;'. and v. 
are there any places lit for disembarkin<>'. Seve- 
ral river-i oiiijilv themselves into this i;nlph, bnl 
(lie lai'ive^l is the Atrato or San Juan. Close to 
the rt . coast are many islands, one bejiind an- 
other, lorinin": so many < 1 1 was Ibr- 
nierlv iiiiuli tioqiK iitoil l>y Uir T lein !i, bill in 

vol.. V. 

II l{ A 

I. "1 7 

l/(il II was abandmiod b> lliem. leaving to the 
I'lnijlish a free commerce uilli the natives. Tho 
cil\ (d'Saii Sebaslian de llelli. vi^la, of which no 
iliiti:^' bill the name reinaiiis, was silnale on its 
shore, its best port is that called Nilcos. 

I iiAiiA, an inland td'the S. Sea, in Hie bay or 
^iilpli of Panama, of the kin!>'dom of 'I'ierra 
l''irnie. Il is sni.ill. and close lo that of Taboira, 
lowardH the c. 

I 'U AM V l''.S, a liarbaroiis mil ion <d' Indians, 
descended from those o|' Darieii, who dwell in the 
woods and foresis of the province of I'riiba. 
They are \ery warlike and dexlroiis in the use 
of swords and fire arms, which were i^i yen them 
bv Ihe l''.ii^lis|i and I'leiich in exchani;!' lor (.^<dd. 
'I hey are allies of llie Dariens and implacable 
enemies to the Spaniards. 

I i{/\CAPI , a liver of I lie province and i^p- 
veiTimenl <d'(iiiayaiia or Niieva jVndalncia, one 
of IJKise that enter the (hinoi-o by Ihe c. side. 

I U,\CAYl , a selllemeni oi" the same pro 
vince as the former river, in the coiiiilry of the 
(jiiiriripas Indian^. 

( I |{/\CII(), a river on Ihe r. coasi of.S. Anu*- 
rica, is IS leagues ;.-.«.,•.•. ofCaiirora Uiyer. | 

I I l{ \(;i AY. See I arci AV.| 

CUAMAIICA. a selliement of the province 
and (ont u;iinii iilo of Andahiiailas in Peru; an- 
nexed to the curacy ol' liii- seltleinenl of Cliin 

I liA.MI'.C, a si'ttlemeiil of (he prov iiii e :iiid 
Hoveinmenl (d"( inavana, in lln! part po-ses-ed bv 
llie Porlii»iiese. 

I l< A.N ,\, a selllemeni of I he province and ijo- 
vernmont (d'(inavana, tnie of the missions ihal 
were held by (he ,le«iiils in (he province ol 
Santa he: sidmtc on ih" sh(n"e of (be Orinoco. 

I I |{ A .\< ). a ri\ er on llie >/. coa-t ofS. ,\nie- 
rica, which enters Ih" ocean abreasi of llie wi-sl- 
ernmosl of the Perilas Islands, about three 
leii<;'iies ,-,<. of Coinuna Hiiy. It only admits small 
boats and canoes, Olciiier Hay is to ilw. w. 
of it.] 

I UAPICIM, Santa Mauia ok, a settU- 
nienl ol' the head x'tlicmeill of the di-lrict of 
Araiil/.aii, and a/cn/din itiai/ur of Vall^idolid, in 
the proyince and bishopric i/f Mechoaci'tn. It 
contains ,'j() liimilies of Indians, eiii|)lov('d in the 
cidlivalion cd' seeds, <ulliii<r wood, and fabiical- 
inn' <'arlheiivvare ami saddle-trees. 

I liAKCIIAI'.S, a barbarous nalion of In- 
dians, but little known, dwidlinir in the woods 
near the river Cayari, lo tin' .v. of the Marnnon. 

lill.Vlll.VKS, San I'ii vncisco Xavii-.k di-.; 
LOS, a selilenieiit of the missions Ihal woru li'ld 



I ■ 



V u i: 

'; p 


by the JesiiitH, in the proviiuc and govcrnrnont 
ol'N'. i;ias, in the kin^dnin of Quito; situate on 
the Hlioie of the Nupo. 

(IllAV^Itl, u river of the province and fjfovern- 
incnt ol' Honduras, which ri<ies near tlie coast, 
runs II. aiul enters the sea between Cape Cauia- 
ron and the Bay ol'(^irtago. 

[L'llRA\i\A, a small post-town of Virginia, 
Middlesex County, on the s. w. side of Rappa- 
hannock River, 17 miles from Stingray Point, at 
the mouth of the river, ()0 s. e. of F'"redericks- 
burg, 1)3 e. by w. of Richmond, and 9.J from Tap- 
pahannock. VVIieat is shipped from (hi.^ to Eu- 
rope, and Indian corn, &c. to New England, 
Nova Scotia, and the VV. Indies. ) 

URBANO, a city of Middlesex County, in tlie 
province of Jersey, one of (he I'nited States of 
N.America, lying s. Zi.\ of the river Rappaha- 

URCO, Sa.m Juan ot:, a mountain of the 
kingdom of Quito, in the conr^imie ;f<' of the 
district of 1/as Cinco I.eguas de la Capital. 

I'RCtlS, a settlement of the province a?id 
iones;iiiiiiiiti) of (juis|)icanchi in Peru, near 
which is found the lake into which the Indians 
are said to have thrown the great chain of gold 
made on tlie birth of liuascnr, in the search of 
which much pains have been lost. It is thought 
that this lake is formed artificially, having con- 
ducts wherel)v to fill and empty under the earth, 
as it has always remained since the time of the 
conquest at one height. It is F)(X) yards long, 
and J(H) wide. Its depth in the centre is 3(j 
yards: it is siuiale in a plain or valley of the 
same name, wherein are to be seen the ruins of 
the great palace, in which the Inca, Yahiiar 
Huacac, retired when despoiled by his son of the 

URCUS.A, a setclement of the province and 
corregiiiiicnto of Liicanas in Peru : annexed to 
the curacy of the settlement of Otoca. 

I'RCLU^I^I, a settlement of the province and 
corrrgi ' ito of Otavalo, in the kingdom of 
Quito. In its district is a largo estate, called 

URECHO, San .\ntomo df,, a head settle- 
ment of the district and nlcaldUi iiini/or of Valla- 
dolid, in the province and bishopric of .\Icclu>- 
acAn. it is of a hot temperature, and one of 
those that suffered most sev(!rely in the epide- 
mic which rayed at Matla/ahna. whereby its po- 
piilatinu became reduced to th(> following estates: 
Parola, in which they make sugar, and which is 
one league in length, contains four families of 
Spanianls and 17 of Mulattocs ; Sunja contains 



nine ; Xongo, which is so near its capital as to 
be divided by a river which irrigates it, 17; 
San iluan, at a league's distance, 30 ; and that of 
San Pedro Tiripi'.io, with a small mill or engine 
close by it, 14 ; besides a few others, some 
leiigiies from the capital, Pasqiiaro. 

Ores, a settlement of the province and go- 
vernment of Sonora in Niieva Espana; situate 
on the «hore of the river Sonora, between the 
settlements of San Xavier and Rabiar.ira. 

("CRFE, a river of Upper Canada, afterwards 
called Grand River, now The Ouse, which runs 
into Lake Erie.] 

URIDIALES, a small settlement or ward of 
the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in the 
province and bishopric of Mechoacan. 

URIPA, a settlement of the province and ror- 
re^imicnto of .Andahuailas in Peru; 14 leagues 
from its capital. 

CRIQl'E, a settlement and real of silver 
■nines, in the province and government of Ci- 

L'RIREO, a head settlement of the district 
and alcaldUi mayor of De Zelaya in the province 
and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains a con- 
vent oi" religious of S. Augustin, JM)7 families of 
Indians, and some of Spaniards and Mus(ccs. 

URITCQIJASI, a settlement of the province 
and government of Popayan in the Niievo Reyiio 
de (Jrranada, in the road which leads down from 
Santa Fe. 

IJRrri'SlNCiA, a mountain of the province 
and ronrt.iiiiieiito of Loxa in the kingdom of 
Quito, and in the territory of the Malacatos to 
the s. It is celebrated for its mountains abouiMl- 
iiisj; in bark, the best that is known, a preference 
being given to that gathered in the e. part of the 
same mountain. These woods grow upon the 
top ofdillicult rocks, so as to render the opera- 
tion of gathering the bark extremely ha/.ardous. 
'I'lie mountain is also known by the name of Cor- 
dillera ofCaxanuma. 

I'RMIAl, a settlement of the province and 
torngiinitiito of Paria in Peru, and of the arch- 
bishopric of Charcas; annexed to the curacy oi 
(he settlement of Poopo. 

L'RMIRI, a settlement of the province and 
government of Potosi in Peru ; annexed to the 
curacy of the settlement of Salinas. 

l.'UON, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of Darieii and kingdom of Tierra Firmr 
l( runs .V. and (hen (urns c. (o en(or the Pacific 
Sea. On its shores (he Indians have many dwel- 
lings, as the territory is very fertile and de- 

tal as to 

es it, 17; 

id that of 


or cns'ni' 


rs, some 


e and go- 


i; Kituate 


ween the 

." ' j 



hich runs 

• / 

»r ward of 

'■ :> 

lid, in the 


B and cor- 


[i league!* 

of silver 

ent of Ci- 

\e district 


H province 

tins a con- 

^. ' 

families ot 



e province 


evo Reyno 

lown from 
^ province 

ingdoni o( 

ulacatos to 

ns abouiMl- 

■ .. 


part of the 

' upon the 

the opera- 



me of Cor- 

nvince and 

)f the arch- 

c curacy ol 

ovince and 

xed to the 

lid govern - 

nra Firnir. 

the Pacific 

nany dwel- 

le and de- 

u n u 

URSOLA, S. a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district of Qucchula, and alcalilia 
nuiyor of Tepeaca in Nueva Espana. It contains 
two families of ;l///.v/w,«, and 50 of Indians, and 
is very close to its head settlement. 

IJrtlJ, a river of the province and government 
of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, wliich enters 
the A pure. 

I'Rl'ANA, a settlement of the same province 
and government as the former, on the shore of 
the river Orinoco, on the e. side. It is one of 
the missions which were held by this river by the 
Jesuits, and is now under the charge of the Ca- 
puchin fathers. 

URUANI, a small river of the province anJ 
government of Cumnna, which runs s, and enters 
the Ciiyiini by the n. side. 

L'Rt'APAN, .San Fiiancisco de, a Fiead set- 
tlement of tlie district of the alcaliHa mayor of 
Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Me- 
choaci'in. It is of a mild temperatur(> ; situate at 
the entrance of the sierra of Mechoacaii. In its 
district are nine wards surrounding it. in which 
dwell JSf) Indian families, besides bO in (he set- 
tlement itself: there are also of Spaniards, jMks- 
Urs, and MnlaUoes, aiiout !^00 others. The na- 
tives trade in seeds, the produce of tlie countrv, 
cattle, and cotton of which they make most beau- 
tiful woven stuffs ; in wax, honey, wrought cop- 
per, (roughs, chests, and other articles of cai- 
pcndy. It has a convent of religious of St. 
Francis, and is 12 leagues s.ic. of its capital. 

IJRl'UAMBA, a province and roruiiiitiiaifo 
of the kingdom of Peru. It is only :i\ leagues 
long, and two wide ; seven leagues dis(aiit I'rom 
(aizco. It was called of Yucay in (h<' time of 
M!e Indians, and is now the man|uisa(e ofC'io- 
ptsa. It has in its district various t's(atrs, m hich 
yield wheat, mai/e, and other vegetable pro ;iic- 
tions: and in which there are some grea( salines, 
by which Ciizco is provided. The country is 
cheerful, pleasant, fertile, and abouuiiiug in many 
the most I'xquisite fruits. Through it runs the 
river PilconiavOi which is crossed by two bridges 
of rushes, and in it are found many trout of deli- 
cate flav(Mir. It contains different families of In- 
dians of noble origin but verv poor : and (he 
uuinlier of the whole of the inhabitants should 
amount to .')()0(). The capital is the t«wn of tlie 
•^uine name, [on the shore of the river Quilhi- 
bamba, or (Jvubaniba, or Vilcabamba, to the w. of 
t'uzco, in la(. 13^ 16' s. and long. 7 I • ^1' a. | 

I Rl'BAQUARA, a settlement of the pro- 
vince iuid country of Las AmazoiiM'^ iii the par( 



possessed by the Portuguese, on the shore of the 
river of that name. 

Un'JBAouAnA, a river of this province, which 
rises in the territory of the Carpinas Indians, 
rui.s s. and enters the Amazonas, between those 
of Ciirupatiiba and Piiru. 

URL'BIJ, S. Antonio de, a village and set- 
tlen.ont of (he Portuguest in (he province and 
captainship ofTodos Santos ,ind kingdom of Bra- 
zil ; on the shore of the grand river of San Fran- 

Urubi', another settlement, in the province 
and captainship of Seigipe del Rey in the same 
kingdom, also on the shore of (he river San Fran- 
cisco, and near its mouth. 

Uhubc, a river of the province and country 
of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the 
Portuguese. It runs to s. s e. and loses itself in 
the great pool of w aters w hich is formed by dif- 
ferent arms of (he Marauon in the territory of the 
IJrabaquis Indians. 

I'RLCANGl'A.a small river of the province 
and captainship of Roy in Brazil, which rises near 
(he coas(, runs e. and en(eis the sea by the side 
of the io< ks of Santa Marta. 

I'Rl'Cl'AY, a province or extent of country 
of S. America: bounded n. by the province of 
Guaiiii in the government «»f Paraguay, s. by the 
mouth of the river La Plata, e. by the province 
and cantai iship of Rey in Brazil, and n:. by (he 
ri\er Parana. I(s leiigdi from n.e. to s.o). is 
somewhat more (ban iiOO leagues, and its width 
from c. to u\ abcnit 130, although in some parts 
it be narrower. It is divided by the river of its 
iiiime into ( . and ti". This rises in the mountains 
of (he kingdom of Brazil, and runs for more than 
GtiO miles in a direct line with an extraordinary 
violence, making a terrible noise among^^l (Ik^ 
n.cks, and in the winter hcason it swells to Midi 
a deijiee as to appear like a sea. 

This country was inhabi(ed by (he Cassapimi- 
nian Indians, und is, for the i reaier part, plain, 
but aboiiiuling in thick woods, in which are in 
finite numbers o( wild animals and birds, espe- 
cially parrots: also, tiie f/atiinos were lormeily 
thickly inhiihited by ostriches, lions, (fainos, and 
•Toats; and vi\ both slioros of the river tiiere are 
large pastic sn, w here breed iiiiiumerable licrcis ol' 
liorses and wild cows. 

I'niGLAV, a large, abundant, and n-ivigablr 
river of the province and government of Para 
guav^ It rise? in lat. 26° 30' *. ami collecting; 
various othtr streams, traverses a vast extent of 
country to .v.t. [^Its length, in a direct line from 





U H I 

I' S I' 



its source Id its inonlli, iH-iiin ninro than (i'iO 
iiiili's and ri'('<>i\iii<r tli«> wains ut'tlic Papiii, ll>i- 
niiti. Timhov. 'rilii(|iiari, ll)icii|iiiili, N«>^i-o, aiitl 
ollu-rs. as till- as lat..'jl v. Il c'iiI<tm tlu' rivor 
La I'lata, lu'ar Hiu'ru)s Avifs, to lli<> n'.u.jc. of 
tl)<> colonv orSarraiiK'iilo, wliicli l)(>lon<r<'(l to llu* 
Portn^iicsc, l>t>iiii; jointMl a litlli< liclow lliis plarc 
bv till' iininenso tiibiitarv stream of the I'araiia, 
wliirli series also to swell the rivt-r lia I'iatu. ! 

Cni'ddAV, another, a small river in the same 
province' and government, wiiich rnns r. and also 
enters the Parana, near the trrand river of C'n 

I'Rl'Gl'AIFOSTA, a river of the province 
and ciiptdiiisliip «)!' San I'alilo in Draxil, which 
runs M. ti. ic. and enters the I'm^nav. 

I'UI (a!AI-MI<:inN,a river ol'lhe same pro- 
vince and governniont as the former, which riuis 
to the same rhiimh not far from the former, and 
enters also the I'mffnav. 

riU (a .\I-PIT\. a riser of the province 
and i;overninent of Piirai>iiav, w liich rnns c. and 
enters, verv abundant, into the I rn!;i;May, oppo- 
site the month ol'tlie Pepiri tfiia/ii. 

I'KriC'AK \S|. a settlement of the province 
and corn siitnii iilo of Chavanta or I'harcas in 

I UrLONii A. See I'm v( xcaA. 

UIMMPK, a river of the province and coun- 
try of lias AnniiTonas, whicli rises between those 
of Madera and Anilore, and enters llu' former. 

I HINDKI YI'lllI, a IbrI of the province 
and irovernment of Paraiiiiav. with a j{arrist)n of 
Spaniards to restnHntho incnrsious of the Inlidel 

I'lU'PAUATR, a river of tlio province and 
country of Las Ama/onas, one of those of whicli 
the waters are tribniarv to the Marafion : be- 
tween the Yume and the Cnrnlate. 

I RL PI, a small river oi' the same province 
and country as the tbriner, and in' the territory of 
the Portuiyue?c, wliich runs c. and joins the \fa- 
rauun just at its entrance into the sea. 

LRl'PIKA. a river of the province and go- 
vernment of (iiiayana or Nneva .Andalucia. It 
rises near the seltlement of the missicms of San 
Joseph de Otoniayos, ruiisri). and enters the Ori- 
noco close to the settlement of Niistra Seilora 
de los Aii'^eles, 

L'RLlSSA, a small river of the province and 
country of Las Amazona-. which rises in llu- ter- 
ritory of the Mayorunas Lidiaus, runs ii. close to 
the Maoobiis, and enters the iVlaranon opposite 
the settlement of S. Carlos de Carachis. 

I'Rl'TA, a small river of the province and 
government of (luayana or Nneva Andalncia. 
It is formed by variinis streams in the country of 
the Pandacotos Indians, runs ;/. and turning af- 
terwards its c«nirse to r. enters the Paragna. 

LRI'TPA, a small river of the same province 
and government as the former. It rises in the 
coiuitry of the Achirigolos Indians, runs n. zv. 
and enters tlu; Caroiii. 

I'SIACCSI, a settlement of the province ami 
goM'rnment of Cartagena in thtr Nuevo Reyno 
(le (iranada, on the shore of Ihe channel wliicli 
runs from the swamp of Turbaco into the sea. 

ISIC.AYOS, a seltlement of the province and 
(or>rs;ii)ii(nU) of Carabaya in Peru, nnn<'\ed lo 
the curacy of the settlement of Cao/.a. 

I SrHAICOCII A. a seltlement of the province 
and roriTH'tiiiii )iti> of ('aula, in the sanu> Kingdom 
as the Huiner : annexed lo llie curacy ol'the set- 
llement of Pari. 

I SMC, a seltlenu'iit tifthe ionrs;iniitnti> of In- 
dians of libatpie, in the Nuevo lieyno de (ira- 
nada. It is of a cold lemperalure. fertile in 
wheat, papas, barley and other productions of 
this climate: hiis veiy few bousekee|)ers and less 
Indians, although llie iahaliilants of the settle- 
ment of 'riui/.nelo, which has been extinguished, 
has been added lo il : three leagues s. e. of Santa 

rsP.A-LLAC'I'A, or I'spam-ata, which, in 
Ihe Chilian laugMat>e, means laiul of ashes. It is 
a spot ol'the kiug'lom of Chile, in the territory of 
the cily ofMemlo/a, .—lebrated for its rich gold 
mines, u hich are v(>ry abundant, and as espivially 
are tiiose of San Rominildo and of San Nicholas 
de Mai'. 

[I si'A-i,i,A(TA, or iNi'Ai.i.ATA. the luime ol 
one of the largest ami richest silver mines in the 
kingdom of ('hile, from whence liie three stnls ol 
cu'es are extracted ; one of these, Ihe black ore, is 
held in particular estimation by Ihe miners, and 
is so called ironi its matrix being of a dark colour. 
Those of them who are experieiu-etl, are scarcely 
ever deceived in Ihis ore, and, whenever they 
strike upon a new vein, can nearly deleruiine by 
Ihe e\e the (piantity of silver which il will vield. 
This Ore presents three very disliiul varieties, 
though diH'eriug but little in appeaiance. The 
(irst, called wg;///(>, resembles tlw storia of iron, 
and all'ords no apparent indicalion ofsiher. Thi' 
second, the rossir/oro, which is disliiui from tin- 
red silver ore, and yielils a red powiler v.lieii 
liled : it is very rich, altliough its external 
api)earaiKe is not promising. The third, tin. 




vinco iiiul 
i-oiiiilry of 


p proviiuT 
sps in tlic 
runs M. u\ 

ivinco unii 
'vo lt««vno 
ind tviiicli 
till' sea. 
oviiirc and 
iiuu'Xfd l<) 

ic i)rovinrt' 

)(> kingdom 

ol'tlu' s«'l- 

lirttli) oCln- 
no (ic (ini- 
, li'i-tilc in 
dnctions ul° 
>rs and loss 
the settlo- 
. e. of Santa 

, whirli, in 
islics. It is 
territory «tl' 
ts rirli ^old 
IS esiMvially 
an ^Jicliolas 

till' name of 
nines in the 
iree sorts dI' 
)lack ore, is 
ininers, and 
larlv I'olonr. 
are sraiT«'ly 
eiH'ver lliey 
eterniine by 
it nill \ield. 
ft vanetie-^. 
raiu'f. 'lilt' 
oria of iron. 
sil\er. Tlif 
lit iVoMi tin- 
(vvdcr vvlicn 
Its external 
i; tliird. tliv 

piDDilio-roiirn, the rirlipst of nil, as it is iniiierai- 
i/fd with a verv small (|iiantil\ ol'sulphiir ; il is 
Diiieli more ea'^ily se|>iirat<>d than the ulhers, 
whit'li reqnire a more lahorions and «'(Mii|)liraled 
o|HTati(ni. 'I'iiis mine is sitnate ii|ioii the eastern 
moniitains of that portion of the Andes, li>rminir 
a |<art of tlieprovinre of Aconea^iia. On the loit 
of these mountains is a lar(;e plain, raihui ( spol- 
lata, of more than 17 leai^iies in lenij;lh and three 
in l)r<>adtli: il is uatered by a pleasant river and 
(•(•vered with deliirhtlul <jrov<'s : the air is healthy 
and temperate, uiid the soil fertile This plain 
>erves as a base to arn>tlier more elevated. I'alled 
I'uramillo, upon uhiththe Andes of the first rai>k 
rise to such a hei<;hl as lo be seen distinctly at San 
Luis de la l*unta, a distance of 1^0 leajfiies. 'I'l.e 
mine of I spallata exteinis alonu; tlie baM> of the 
eastern monntaiiu of (he plain of the same name, 
fruni latitude .'i.'j, in u direct //. ctun-se, but the 
termination of it is unkno«vn: for wo have been 
assiued, by pers«ms who have followed il for .'JD 
leH<rues, that it continues to bo etpialiy abnndaiil 
al (hat distance: and tiiere are those who assert 
that il is a ramiliralion of the celebrated mine 
<d' l'oto«i. 'I'he principal vein is nine feet in 
breadth, but it branches oat unoii both sides into 
several that are ■.mailer, wiiicli extend to the 
ueiiriilxnn'ini;; iiiuunlains, and are said lo exceed 
:>0 miles in leu<;lli. 'I'liis mine is found to iii- 
cn»ase in richness in propiulion lo its depth. Il 
was discovered in the year l().>8, but althouirli al 
lirst it furnished the 'slrim<;esl iiulicalion of its 
wealth, from want of ! ibomers. or some ollier 
caiise, il was ne:;lecled until I7(),'j, but since that 
period has been constantly wroui;ht with immense 
protil. I 

I'SPVS, a barbarous nation of Indians <if the 
province and "overnment of Maiiias, in the kiiiir- 
dom of Quito, who inhabit the woods on the bor- 
ders of the 'rii^re. It was >eiy numerous, bul 
through the ccuilinual wars it has maintained, 
their numbers have been much diminished. 

I'SQl'lL, a settlement of the province and 
conr!>iiiiivntn ordnanuichiiro in I'erii. 

I'SlJVIASIN'l'I.A, a river of the jurisdiction 
ami al(fi/(fia mm/nr of Tabasco in Nueva Ivspana. 
It rises in the cotuitry of the l^acandimes Indians 
and enters the sea. 

I Sl;l»AMA. a river of the province and jijo- 
\ernment of (tuayaua, or Nueva And.ilucia, 
which rises .v. of the river Caroni, runs r. and 
unites itself with the ("uyuui and Vtiruari. 

I sii'AMA, a sicna or <(inli//i ni of mountains of 
the same province ami <jovernment, which riiu« 

v. e. nonrly parallel with the Uinscolo, enters the 
river Caroni and the Cnyuni. 

I 'I've San 1'i.iMio ni;, a settlement of the 

1>rovince and it)rir)iitiii<tito of Chachapoyas in 
'ern, auiU'xed to the curat y of the settlement of 

I TA'i'liAN. a settlemenl of the province and 
i//(//A//«///^///(>r ofChiapn, in the kinu;doni of (iiia- 
teinaia, and of the head settlement of the district 
of thai of Comitlan. 

I TAW AS, a settlement of Indians of this na- 
tion in ( 'anaila. iwar lh<> bay (d'Sairuana, to the r. 
between that bay and the lake Huron. 

I r A w As. another seltleuu-nt in the same pro- 
vince, between the Lakes I'aie and St. Clare, on 
the shore of the strait or arm by which these 
lakes are communicated. 

I rAWAs, a lartio and abundant river of tlu> 
same province, 'vliiih rises mar the Lake \ipis 
siu!;, runs r. ami enters l>y two arms into th(> St. 
L'lwreiK'o, formiiijr t!ie islami <d' Montreal. [This 
river divides ( p|)er and Lovvei- Canada, and, 
more properly speakiiifr, falls into .lesiis Lake, 

I IS miles ,v. hu oj' (Quebec. Il receives the waters 
of Timmiskamain. .'Jlilt miles i'mm its ukmiIIi -. S.j 
miles above whic'i is called Monlreal Kiver { 

I'TCAS, a sclllemeiil of the proxince and i or- 
iii^iiiiit iilo of Caxalaiiibo in I'eru : annexed In 
the curacy of the selllemeni <d' ils capital. 

( rClllV AO, a river of tlie province ami 
government of La (luayana or N< .i\a Audalucia. 

II rises froMi tlie Lake Icupa. rnii'. /;. and enler-- 
the I'arajrua very near the I'nirauci- ol" this into 
tlu> Caroni. 

IJTI'U", a selliemerd of the pi-ovince and r«/;v- 
i!;iiiiiriit<) of Lucanas in I'erti ; annexed to the 
curacy of its capital. 

L'l IvN', a river of the kiiii>;d(iMi of Chile, on 
the shore of wliich starnls the city Imperial. It 
rises in the lofilillini of the Andes, and runs ji.\ 
until it enters the S.Sea. Some call il theCaulen. 
I II '.brius at its mouth a small bay, which is (iti 
miles //. (d'ihe citv ol' \ aldivia, and 1^0 .v. of the 
city of Conception, in lat..'JS' IC v.| 

I'TILA, a small island of the \. Sea, near the 
coast of the province and i;i)veriiiueul of Hondu- 
ras, opposit(> the iiionlh ol'lhe CoineciiiTo. 

( Til. A, a small river of this proviuie, \\iii(h 
enters the sea. 

ri'tjlJVI , a small river afihe provinc<-aiul 
colony of Surinam, in llie pari of (iuayana pos- 
pessed by the Dnicli. Il rise^ jn tlie >/(//,/ of 


Itinocole, fo\\\\^ 

a senmurlc, and enters I he t'a- 



V A I 














UTRECHT, a Hinall sctJlenuMit of the pro- 
vince of New York in the United Staten ol IV. 
Ainericu, ». w. of Lon<T Island, tlirrc miles r. of 
Hondric, and eight h. w. of New York. (It has 
a Dutch chnrch, and contained, in i7<)0, f)&J in- 
lialiitants ; of whom 7(i were electorti, and 'JOG 
W'"'e si- .-«.] 

UTl]N-SULL.\,anantientand small province 
of the kingdom of Pern, conquered and united by 
the monarch Yahuar-huacac, an heredilarv prince 
and son of inca Roca, sixth emperor. 

UTZIIi.V, San Fei.ihk dk, u settlement of 
the head settlement of the district of Chinanlla, 
and (tlvnUliii mai/or of C'oxamaloapun in Nueva 
EspaAa ; founded on a plain surrounded by 
craggy mountains, and watered by a river, which 
is an arm of the Alvarado. It contains 190 fami- 
lies of Indians, who live by the conunerco of 
mai/c and cotton, which it produces in abun- 
dance, and which is sold in the jurisdiction of 
Teutihi, by which it is liounded by the s. s. c. 
and many leagues <■• of Mi'xico. 

lJVI^JA, a large, beautiful, aiul fertile llnnum 
of the province awA corrcs;imH'nlo of lea in Peru. 
It is full of vines, olives, and ill kinds of fruits, 
and is sufficiently peopled. 

I UXHRlDCiB, a township of MasgachuRetls, 
Worcester county, 38 miles s. w. of Boston. It 
was taken from Mendon, and incorporated in 
17^7, and Northbridgc was afterwards taken 
from it. It contained in 1790, IKO dwelling- 
houses, and 1^8 'nhabitants. I( is bounded .v. 
by the state of Rhode Island. Not far from 
S'lioe-Iog Pond, in the s. w. part of the town, 
there is an iron mine which is improved to con- 
siderable advantage.] 

[UxiiKiDGE, in the e. riding of the county of 
York, Upper Canada, is to the ti. and in the rear 
of Pickering. ] 

UVf AXAQUE, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district and alaildin mai/or of Zayula 
in Nueva Espana. It contains 4j families of 
Indians, 1.5 of Muslecs and M ulatoes, and is two 
leagues s. w. of its capital. 

UZAMACIN, a settlement of the head settle- 
ment of the district of Cinantla and alcaldia mauor 
of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana. It is of an 
hot and moist temperature, situate between two 
mountains, and inhabited by 30 families of In- 
dians who exercise themselves in tlfe cultivation 
of cotton ; seven leagues s. of its head settlement 
and jO from the capital. 

■ ( 

VA, a river of the province and government of 
San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada. It rises from a lake belonging "to it of 
its name, and running e. af'cr making many 
windings, enters the Guabiare. 

VACA, a small island of the N. Sea, one of 
the smaller Antilles : t''- -e leagues distant from 
the island of St. Domingo; it is of a very fertile 
territory, has two or three very good ports, and 
admirably adapted for commerce with the Spa- 
nish coasts and with Guayana. It n))ounds 
greatly in cattle. [It is one of the Tortugas, or 
Florida Keys, to the r. of Bahia Honda ; the 
distance between them is four leagues, and tlie 
coast in its direction turns to the n. On the s. 
side of Cayo Vaca, about eight miles from the u;. 
end, there are wells of fresh water. A tliick 
range of isles go by this name. Bahia Honda is 
in lal. a4 3,5' w.] 

[Vaca, called also the (.'ow's, or Neat's, 

Tongue, a low point on the w. coast of Chile, 
in S. America, which bounds the Bay ofTonguey 

to the a.] 

V^ AC ARIA, a settlement of the province and 
captains/lip of Rey in Brazil, at the source and on 
the shore of the river yViita. 

VACA R IMA, a cordillem of the most lofty 
mountains in the province and government of 
Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia ; whicli divides 
thi:^ province into s. or de Caribana, and into n. 
or de Pariii . From these mountains rise many 
rivers, whicli run n. and repair to tlie Orinoco : 
and otluns which rni) r. s. e. and enter the sea. 
These inmiitiiiiis run 1^0 leagues from w. c. to 
V. r;)., and in them dwell many Caribees Indians, 
be-iides a multitude of wild beasts and animals. 

VACAS, a river of the province and govern- 
ment of Buenos Ayres, wliicii runs s. near the 
Uruguay and parallel to it, and enters the Plata, 
opposite a single island at its entrance. 


DoHtoii. It 
■porated in 
ards taken 
) dwelling- 
bounded .V. 
it far from 
r the town, 
tved to coll- 
ie county ol' 
I in the rear 

head scttle- 

r of Zayula 

families of 

i, and 18 two 

head settle- 
caldia mayor 
It is ot* an 
between two 
niliea of In- 
b cultivation 
id settlement 

ast of Chile, 

irovince and 
ource and on 

e most lofty 
)vernment «)t 

hich divid('^ 
and into » 
ins rise manv 
llie Orinoco : 
nter the sea. 

from M. c. to 
bees Indiiiii'^, 
lul animals. 

and goverii- 
i-. near tlie 
ers tliG Plata, 


Vacah, another river in the province and king- 
dom of (riiateinala. 
[VACCA, the same as Vaca, which see.] 
I VACIIK, or Cow's Isi.ano, lies on the s. 
const of the s. peninsula of the island of St. 
Domingo, and is about 9 or 10 miles long, and in 
the broadest part three and a half, from n. to s. 
The u\ point is six miles e. of Point Abacou ; and 
in lat. \W 4' m. and long. 7J° 37' a;. It has a very 

f;ood soil, with Hvo or three tolerable ports, and 
ies very conveniently for trade with the Spanish 
colonies on the continent, and with Cayenne. 
The seamen call this Ash Island, a corruption 
from Vash, as it is pronounced.] 

[Vaciie et le 'loRHEAU, or Cow an» Bum, 
Rocks, on the s. coast of Newfoundland Island, 
are about a mile s, e. of Cape St. Marv, which is 
the point between the deep bay of Plncentia on 
the a), and St. Mary's Bay on the e. They are 
fair above water, but there are others near them 
which lurk under water.] 

Vaciie, Cui. de Sac, a settlement and parish 
of the French in the island of Martinique ; a cu- 
racy of the Capuchin fathers ; situate on the 
sliore of the great bay of the Cul de Sac Royal. 

VADELORGE, ftay of, in the island of Ciua- 
dalupe, between the bay of Rocroi and the river 

VADIRAGUATO, a small Jurisdiction and 
alcaht'in moijor of Niieva Espana, and part of the 
province of Culiacun in the kingdom of Niicva 
Vizcaya, ic. of the Sierra A/adre, of ahot tempera- 
ture, mountainous and rough country, and con- 
taining some settlements of Indians, which were 
held by the Jesuits of the province of Cinaloa ; 
also different ranches of Spaniards, who cultivate 
much sugar-cane. It is bounded «•. by the pro- 
vince of Cinaloa, in the part which they call the 
.Jurisdictions, on the high road. 

The capital is the settlement of its name, a re- 
duction of Indians made by tlic missionaries of 
the Jesuits ; the same is situate in the middle of 
the sierra, a id on the shore of the river Piastl?. 

VAES, a settlement of the province avl go- 
vernment of Tucumah in Peru, near the river 
San Miguel. 

[Vae's Island, Anthony, a small island on 
the e. coast of Brazil, in S.America. It lies to the 
s. of the sandy Receif, and opposite to it, which 
is joined to the continent by a oridge.] 

VAGUA, a large tlanura of the province and 
government of Juan de Bracamoros in the king- 
dom of Quito. It is very fertile, and of an hot 
climate, but healthy, and abounding in wild 

V A L 


honey. It was formerly well peopled with In- 
dians, but it at present contains only few. 

VAGUA RE, a river of the province and go- 
vernment of Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra- 
nada ; it runs nearly c. and enters the grand 
river Magdalena. 

VAISEAIIX, a large island of the N. Sen, 
near the coast of Louisiana, between the months 
of the rivers Morilla and Mississippi ; it has a 
small port. 

VAL l)E BENITO, a large fertile, and boair- 
tiful valley of the island of La Laxa in the king- 
dom of Chile, between the rivers Huaque and 

VALDI VIA, a city and capital of the province 
and government of this name, in the kingdom of 
Chile ; founded by Pedro de Valdivia, the cele- 
brate i conqueror, in 1552. It is situate on the 
shore of the river of the same denomination, on 
the top of a fertile and lofty plain, advan>an;i>ously 
situate and well fortifiecf. It serves as a fiarri- 
son fi)r tlu' conhneraent of criminals and delin- 
quents of tiie kingdom of Peru, and is not large. 
The Araiicanos Indians burnt and destroyed it en- 
tirely in IC03 ; and the Dutch, commaiuir-d by Ad- 
miral Henry Brun, attempted to settle themselves 
in it in 164^, but did not succeed. In 1645, it was 
rebuilt and repeopled by the Colonel Don Alonso 
de Villanuevn, by order of the Viceroy of Peru, 
the Marquis of Mancera, who fortiti'ed it at a 
great expence ; so that it became one of the 
linest places in all America. It has a good tort 
in the same river, well defended with four castles, 
of the names of .Mancera, Niebla, Amargos, and 
Corral. In its territory are some very rich gold 
mines, which were formerly worked to greai pro- 
lit, but now i ' andoned. The government of tliis 
city was independent of the Presidency of Chile, 
and subject only to the Viceroy of Lima; but it 
was afterwards united to the former, on account 
of its great distance from the capital of Peru, and 
the ditficulty of receiving necessary and quick 
advices. In 1737, the city suffered much by an 
earthquake, [and more lately by fire twice, by 
which the greater part of it has been destroyeil, ft 
is, however, still inhabited by some most illustrious 
families; is 183 miles s. from La Conception ; in 
lat. 39" 48' A. and long. 73° 27' .W ,t. This city 
declared its independence as early as August, 
1()I3. See Vai.pakaiso, also for a furtlier in- 
teresting account of its earlier history, see Chile, 
index to additional history respecting that coun- 
try, tap. iv. j 

The aforesaid river is one of the most cele- 

1*1 ' 


1 ) I 

V A r 

V A f. 


I ( 


bi'iitoil in lliiit kiiiiriloin. Il hiiih Iroin tin* lontio vrniiiXMit nt' Voiio/iielti. in tlit' \iifvii lifviio ili- 
lit, (Uvi(iiii<>: it iiitii twit |)arl-<, to «Mil<>r tlio \. (■niiiiula: roiinili'il Itv Alnii/o Din/ .Mornio, hv 

(I order (if llic (lovcnior \ illinriidii, in IJ,)J, Mini 

Sen Itv I ho ;/. side 


nd i-i so litii|)i(l, lU'iw, iMK 

I, iW 

deep, tliiit ships of till" !>rral««Ht lnndcniiiiiM' close not in I JT.'J, iis is >\ron<;lv itsM-i'lod l)V tho l'V\ 

up to tho <'il», which is three h iiijiies from its 

h'snit Cololi) in n lu'iiutirnl llatiutii, hud'a lea: 

noiilh, and iire Hidad( ii l)y means uierelv of a Iroin the hike Tarariifua. Il is small, ol' a hut 

|il;ink. Its month is narrowed hv hvo m<>niili>ins: tenip.-ratnre, hnt lertile, and alxitindinu; in (Y/rof/ 

the one. which is the larger, oi« i he ;/. part, cMJIed and cattle, in wliich its cftmmercu consists, and 

Honiliicio, and the other saiaMer in the «.. called which wouhi ha\e nnide it opulent hut lor tlic 

(ion/alo. \ little hi<;lu'r np the riser lieconies jri-eat sloth ol' its natives, and trom the circnm 

still narrow (>r, and this part is con-idered llie stance of its having; l)een sacked l>v pirates in 

key of llie port at'orosaid, and ol' various others. Mill. It " 


II huill, and has a very ftood 
The >ame narroM pass is irirt in hy Iwii monn- narisli-church, and a cornent ol' religious ol' St. 


o ('|ii>.e as 

to h 

le within two musket shot of I'ranc 



the theatre of the crnelti 

«'arli oilier, that on the v. |inrt is caNed l)e lo- whidi were perpetrated hy the tyrant Lopo de 

.Man/aiuis, nrul tlie opposite. I)e \ievn. In leav- .Affuirri 

inji tl 

lis strait, there i«. on (lie v. side, the port 

I'he present population of this city, according 

!)<d Corial, which has this name from the shelter to a <'ensiis taken in IM)!, is (>,.')|H souls; hut hy 

alVorded il from the uioiintaiiis of the main sliore : oth«>r more correct calculations, it ninoiiiiiH to 

a lai'nc liay heini; thn- formed. capai>le of cmi- more than N,0()(). The iiihahitants are Creoles. 

• iiiiiini; an inliniie nuiiilieiof ships. and descendants from v<'ry ancient families, hn) 

I 'I'he hariionr of \ aldivia is the safest, the there are a few Wiscavans, and some sotth-rs from 

str(Ui^esl from its natural |)osition. ami thi> most the Canaries. 

capacious of any of the poiL-i in the S. Sea. The The streets are hroad, and are <j;ciierally paved, 

i«hiii(! of Man/.era. situate jiist m the month of th(> houses are without stories. The parish 

tiie river, forms t\Mi passai>t's. h(ii'(!er(>d hv steep church, and a handsome s(piare in which il 

monnlaiiis, and slron<>;ly lorlilied. As t]iis ■•; a 
port ol the most importance of any in the I'acilic, 
a ifiiveriior is always sent from .Spain, wlio pos- 
sesses reputation as a niilitarv oHicer, and is 
under (he inunediate diriniion of tli(> prcsithMii of 
lh(* kill^dom. Me has uiuh'i' ids command a con- 
siderahle nniul)er ot' troops, who are otiicerrd hv 
l.'ie live (y/>y(//(///,v, or commanders ol" tlie castles, 
a serjeaiil major, a prox editor, an inspector, ami 
MM'erai captains, l-'or the pa\ of the soldiers 
,'>(i,(MM) crowns are annually sent hilher from the 
royal trea-iiry of I'ern. and the provisions rtvpii- 
siie for liii'ir ^ul)sislence from the other porls of 
Chile. The .Jesuits had formerly a coUene here : 
lliere are he-^ides some convents of l•■rancis(■all^, 
and of the Mrotficrs ofClunily, \;itl: a royal ims- 
pitiil. and the pari~<h ( liiirch. | 

The (iejds and territories on the sliores of this 
river are most fertile, and yi<ld much wheat, 
pulse, and trnii. lhoii|^h \\w. (gripes here come lo 
no perfection. Tlie icrritorv ahriuiuls in all 
kinds of calile and liirds. and in timher excellent 
for l)uildiii<> ships : and not less '-o in mines of 
u:ol(l, of as rich (jiiality as that of the mines ofCa 
ruliaya in I'eru, which is the hest known, 'i'liis 
nver was discovered hy I'edro de \ aldivia, con- 
ipieriM' of Cliile, nho yiuc it his name. 

VALi'^NCIA, a city of tin- province and <;n 

slanils, form the prim iiial ornaments of the city. 
In ISOt, a church was fiiiiit in the r. e\tri</uily of 
tlie town, the expence heiiifif defrayed hy the 
liherality ol' the .settlers from the Canaries, and 
the alms of the faithful. Il was dedicated to 
Our Lady of I. a Caiuielaria. The I'ranciscaiis 
had a convent of ein;|it monks here, uhoiit ;')ll 
years ayo. 

\V hat .\i<;edo relates of the apathy of the in- 
hahitanls seems hut too true : they are rej.utod 
to be file most indolent people of the whole pro- 
V iiice ; nay, to such a dejjroe did tlieir slotli 
arrive, that, in order lo prev<>nt a famine, the 
ijovernor was :ilili<re(l lo coiii|)el every person 
iipiMi oath, a. id under a severe penaltv, to colled 
for their individual us<> a certain specified (piaii- 
lily of provisions. Since this lime the Vnleii- 
ciaiis lia\(> become nK)re industrious, and it is to 
be liopiMl that in time (hey will (Mtdit by (lie 
advanlanes which their city posse-ses. 

The distaiux' liriice (o Puerto Cavello i<i 10 
leajiiic-, t!te i.>ad is «;()od, hut another is now 
eliding, which «'l! reduce the distance of the twd 
pliices to only six leaijues. 

All the proline • of the interior, which is ship- 
ped at Puerto Cava I lo, necessarily passes throiiifli 
\ aleiicia, so that (he city is cxceediiiffly well 
supjiiied \\itli provisions id' every descriiitiou. 




Moiviio, by 

Ij,)."), Mini 

l)V llif •'""' 
uillii U-ami'- 
ill, III' a liot 
ilinu; in aicnc 
i-oiihUn, «ii»i 

hut tor «!i<- 

thi« circ.imi 
)V piriiti'K ill 
il vi'i'v K«><"1 
■liuiuiis 1)1' S). 
llif ciiullit^- 
rant \j<>\w il< 

itv, acronlinu 
souls : hut hv 
i( ainownis to 
rt me Crcolis. 
t liiniilit^^, l)Ut 
('splllcr-i iVoiK 

■iii'iallv |)avi'(l. 
Till' |)aiisl> 
J in wliuli '• 
ntH of thi' i-it.v. 
,. »>xtn'fiiit> «''" 
•iVaveil liy till' 
( Ciinafifs, anil 
s (led i cat I'd to 
lu" I'lam-iscans 
line, about ;')U 

itliv of the in- 

iivo lT).lltO<l 
bi< \vboh< pn>- 
iliil thoii- slot'* 
11 laniino, thi' 
c'vi'iv pi'i-j^on 
i|)i>tiliiHl (Hiaii- 
ime tiio Valcii- 
u«, ainl it is to 
IMiilit by »I>'' 

'^ravi-llo is 10 

aiiotliiM- is iiinv 

iiiu'ooftlio two 

I-, which is ship- 
passes throiiuli 

Kceeilinsl.V "*"'' 




[Th« vallies of Arnf^on, the jurisdictions of San 
Philippe, San Carlos, San Jnnn Uaptiflte del 
Pho, Tociiyo, and Bamqui8im?to, cannot send 
their produce or their heaHts to Puerto Cavello, 
but throui^h this citv. The inhabitants might 
confieqiiently make their town t'lc emporium of 
the whole province, which would I)e of uh much 
benefit to the people of the interior an to them- 
Relven. The Valencians are thought to poHsess 
capacity, but their diNponilionR arc more adapted 
to the sciences than to agriculture. 

Valencia remained linn to the cause of Ferdi- 
nand up to the year IHIO, when it was i^ompelled 
to submit to Miranda, and shortly after, in the 
same year, became the scat of the New Ciuigress 
of United States of Venezuela; who, by having 
fortunately for themselves, removed to this place. 
Mere thus delivered from the calamity of the 
dreadful earthquake, which happened at Caracas 
on April 19, 1810. It soon ai\er became occu- 
pied by the Royalist party, and was afterwards 
delivered by capitulation, made by the Spanish 
General Rlake, to Count Siichet, commander in 
chief of the imperial army of Aragon, January 
9, 1812. Its possession, being lost, was again 
disputed by IViiranda, who, in this year, entered 
into a convention with Monteveide, the governor, 
and uflerwards by Bolivar, the latter of wlioin 
entered the city on August I, 18 IJ, without the 
least opposition, it having been abandoned by 
tlie enemy. He found there an immense park of 
artillery, with a great quantity of aminunilion 
and muskets. 

This city is 115 miles s.e. from the city of 
Coro, 77 *. a?, from that of Caracas, and 11 from 
Burburata, in lat. 10° 9' h. long. ()8° 13' w. Keau- 
nier's thermometer is generally from lli" toSJ''.]'IA, another, a small city in the pro- 
vince and government of Maracnibo, in the same 
kingdom ; .litiiate in one of the craggy sierras. 

Valencia, a settlement, called also Cicnno 
DF. Tome, of the missions which were held liy the 
religious of St. Francis, in the kingdom of Nucvo 
Mexico, in N. America. 

Valencia, a lake of the province and govern- 
ment of Venezuela in the Nuevo Ueyno do Gra- 
nada, called by the Indians Tacarigua. The 
surrounding climate is temperate and wholesome, 
and the banlis arc fertile and picturesque. Oviedo, 
nearly a century ago, asserted the size of this 
lake to be 14 leagues long and 6 broad ; Cisneros, 
in 1764, aifirmed it to be 18 or 20 leagues long 
and nearly broad, and in the map of Venezuela, 
published in 1787, its dimensions were 10 Castel- 
lia.i leagues in length, and three and a half in 

▼ OL. V. 



breadth. Autliois have varied equally as to its 
situation and utility, but the true dimensions are, 
from ti. e. to w. s. w. 24 miles, and in its broadest 
part it is nine. Its form is an oblong, it lies five 
miles from Valencia, and six from the sea, in a 
valley surrounded by moiinluin«, excepting on 
the w. side. The mountains between it and the 
sea are inaccessible ; twenty rivers empty them- 
selves into this lake, from which circumstance, 
together with the attraction by which all bodieii 
are evidently drawn from its extremities to its 
centre, it is supposed to have a subterraneous 
communication with the sea. 

On the eastern shore are five plantations of 
tobacco, belonging to the crown, and employing 
I5,0(X) persons. The other banks are variously 
cultivated by individuals. 

By this lake is transported the produce which 
grows on its shores and on the banks of the neigh* 
bouring rivers. The navigation is far from easy, 
on account of the centrifugal attraction Just 
mentioned, and the number of little islands, 
which arc so scattered as to render it almost 
impossible to use a sail. One of the islands, Cara- 
tapona, has a small population, and a spring of 
water of much better quality than that of the lake. 

The silicus baarr and the hitnnius pholis lins, 
and wliat the Soaniards call gitavinn, ore the 
only Hsh found licre, but all these are in great 
plenty. There is also abundance of water-game, 
and various birds of exquisite plumage arc 
to be found on the banks, as well as numerous 
lizards and other reptiles ; one sort of lizard, the 
ig»ati(i,ihe Spaniards and Indians arc very fond of. 

VALENTIN, S. Bay of, on the w. coast of the 
Strait of Maire, between the Cape of Buen Su- 
ceso (Good Success) and the Port Mauricio. It 
lies open, and has a bad bottom. 

Valentin, a river which runs c. and enters 
the sea in the former bay. 

Valentin, a cape or point of land, of the e. 
coast of the Straits of Magellan, between the Bay 
of Papagayos and the Point of Boqueron. 

VALERO, San Francisco Xavieu de, a 
town, capital and garrison of the Nuevo Reyno 
de Toledo in N. America, this name having been 
given it in honour to the Marquis of Vulcro, 
Viceroy of Nueva Espafia, by whose order it waa 

[VALLADOLID, an intendancy of the king- 
dom of Nueva Espana. It was, according to 
the description of Humboldt, at the period of 
the Spanisn conquest, made a part of the king- 
dom of Michuacan or Mechoacan, which ex- 
tended from the Rio de Zacatula to the port de] 



















£■ 1^ i2.0 



1 1.8 
U 1111.6 






WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 










<? .w 





[la Navidad, and from t?ie mountains of Xala 
and Colima to tlie river of Lonna, and tlio lalie 
of Chapala. The capital of this kins^doin of 
Mechoacan, ^vhich, like the republics of Tiaxiala, 
Huexocinf<yo, and Cholula, was always inde- 
pendent of t'le Mexican empire, was Izintzont- 
zan, a town sitnate on the hanks of a lake, in- 
finitely picturesque, called the Lake of Patz- 
quaro, 1 zinti;ontzan, which the Aztec inhabitants 
of Tcnochtitian called Hiiitzitzila, is now only a 
poor Indian village, though it still preserves the 
pompous title of city. 

The inteudancy of Valladolid, vulgarly called 
in the country Mechoacan, is bounded on the n. 
by the Rio de JiSrma, which farther e. takes the 
name of Rio Grande de Santiago. On the e. 
and w. e. it joins the intendancy of Mexico; on 
the n. the inteiulancy of Guanaxuato; and on 
the w. that of Giiadalaxara. The greatest length 
of the province of Valladolid, from the port of 
Zacatula to the basaltic mountains of Palangeo, 
in a direction from ,«. s. e. to n. n. e. is 78 leagues. 
It is washed by the S. Sea for an extent of coast 
of more than 38 leagues. 

Situate on the w. neclivity of the Cordillera 
of Anahuac, intersected with hills and charming 
vallies, which exhibit to the eye of the traveller 
a very uncommon appearance under the torrid 
zone, that of extensive and well watered mea- 
dows, the province of Valladolid in general en- 
joys a mild and temperate climate, exceedingly 
conducive to the health of the inhabitants. It 
is only when we descend the table-land of Ario, 
and approach the coast that we find a climate in 
which the new colonists, and frequently even the 
indigenous, are subject to the scourj,^? of inter- 
mittent and putrid fevers. 

The most elevated summit of the intendancy 
of Valladolid is the Pic deTancitaro, to thee, of 
Tuspan. Humboldt complains that he could 
never see it near enough to take an exact mea- 
surement of it ; but there is no doubt that it is 
higher than the Volcan de Colina, and that it is 
more frequently covered with snow. To the e. 
of the Pic de Tancitaro, the Volcan de Jorullo 
(Xorillo, or Juruyo) was formed in the night of 
the 29th September, 1759. Bonpland, the fel- 
low traveller of the Baron, reached its crater on 
the 19th September, 1803. The great catastrophe 
in which this mountain rose from the earth, and 
by which a considerable extent of ground totally 
changed its appearance, is, nerhaps, one of the 
most extraordinary physical revolutions in the 
annals of the history of our planet. Geology 

points out the parts of the ocean, where, at re- 
cent epoquas within the last 2,000 years, near the 
Azores, in the Egean sea, and to the s. of i e- 
land, small volcanic islands li.ive risen above the 
surface of the water; but it gives us no example 
of the formation, from the centre of a thousand 
small burning cones, of a mountain of scoria and 
ashes 517 metres, or 1,695 feet in height, com- 
paring it only with the level of the old adjoining 
plains in the interior of a continent 3(i leagues 
distant from the coast, and more than 42 leagues 
from every other active volcano. This remark- 
able phenomenon was sung in hexameter verses 
by the Jesuit Father Raphael Landivar, a native 
of Guatemala. It is mentioned by the Abbe 
Clavigero in the ancient history of his country, 
Sloria aiiliru di Messico, vol. i. p. 42 ; and yet it 
has renuiined unknown to the mineralogists and 
naturalists of Europe, though it took place not 
more than 60 years ago, and within six days 
journey of the capital of Mexico, descending 
from the central table land towards the shores of 
the S. Sea. 

A vast plain extends from the hills of Agua- 
sarco to near the villages of Teipa and Petatlan, 
both equally celebrated for their line plantations 
of cotton. This plain, between the Picachos 
del Mortero, the Cerros de las Cuevas, y de 
Cuiche, is only from 750 to 800 metres, or from 
2,460 to 2,624 feet, above the level of the sea. 
In the middle of a tract of ground in which 
porphyry with a base of grimstein predominates, 
basaltic cones appear, the summits of which are 
crowned with evergreen oaks of a laurel and 
olive foliage, intermingled with small palm-trees 
with flabelliform leaves. This beautiful vegeta- 
tion forms a singular contrast with t'le aridity of 
the plain, which was laid waste by volcanic 

Till the middle of the 18th century, fields 
cultivated with sugar-cane and indigo, occupied 
the extent of ground between the two brooks, 
called Cuitamba and San Pedro. 'Ihey were 
bounded by basaltic mountains, oi" which the 
structure seems to indicate that ail this country, 
at a very remote period, liad been already several 
times convulsed by volcanoes. These fields, 
watered by artificial means, belonged to the 
plantation ( hacienda) of San Pedro de Xoullo, 
one of the greatest and richest of the country. 
In the month of June, 17.59, a subterraneous 
noise was heard. Hollow noises of a most alarm- 
ing nature [bramillos), were accompanied by 
frequent earthquakes, which succeeded one ano-.i 





e, at re- 
near the 
. of I e- 
iliove the 
coria and 
r|it, com- 
ae! joining 
j leagues 

2 leagues 
i reinark- 
[er verses 
•, a native 
the Abbe 
s country, 
and yet it 
[)gists and 

place not 
1 six days 
e shores of 

1 of Agua- 
i Petatlan, 

3 Picachos 
cvas, y de 
js, or from 
of tlie sea. 
I in which 

whicii are 
laurel and 
ful ve_eta- 
aridity of 



tj, occupied 

wo brooks, 

1 hoy were 

whicli the 

lis country, 

ady several 

lese tields, 

red to the 

de Xoullo, 

»e country. 


most alarm- 

npanicd by 

id one ano-j 

[ther for from 50 to 60 days, to the great con- 
sternation of the inhabitants of the hncienda. 
From tiie beginning of September every thing 
seemed to announce the complete re-establish- 
ment of tranniiillity, when in the night between 
the 28th and 29th, the horrilile subterraneous 
noise recommenced. The afiVighted Indians fled 
to the mountains of yVguasarco. A tract of 
ground from nine to 12 s(|uare English miles in 
extent, which goes by the name of Malpais, rose 
up in the shape of a bladder. The bounds of 
this convulsion ar'^ still distinguishable in the 
fractured strata. 'I'hc Malpais near its edges is 
only 12 metres, or 3d feet, above the old level 
of the plain, called the Playas de Xorillo ; but 
the convexity of the ground thus thrown up in- 
creases progressively towards the centre to an 
elevation of 160 metres, or 521 feet. 

'Ihose who witnessed this great catastrophe 
from the top of Aguasarco assert that flames were 
seen to issue forth for an extent of more than half 
a square league, that fragments of burning rocks 
were thrown up to prodigious heights, and that 
through a thick cloud of ashes, illumined by the 
volcanic fire, the softened surface of the earth 
was seen to swell up like an agitated sea. The 
rivers of Cuitamba and San Pedro precipitated 
themselves into the burning chas ns. The de- 
composition of the water contri. uted to in- 
vigorate the flames, which were distinguishable 
at the city of Pascuaro, though .-ituated on a 
very extensive table land 1 ,400 uietres, or 4,592 
feet, elevated above the plains of las Playas de 
Xorillo. Eruptions of mud, and especially of 
strata of clay enveloping balls of decomposed 
basaltes in concentrical layers, appear to indicate 
that subterraneous water had no small share in 
producing this extraordinary revolution. Thou- 
sands of small cones, from two to three metres, or 
from 6.5 feet to 9.S feet in height, called by llie 
indigenes ovens ( hornitos) issued forth from the 
Malpais. Although within the last 15 years, ac- 
cording to the testimony of the Indians, the heat 
of these volcanic ovens' has suffered a great di- 
minution. Iliimbolt perceived the thermometer 
rise to 202 f. Fahrenheit, on being plunged into 
fissures which exhale an aqueous vapour. Each 
small cone is a fumorola, from which a thick va- 

four ascends to the heiglit of 10 or 15 metres. 
n niany of them a subterraneous noise is heard, 
whicli appears to announce the proximity of a 
fluid in ebullition. 

In the midst of the ovens six largo masses, 
elevated from 4 to 600 metres, from J12 to 
1,610 feel, each above the old level of the plains, 

spi"ng up from a chasm, of which the direction 
is from the n. n, e. to the s. s, e. This is the phe- 
nomenon of the Montenovo of Naples, several 
times rc|)eated in a range of volcanic hills. The 
most elevated of these enormous masses, wliich 
bears some resemblance to the puys de I'Au- 
vergne, is the great V olcan de Xorillo. It is 
continually burning, and has thrown up from 
the H. side an immense quantity of scorified and 
basaltic lavas, containing fragments of primitive 
rocks. Tiiese great eruptions of the central 
volcano continued till the month of February, 
1760. In the following years they became gra- 
dually less frequen.. The Indians, frightened 
at the horrible noises of the new volcano, aban- 
doned at first all the vilhigcs situated within 
seven or eight leagues distance of the playas de 
Jorullo. They became gradually, however, ac- 
cusfonvd to this terrific spectacle; and having 
returned to their cottages, they advanced towards 
the mountains of Aguasarco and Santa Ines, to 
admire the streams of fire discharged from an 
infinity of great and small volcanic apertures. 
The roofs of the houses of Queretaro were then 
covered with ashes at a distance of more than 
48 leagues in a straight line from the scene of 
the explosion. Although the subterraneous fire 
now appears far from violent, and the Malpays 
and the groat volcano begin to be covered with 
vegetables, the ambient air is heated to such a 
degree by tiie action of the small ovens (hornitos ,', 
that the thermometer at a great distance from 
the surface and in the shade rises as high as 109° 
of Fahrenheit. This fact appears to prove that 
there is no exaggeration in the accounts of se- 
veral old Indians, who affirm that for many years 
after the iirsi eruption, the plains of Jorullo, 
even at a great distance from the scene of l!ie 
explosion, were uiiinhabitablc, from the excessive 
heat which prevai'jd in them. 

The traveller is still shown, near the Cerro 
de Santa liies, the rivers of Cuitamba and San 
Pedro, of which the limpid waters formerly wa- 
tered the siigar-cane plantation of Don Andre 
Pimentel. These streams disappeared in the 
night of the 29th September, 1759 ; but at a dis- 
tance of 2,000 metres, or 6,561 feet, farther iv'. 
in the tract which was the theatre of the con- 
vulsion, two rivers are now seen bursting through 
the argilaceous vault of the hornitos, of the ap- 
pearance of mineral waters, in which the ther- 
mometer rises to 120^.8 of Fahrenheit. The 
Indians continue to give them the names of San 
Pedro and Cuitambia, because in several parts 
of the Malpays great masses of water are heard] 















' » 

I *; 

i^ I Hill 

ll I 



[to run in a direction from c. to w. from tlie 
mountainH of Santa Ifies towards the Ilacieniia 
(Estat?) de la Presontacion. Near this habita- 
tion there is a brook, which disengages itself 
from the sidphnreons hydrojf^en. It is more than 
seven metres in breadth, and is one of the most 
abundant hydro sulphureous springs ever seen. 

In the opinion of the Indians, these extraordi- 
nary transformations which we have been do- 
scribing, the surface of tlie earth raised up and 
burst by the volcanic fire, and the mountains of 
scoria and ashes heaped together, are the work 
of the Monks. An attribute of power, singu- 
larly great and extraordinary ; but the tradition 
is, that some Capuchin missionaries liaving come, 
in 1759, to preach at the plantation of San 
Pedro, and not liaving met with a favourable re- 
ception, they poured out an imprecation against 
the said plain, and prophesied that in the first 
place tlie plantation would be swallowed up by 
'^imes rising out of the earth, and that aller- 
tvards the ambient air would cool to such a 
degree that the neighbouring mountains would 
for ever remain covered with snow and ice. The 
former of these maledictions having already pro- 
duced such fatal effects, the -lower Indians con- 
template in the increasing coolness of the vol- 
cano the sinister presage of a perpetual winter. 

The position of the new Volcan de JoruHo 
gives rise to a very c mi lis geological observa- 
tion. In New Spam there is a parallel of great 
elevations, or a narrow zone contained between 
the 18^ 59' and the 19° 12' oflat. in which all the 
summits of .\nahuac which rise above the region 
of perpetual snow are situated. These summits 
are either volcanoes which still continue to burn, 
or mountains, which from their form as well as 
the nature of their rocks have in all probability 
formerly contained subterraneous fire. As we 
recede from the coast of the Atlantic, we find in 
a direction from r. to w. the Pic d'Orizaba, the 
two volcanoes of la Piiebia, the Nevado de 
Toluca, the Pic de T-incitaro, and the Volcan de 
Coliina. Tliese great elevations, in place oi' 
forming the crest of the cordilfera ofAnahuac, 
and following its direction, which is from the 
s. e. to the n. w are, on the contrary, placed on 
a line perpendicular to the axis of the great 
chain of mountains. It is undoubtedly worthy 
of observation, that in 1759 the new volcano of 
Xorillo was formed in the prolongation of that 
line, on the same parallel with the ancient Mexi- 
can volcanoes ! 

A single glance bestowed on Humboldt's plan 
of the environs of Xorillo will prove that the 

six large masses rose out of the earth, in a line 
which runs through the plain from the Cerro de 
las Cuevas to the Picacho del Mortero ; and it is 
thus also that the bocvhe nove of Vesuvius are 
ranged along the prolongation of a chasm. Do 
not these analogies entitle us to suppose that 
there exists in this part of Mexico, at a great 
depth in the interior of the earth, a chasm in a 
direction from e. to w. for a length of 137 leagues, 
along which the volcanic fire bursting through 
the interior crust of the porphyritical rocks, has 
made its appearance at different eporiuas from 
the Gulf of Mexico to the S. Sea ? Does this 
chasm extend to the small group of islands, called 
by M. Collnet the Archipelago of Revilla|i;igedo, 
around which, in the same parallel with the 
Mexican volcanoes, pumice-stone has been seen 
floating? Those naturalists who make a distinc- 
tion between the facts which arc offered us by 
descriptive geology and theoretical reveries on 
the primitive state of our planet, must forgive 
these general observations on the general map of 
New Spain. Moreover, from the lake of Cuiseo, 
which IS impregnated with muriate of soda, and 
wliich exhales sulfuretted hydrogen as far as the 
city of Valladolid, for an extent of 40 square 
leagues, there are a great quantity of hot wells, 
which generally contain only muriatic acid, 
without any vestiges of terreous sulfates or me- 
tallic salts. Such are mineral waters of Chu- 
candiro, Cuinche, San Sebastian, and San Juan 

The extent of the intendancy of Valladolid is 
one fifth less than that of Ireland, but its relative 

ropulation is twice greater than that of Finland, 
n this province there are three cities (Valladolid, 
Tzintzontzan, and Pascuaro) ; three towns (Cita- 
quaro, Zamora, and Charo) ; 263 villages ; 205 
parishes ; and 326 farms. The imperfect enu- 
meration of 1793 gave a total population of 
289,314souls, of whom 40,399 were male whites, 
and 39,081 female whites ; 61,3,52 male Indians, 
and 58,016 female Indians ; and 154 monks, 138 
nuns, and 293 individuals of the secular clergy. 

The Indians who Mihabit the province o*" Val- 
ladolid form thre - . os ot different origin); the 
Tarascos, celebi i' ,n the I6tli century for the 
gentleness of their manners, for their industry 
in the mechanical arts, and for the harmony of 
their language, abounding in vowels ; the Oto- 
mitos, a tribe yet very far behind in civilization, 
who speak a language full of nasal and guttural 
aspirations ; and the Chichimecos. who, like the 
Tlascaltecos, the Ni.huatlacos, and the Aztecox, 
have preserved the Mexican langrage. All the] 

V A L L A D O L f D. 


•th, in a line 

the Cerro de 
ero ; and it in 

V^esuvius are 
I chaHm. Do 

suppose that 
:o, at a great 
a chasm in a 
)f 137 leapiies, 
'stinf^ tlirough 
cnl rocks, has 
ppofiuas from 
ea ? Does (liis 
islands, called 
lUel witii the 
lias been seen 
ake a distinc- 
oflered us by 
il reveries on 

must forgive 
reneral map of 
ake of Cuiseo, 
e of soda, and 
n as far as the 

of 40 square 
y of hot wells, 
muriatic acid, 
ul fates or nie- 
'aters of Chu- 
uid San Juan 

Valladolid is 

jut its relative 

at of Finland. 

?s (Valladolid, 

towns (Cita- 

villages; 205 

nperfect enu- 

jopulation of 

male whites, 

male Indians, 

)4 monks, 138 

'cular clergy. 

vince o** v al- 

arigin"; the 

nturv for the 

their industry 

e harmony of 

'els ; the Oto- 

n civilization, 

and guttural 

who, like the 

[1 the Aztecos, 

go. All the] 

f,«. part of the intendancy of Valladolid is inha- 
bited by Indian . In the villages the only white 
figure to l)e met with is the curate, and he also is 
frequently an Indian or Mulatto, The benefices 
are so poor there that the bishop of Mechoacan 
has the greatest difficulty in procuring eccle- 
siastics to settle in a country where Spanish is 
almost never spoken, and where along the coast 
of the Great Ocean the priests, infected by the 
contagions miasmata of malignant fevers, fre- 
quently die before the expiration of seven or 
eight months. 

The population of the intendancy of V^allado- 
lid decreased in f^e years of scarcity of I78(i and 
1790; and it would have sulforecl still more if 
the benevolence of the bishop had not mani- 
fested itself in extraordinary sijcrilices for the re- 
lief of the Indians. He voluntarily lost in a few 
monthb the sum of 230,000 francs, ecpuil to 
9,581/. sterling, by purchasing 50,000 fanegas of 
maize, which he sold at a reduced price to keep 
the sordid avarice of several rich proprietors 
within bounds, who, during that epoqna of public 
calamities, endeavoured to take advantage of the 
misery of the people. 

The population of this intendancy amounted, 
by the census of 1803, to 376,400 souls ; and its 
extent of surface, in square leagues, was 3,440, 
thus giving 109 inhabitants to the square league. 

The most remarkable places of the province 
of Valladolid, are the following : Valladolid dc 
Mechoacan, the capital ; Pasquaro and Tzintz- 
ontzan ; and it contains the mines of Zitaquaro, 
Angangueo, Tlapuxahua, the Real del Oro, and 

Valladolid, a city and capital of the king- 
dom of Mechoacan, and of the above inten- 
dancy, in Nueva Espafia ; a head of a bishop- 
ric, erected in 153G, and founded by Captain 
Christoval de Olid, on the middle of a valley ; 
from which word, being the apjiellation of its 
founder, it took the name of Valle de Olid, 
which has been corrupted into Valladolid, in 
imitation of that in Castilla : that spot was 
called the Guayangareo, in the idiom of tlie 
Tarascos Indians. It is in an extensive table- 
land, of a lofty plain, near two rivers, which rise 
in its vicinity ; the one, which is small, to the 
?. f. of the city, iu the part called the Rincon ; 
and the other issuing from a lake to the a', and 
uniting itself with^the former after it passts 
tlirough the settlement, and then running in an 
abimclant stream to fertilize the valley ; its waters 
yielding a good supply of trout and peueret/es, 
i"xnc{.\ by the Indians charare. 

The city has little claims to beauty, and less 
to commerce, although it is large, as being very 
scattered. Its population is composed of 500 
families of Spaniards and Mustccs ,- and although 
it contains some Indians, yet do these chiefly 
have their abode in the ward:!. [Humboldt rates 
its present population at 18,060.] 

The cathedral, which was completed in 1738, 
is after the Tuscan order, and very handsome : 
belonging to it is the parish of Sagrario ; and, 
besides this, it has another parish, called of San 
Joseph; also the convents of religious, of St. 
Francis, which is a house of Noviciates ; of St. 
Augustin, Merced, the bare-footed Carmelites, 
an hospital of San Juan de Dios, and a college 
which belonged to the Jesuits ; the monasteries 
of the Nuns of Santa Catalina, and of Capuchin 
Indian w omen ; a college for poor female children, 
with the title of Santa Rosa, which was founded 
by the Bishop Don Francisco Pablo Matos Coro- 
iiad ; and a college of studies destined for the 
chiloi-en of the province, founded by the Bishop 
Don Vasco de Quiroga. 

[The elevation of Valladolid, above the level 
of the sea, is 1,9.50 metres, or 6,396 feet; and 
yet at this moderate height, and under the 
19° 4'2' of lat. snow has been seen to fall in the 
streets of Valladolid. This sudden change of 
atmosphere, caused no doubt by a «. wind, is 
much more remarkable than the snow which fell 
in the streets of Mexico the night before the 
Jesuit fathers were carried off ! The new aque- 
duct by which the town receives potable water 
was constructed at the expense of the last bishop, 
Fray Antonio de Sau Miguel, and cost him nearly 
hair a million of francs, or £20,835 :— 105 miles 
w.\n.ic. of Mexico, in long. 100° 51' w. lat. 
19° 42' 30" M. For an account of the present 
revolution, see Mrxico ; also Vera Cruz.] 

Valladolid, another city, in the province 
and government of Yucatan, founded by Fran- 
cisco de Montejo, the younger, in 15 13, in a place 
called Choaca : and by the Indians, Chavachaa ; 
from whence it was translated in the following 
year, from the uiiheallhiness of the spot, to where 
It now stands. It is small, and oP a hot tempera- 
ture ; has a very good parish church, an hospital 
witli the name of .lesus Maiia, and a convent of 
religious of St. Francis, which is a small distance 
without the city ; the rout to tlieiii being by a 
stone causeway, of about eight yards wide, and 
adorned on both sides by a beautiful poplar 
grove: — 50 miles w. of the Gulf of Honduras, 
170 J. tt). ofTruxi!lo,aud 65 s. c. of Merida. 

Valladolid, auolher, of the province and 




. I 












V A L 

V A L 

# I 




povrmnicnt of Jaen do Bracamoros, in tTiekinpHoni 
of Quito; foiiniled by ,fuan dc Salinas, in I;>t9, 
and not in 41, as asserts the ex-Jesuit Coleti. 
It is very small and poor, and .ather a reduced 
settlement than a city -.—'JH miles s. of Loxa, in 


rO' 14'. lal.4'X)'30"s. 

Vali.adomo. another city, of the province and 
government of Honduras. See Comayagua. 

VALLE, San Juan def., a settlement of the 
province and concgii>iirtifo of Loxa in the king- 
dom of Quito. 

Vaj.IjK, another settlement, with the dedica- 
tory title of San Pedro, in the same province and 
kingdom as the former. 

Valle, another with the dedicatory title of 
San Francifico, the head settlement of tlie district 
of the fl/cfl/(//rt w/rryor of Zultepec in Nueva Es 
pana. It contains 89 families of Indians, who 
maintain themselves by the cultivation of wheat 
and maize, and is six leagues «. u\ of its capital. 

V^ai-le, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Santa Maria, in the province and comgiDiicntu 
of Iluaiuico in Peru. 

Valle, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Santa Ana, in the head settlement of the district 
of Quiatoni, and aHttdia mcajor of Teutitlan in 
Nueva Espana. It contains G2 families of In- 
dians, and is two leagues e. of its head settle- 

Valle, another, of the province and corregi- 
mknlo of Tnnja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra- 
nada, in the serrania. 

Valle, another, of the province and govern- 
ment of Venezuela, and Nuevo Reyno de Gra- 
nada, of the district of the city of Caracas, in the 
s. part. 

Valle, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Santa Cruz, in the province and corregimienlo of 
Canote in Peru. 

Valle, another, with the dedicatory title of 
Nuestra Senora, of the missions which were held 
by the Jesuits in the province and government of 
San .fuan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, on the shore of the river Apure. 

Valle, a river in the province and govern- 
ment of Tucuman, which runs s.e. in the juris- 
diction of the city of S,ilta, and enters tlie Ber- 
mejo. { 

Valle, a fort of the same province and go- 
vernment as the former river, built on its shore 
to restrain the Infidel Indians. 

Vai,le, a point of laud, with the dedicatory 
title of Nuestra Senora del Valle, on the ti. coast 
of the Straits of Magellan, between the Bay of 
Papagayos and th.e Point of Boqneron. 

Valle, Piinta del, a point in the Island of 
Tortuga noar St. Domingo. 

Valle Amino, Santa Cauz pe, a settle- 
ment of the missions which are held l)y the reli- 
giouH of San I'rancisco, in the province of Apo' 
iaband)a and kingdom of Peru. 

VAIiliEE, a bay of the coast of the river St, 
Lawrence in Nova Scotia, between the river 
Magdalen and another l)ay of the same name, 
but with the addition of Little, to distinguish it. 

VALIiEJIJELO, a small river of the island of 
St. Domingo, wliicli rises in the valley of San 
Juan, runs n. and unites itself with that of Canas 
to enter tlie Arlibonito. 

Vallejuelo, another river in the same 
island, w liicli rtnis r. and enters the Neiva. 

VALLIM'EUTIL, a settlement of the pro- 
vince and (vrrcgimirulo of Cuyo in the kingdom 
of Chile. It has tliis name from the great fer- 
tility of the valley in which it is founded, is 
bounded by the jurisdiction of Rioxa in the pro- 
vince and government of Tncuman, and in its 
district are abundance of small parrots, and 
others still less, called car'Uas. 

VALLES, a jurisdiction ami alcaldia viaj/or oi 
Nueva Espana, bounded by those of Tampico, 
Guadalcazar, and Guejutla, the line of demarca- 
tion terminating e. by the province of Tampico, 
at the river of Tamice, which runs from n. to s. 
aid by the n. by the tables of Castrejon, the 
same being the boundary between the Nuevo 
Reyno de Leon, and La Gran Tamaolipa. In 
these parts there were formerly some estates of 
Spaniard's and missionaries, which are now de- 
sert through the hostilities of the barbarian Chi- 
chimecos ; although, through the natural ferti- 
lity of the country large herds of cattle are drove 
annually to its pastures, and attended by some 
militia companies. This jurisdiction is very ex- 
tensive, one of the best of the kingdom, and en- 
joying dilferent temperatures, and abounding in 
niai/e and other seeds, and sugar canes, of which 
they make loaf-sugar ; alst in many of the settle- 
ments they fabricate loaf-sugar, bags oi'pita, and 
mats and baskets, with which a trade is carried 
on with t!ie other provinces. 

Vaf.les, the, is the town of the same 
name, founded on a beautiful plain, on the shore 
of a river flowing down from a lofty sierra. It 
is of a hot and moist temperature, contains 2ti? 
£imilies, the greater part of Spaniards, and the 
rest o( Miistecs and Mulattoes, who live, a great 
portion of the year, in the estates, and 7j of In- 
dians. It was' tbrmerly a curacy and doctrinal 
cstablisliment of the religious of San Franci.sco 

» i.f 

J" "^ 

<«. • 

land of 

ho roli- 
jl' A pO' 

ivor St, 
le river 
2 name, 
uish it. 
island of 
of San 
of Caaas 

le same 

the pro- 
freat fer- 
iinded, is 
the pro- 
nd in its 
rois, and 

mayor of 
im n. to s. 
rejon, the 
le Nuevo 
jiipa. In 
estates of 

now tle- 
irian Chi- 
ural ferti- 
are drove 

by some 
s very ex- 
n, and en- 
nnidins; in 
?, of which 

the settle- 
>{'plta, and 

iij carried 

f the same 

the shore 

sicrni. It 

ntains ai'i 

and the 

ic, a great 

,i 73 of In- 

I doctrinal 



V A L 

de la C'listndia de Tampico, [and is 150 miles n. 
of Mexico, in lat. ai° 4;'/ w. and long. 99" zv.'j 

Tlie other settlements of this district are the 

V A L 









La Laxa, 



S. Martin de 

Santa Maria, 
G ua) abos, 

Soledad de las Ca- 

Santa Catalina de 

San FrJiiicisco, 
Tlal- Xilitla, 
San Miguel, 
San Agustin dc 

San Antonio. 
VALI,E-UMBROSO, a settlement of the pro- 
vince and government of Cinaloa, one of the mis- 
sions which were held by the Jesuits. 

[VALLEY-FORGE, a place on Schuylkill 
River, 15 miles from Philadelphia. Here (jene- 
ral Washington remained with his army, in huts, 
during the winter of 1777, after the British had 
taken possession of that city.] 

VALPARAISO, or Valparaisa, a city and 
capital of the province and government of this 
name in the kingdom of Chile; situate one part 
on the skirt of a mountain which lies to the w.c, 
and the other part on the top; so that it is di- 
vided into High and Low Town. It began to 
be peopled at the end of the last (ICth) century, 
with the intention of carrying out from it wlieat 
to Lima, as it produces much of this article, and 
of an excellent quality, and, in fact, the trade in 
it is now very great. 

It has a good parish-church, and two convents; 
the one of San Francisco, and the other of San 
Augustin ; also a college which belong u to the 
Jesuits, and now occupied by the religious of St. 
Domingo, and a house for exercises. Besides the 
town, which is situate to the s. of the bay, there 
is on the e. a llanura named Del Almendral, 
where there is a convent of La Merced and some 
population, and where it would have been better 
if the city had been built, were it not that this 
part is much exposed to inundations from the 
sea, and that the anchorage is towards the s. 

— Towards the r. there arc some excavations 
made in the mountain to give greater extent of 

The city is defended by three castles, the first 
called Castillo Viejo, at the entrance of the port, 
with a battery on a level with the water; the 
second Castillo Grande, which is where the go- 
vernor resides ; and the third, which is on the 
top of a hill, can hinder an enemy from embark- 
ing in the Almendral. In this city there are 
many storehouses in whicli to deposit effects of 
the kingdom destined fot Peru, as well as to 
house those coming from that kingdom. In fact 
all the commerce, wliich used to be carried on at 
the Port of Concepcion, has been transferred to 
this as being nearer. The time of the navigation 
is between the months of June and September, 
and in this period vessels make three voyages 
from Callao to Valparaiso, and this traffic keeps 
in continual employ the mule-droves of all the 
neighbouring settlements. In the winter-time, 
however, the nmsters of the store-houses alone re- 
main at Valparaiso, the rest of the people retir- 
ing to the estates in the country. The territory 
here abounds in all kinds of excellent fruit, espe- 
cially apples, which they call de quillota. The 
inhabitants are reputed to amount to 2000. Val- 
paraiso is chiefly to be noted for its capacious and 
excellent harboin-, and tor its commercial situa- 
tion, whereby it commands all the trade of Spain 
and Peru. 

[The revolution that has proceeded with such 
violence throughout the rest of the SpanisB colo- 
nies, has been confined in the kingdom of Chile, 
for the most part, to differences between the par- 
ties of the natives of that presidency. The tact 
is, that the Spaniards have here little concern 
with the government, and have not been molested 
as not having interfered with the transactions 
that were taking place. It could hardly be other- 
wise than that Chile should thus becoiiie friendly 
to the insurgent cause; and we accordingly find 
that as early as August 1813, the Chilians at Val- 
divia, Concepcion, Valparaiso, and Coquimbo, 
had declared themselves independent, and had 
opened their ports to all nations. American fri- 
gates receive supplies from them, and an A meri- 
can agent has been appointed to reside at the in- 
land town of Santiago. The British government 
is aware of this, and it is owing to their wise dis- 
positions, and the naval force now cruizing on 
that coast, that the American fric-ate the Essex 
has been just captured in leaving the port of Val- 
paraiso. This city is about 230 miles «. n. e. of 




^ m. 

V « 



V A R 


i 5 ^''(iri 




Concepcion, in iat. 33° 2' 36"*. and long. 71° 
44' L'O" a).] 

Vam'ahairo, a setdpment of the head settlc- 
iiient oftlie district, and alcaldia mayor of Xerez 
in Nin'va Espaila. Eight leagues n.n.w. of its 

VALTERIE, a settlement of the French in 
Canada, on tlie i-liorc of the river St. Lawrence, 
near the settlement of St. Sulpice. 

VALVEKDE, a small city of the province and 
cortrgiiiiiciilo of lea in Peru, in a valley which is 
always green, fertile, pleasant, and abounding in 
vines ; with a good port, in Iat. 11° s. long. 304° 
55' 12. 

VAMBA, a settlement of the province and cor- 
reginiiento of Quito in the district of Las Cinco 
Lcguas, and w. of the capital. 

VAN AM A, a lake of the province and country 
of Las Amazonas, or part of Giiayana, possessed 
I V the Portuguese. It is formed by a waste- 
V ater of the river Maracapuru, and enters the 
abundant stream of the Puri'i or Cuchivara. 

VANAMAQUEMA, another lake of the same 
province and territory as the above. It is formed 
by an arm of the river Maranon, or the channel 
In- which this communicates with the great river 
Puri'i, or {^ichivara. 

[VANCOUVER, also Quadha, one oftlie 
largest islands of the «. w. coast of Ame- 
rica, close to Nootka. For further account, see 
Vol. iii. p. 220. of this workH 

[Vancouver's Fort, in Kentucky, stands at 
the junction of the two branches of Big Sandy 
River, 20 miles w. of Harmar's Station.] 

[VAN DYKES, Josx and Little, two of the 
smaller Virgin Islands ; situate to the «. w. of 
Tortola. tat. 18° 28' n. Long. 64° 46' w.l 

rVANNSTOWN, in the country of the Che- 
rokees, lies on a branch of Alabama River.] 

VANGHAM, a settlement of the island of 
Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of St. 

VAPISBE, a settlement of the province and 
government of Sonora in N. America. 

VARACA, an arm of the river Parime, or Pa- 
ravinanas, one of the four arms belonging to this 
river ; the third, and that by which it communi- 
cates with the Negro. 

VARAIS, a barbarous nation of Indians who 
dwell in the vicinities of the lake of Los Xa- 
rayes, in the province and government of Para- 
guay ; bounded by the Xarayes Indians on the 
n. and the Gorgotoques on the 5. w. 

VARANACO, a small river of the province 

V A S 

and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in 
the Niievo Royno de Granada. It rises near the 
source of the'Paucana, runs e. and enters tha 
Orinoco, opposite the rapid stream of the Cari- 

VAR.ARI, a small river of the province and 
country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed 
by the Portuguese. It runs and enters the river 
Negro, close to the settlement of the missions 
called San Cayetano. 

VAllCA, a largo and abundant river oftlie 
province and government of Cayenne. It runs e. 
and enters the Atlantic Sea. On its shores are 
some beautiful plantations of sugar canes, of 
which is made excellent sugar. 

VAUINAS, a settlement oftlie missions whic'i 
were held by the Jesuits in the province and go- 
vernment of Qui'.o ; situate betwi^n two lakes, 
and on the shore of a river which enters the Ma- 
ranon, at a small distance from its mouth. 

VARIQL'IRA, or V.riquiri, an island of 
the river Maranon, formed by two channels or 
arms of this river which run to enter the lake 

Variqdira, a settlement in the same island. 

VARIRIN, a river, called also De Palmera, 
in the province and captainship of Seara, and 
kingdom of Brazil. It rises from the mountains 
of the a', and enters the river Parava. In the 
woods on its borders inhabit many barbarous In- 
dians, who impede its navigation. 

VARUTA, a settlement of the province and 
government of Venezuela in the Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada ; near the coast, nearly to the s. of 
the city of Caracas, to the district of which it 
belongs, between the settlements of Parure and 

VAS, a hamlet of the province and cantainship 
of Rio dc Janeiro in Brazil, a very short dis- 
tance to the n. of Villa de Principe. It was vi- 
sited by Mawe, the mineralogist, in passing to 
Teiuco, in 1809. 

VAS Martin, an island of the Atlantic Sea, 
between the coast of Brazil and the island of 
Cafreria. It was given this nanie by its dis- 
coverer ; is desert and full of thick woods, and 
180 leagues from the Brazil coast, to the s.w. of 
the island of Picos, in Iat. 20° s. 

Vas Anton, another island in the province 
and captainship of Pernambuco,in the same king- 
dom, between the city of Olinda and the settle- 
ment of La Candelana. 

Vas Anton, a port of the same province and 

Llanos, in 

's near the 

enters th# 

the Cari- 

jvince and 
t possessed 
rs the river 
ic missions 

iver of the 

, It runs e. 

shores are 

r canes, of 

(sions whidi 
lice and go- 
II two lakes, 
ters the Ma- 

\\\ island of 
I channels or 
liter the lake 

;anie island. 
De Palmera, 
f Seara, and 
he mountains 
■ava. In the 
barbarous In- 

province and 
luevo lieyno 
ly to the s. of 
t of which it 
)f Parure and 

nd captainship 
ery snort dis- 
;, It was vi- 
in passing to 

Atlantic Sea, 
the island of 
,e by its dis- 
ick woods, and 
to the 5. w. ot 

the province 
the same king- 
md the settle- 

e province and 


V A Y 

[VASE, or Nase, Kiver, Ac, cmnlies into 
the Mississippi from the n.e. three miles below 
\\w Great Rock, about 3G n. tc. by w. of the 
mouth of the Ohio, and about the same distance 
n. K\ of Fort Massac. It is navigable into the 
N'.W. Territory about 60 miles including wind- 
ings, through a rich country abounding in exten- 
sive natural meadows and numberless herds of 
butliil«)e, deer, &c. It is about eight miles above 
Cape St. Antonio.] 

V ASICA, a river of .he province and govern- 
ment of Florida, which runs w. and enters the 
sea between the settlement of .San Marcos and 
the river Vilches. 

[VASSALBOROUGH, a post-town of the 
district of Maine, in Lincoln County, on Kenne- 
beck River, half way between HaHowell and 
Winslow, 144 miles n. by e. of Boston. It was 
incorporated in 1771, and contr,' .ed, in 1790, 
I'i40 inhabitants.] 

VATAPIJ, a settlement of the province and 
cnplains/iip of Parii in li.azil, on the coast, oppo- 
site the islands of Qunriana. 

VATEI, San Miguki, del, a city of the pro- 
vince and government of Cumana; founded by 
the governor Don Juan de Urpin, on the shore 
of the river I'nare, but in so unhealthy a spot 
that all the animals used to die as soon as they 
were born. This, and the intolerable plague of 
ants with which it was infested, caused all the 
inhabitants to desert it, and betake themselves to 
other settlements. 

VATIBAF, a small river of the province and 

fovernment of Mainas, in the kingdom of Quito, 
t runs e. and then turning to /i.e. enters the 
Napo, close to the settlement of La Soledad. 

VAUCLIN, a settlement and parish of the 
French in the island of Martinique, on the s. e. 
coast, behind the point of its name. 

Vaucmn This point is a cape or extremity 
of the s.e. coast, between the Cut de Sac Simon 
and the point of its name. 

[VALGHAN Township, in the east-riding 
of the county of York, Upper Canada, lies on tUo 
w. side of Vonge-street, in the rear of and to the 
w. of the township of York.] 

fVAVAOO, one of the Friendly Islands in 'he 
S. Pacific Ocean. It is about two days sail from 

VAYA, an island of the river Orinoco, one of 
those which form the entrance of the Bav of 
Cliaraguanas with the point of Galera of the 
island of Trinidad. 

V AYAL-ASONES, a barbarous and ferocious 

VOL. v. 

V E G 


nation of Indians of Brazil, who dwell near the 
source of the river Paral to the w. of the province 
of Puerto Seguro. They are allies of the nations 
of the Lobos, Aimures, Paries, and Motayas, 
and have frequently invaded the Portuguese ter- 

VAYES, a small island of the Lake of 
Unamarca, in the province and rorregimiento of 

VAYMORES, a barbarous, cruel, and canni- 
bal nation of Indians of the kingdom of Brazil, 
who dwell in the woods and mountains of the w. 

Iiart, between the provinces and captainships of 
Iheos and Puerto Seguro. These Indians, united 
with some of other nations, have frequently de- 
stroyed the settlements and estates of the l*ortu- 
guese, with whom they are at continual war. 

VAZAB.\RIS, a river of the province and 
captainship of Sergipe in Brazil. It rises near 
the coast, runs s.s.e. and enters the sea in the 
Bay of Sergipe. 

V AZEUSE, a small river of the province and 
government of Louisiana, which runs s. between 
the rivers Grande and the Tortoise, and enters 
the Missouri. 

[VEALTOWN, a village of New Jersey, near 
Baskenridge, about seven miles s. w. of Morris- 

VEAU, Ance du, a settlement and parish oi 
the French in the part which they possess in the 
island St. Domingo ; situate on the w. coast, at 
one of the w. heads, between the great river Nipe 
and the Petit Trou. 

VEAUX, Pasture des, a river of the pro- 
vince and colony of Virginia in the county of 

Veaux. Some islands of the N. Sea, near the 
coast of Nova Scotia. They are four, small, and 
lying between those of Canards and Seal Bank. 

VEGA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of 
Honda, and government of Mariquita in the 
Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It i » of a hot tem- 
perature, but very fertile and abounding in sugar 
canes, cotton, maize, i/ucas, and other produc- 
tions of this climate. It has 400 housekeepers 
who live very uncomfortably, as being much in- 
fested with mosquitoes, snakes, and other rep- 
tiles. Twelve leagues w. of Santa Fe, and the 
same from Honda. 

Vega, another settlement, with the dedicatory 
title of San Juan, a head settlement of the district, 
in the nkahlia mai/(,r of Zelaya, of the province 
and bishopric of Mechoacan, and kingdom of 
Nueva Espana. It contains 415 families of In- 




1 if I 










V ♦ 


. 1- 


! I'i 

I .-/ 


dians, 20 ut' SpaniunlK, Miistees, and MiiluttoeK, 
and a convent of religioiH of San Fi-uncinco. 
Two loiigueH II, of itH cupitul. 

Vega, another, of the provinre and govern- 
ment ot'Antioquia in the INnevu He)'no de Gra- 

Vkga, iinother, of the province and govern- 
ment of Merida in the sunie kingdom : situate in 
the road which leadH down to Maracailio. 

Vega, another uettleiHont, called Real de In 
Vega, or lieal de Ioh Pozoh, in the jurisdiction 
and alcaldia mayor of San Luis <lc Potosi, of the 
province and bishopric of Meclioacan. It con- 
tains 15 families of Spaniards, 'US of Mushes and 
Mulattoes, and '3'-2 of Indians, who used : > trade 
in the metals of the mines which are in its dis- 
trict. Out these mines having tilled with water 
and become useless, the natives have addicted 
themselves to the cultivation of seeds ; two 
leagues s. of its capital. 

[Vega, orCoNcEi'cioN re la Vega Real, a 
town in the w. c. part of the Island of St. Domin- 

fo, on the road trom St. Domingo city to Daxa- 
on. It is situate near the head of Yuna River, 
which empties into the Bay of Samana ; ISleagues 
n. w. by w. of Cotuv, and about 38 e. of Daxavon, 
or Daxabou. It stands on a beautiful plain 
among the mountains, on the very spot where 
Guarionex, cacique of the kingdom of Magna, 
had resided. In 1494, or 1495, the settlement of 
this town was begun by Columbus. Eight years 
after, it had become a city of in)portance, and 
sometimes during. the year, there were 'ilO,000 
crowns in gold minted at this |)lace. It was 
almost destroyed by an earthquake in 15f)4.J 

[Vega, St. Jago de la. See Si'anisu 

VEGUETA, a settlement of the province and 
corregrmietilo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to 
the curacy of the settlement of Huahura. 

[VEJAS, or MoRRo de Vejas, a mount on 
(he coast of Peru, about half a league from the 
Island of Lobos.] 

VELA, Cape of, a point or promontory on the 
coast of the province and government of Santa 
Marta and Nuevo Reyno de Granada; on the 
coniines of the province of the Rio del Hacha, to 
the e. It is lofty, and fidl of woods, in which 
dwell some barbarian Indians. It was discovered 
by Alonso de Ojeda, who gave it this name, in 
1499. [It is nearly opposite to Cape Horn, in 
lat. 12° 13' «. long. 72'^ 12' is. 

The harbour here and its environs are supposed 
to contain not less than 2000 inhabitants.] 


Vela, a shoal of rock ot the N. Sea, near 
that of ( omboi to the ;c. 

VELAS, Port of the, on the coast of the pro- 
vince and government of Costarica and kingdom 
of Guatemala, between the Cape of Santa Cata- 
lina and the Morro llermoso. 

VELEZ, a city of the province and corrcgimi- 
cnlo of Tunja in the Nnovo Reyno tie Granada ; 
founded by Captain Martin (laliano, by order of 
Gonzalo Ximenez deQuosiiJii, in the territory of 
the district of Ubaza, in 1539, near tiie river Sa- 
rabita, or Suarez, in a lUmura at the foot of the 
mountains of Opon. It was the second town 
founded by the Spaniards in this kingdom, and 
was in a short time after transferred to the spot 
where it now stands, in the country of the Chipa- 
taes Indians. Its situation is inconvenient and 
disagreeable, being at the skirt of a mountain, 
where the soil is soft and muddy ; and the streets 
are so swampy as to be at times impassable, which 
inconvenience is greatly increased by their not 
being paved. The temperature, though hot, is 
rendered moderate by the frequency of the tem- 

f)ests, w hich are atteiuled with nuicl) thunder and 
ightning. Tlie waters are bad and iniwholesome, 
so that the inhabitants drink in connnon, chicha. 
The surroimding district is extremely fertile in 
maize, of which it gathers two crops yearly ; 
and not less abundant in grapes, plantains, pome- 
granates, pntil/as, uyamas, pines, curas, melons, 
tigs, little pines, and many other fruits and woods 
of excellent (|uality ; also in the woods are a 
nndlitude of birds, It has very line and large 
breeds of mules and horses, with which it sii])- 
plies the other provinces; and the quantity of 
sugar it makes is excessive, and not without 
many conserves and candies ; these, with its 
honey and brandy, forming the principal branch 
of its commerce, and with which it supplies Santa 
I'e, and nearly the whole kingdom. It produces 
also very much cotton of the best quality, of 
which they make good woven stuHs, highly 
esteenied in all parts. 

This city contains 2,500 inhabitants, a very 
handsome church, in which is venerated an image 
of Nuestra Senora de las Nieves, the patroness, 
the same being of exquisite sculpture ; another 
effigy of Jesus of Nazareth, and a Christ cruci- 
fied, which was found engraven upon stone with 
great beauty ; two cgnvents, one of the religious 
of San Francisco, and the other of San Juan de 
Dios, so poor, that neither of them can maintain 
two individuals. It is close to a volcano, and has 
excellent mines of very rich gold, but which aiv 






not worked for want of ppoplo ; [()8 miles m. of 
Sniila Ke, and 25 n. w. of Tunja, in lat. 5° 40' w, 
f.nd lonjf. 74° «' w.'] 

[VEliHAS Hio DAs,n district of the province 
and (Y/;j/rtJ/M7///> of ICwpiritu Santo in Brazil. It 
has tor its capital the city of St. George, de- 
fended, as well ns its pod, hy two forts. The 
cities belonjfinjr to this district are Cairu and 
Cnmana. The bar before it is defended by a fort 
with four bastions ; it contains more than 20,000 
sonis, and is extremely rich and fertile ; its prin- 
cipal trade consists in jjrain, with which it sup- 
plies Rahia, and other parts of Rra/il.] 

Velhas Rio Das, or Dk FiAs Vie.ia8, a river 
of the same province and canlniiiship. It rises on 
the skirt of the sierra of Vermeja, runs n. and 
enters the «yrand river of I''rancisco. 

Vemias, another river of the same kingdom, 
in the territory of the Guayazas Indians. It is 
small, runs w. and enters the Paranaiba. 

[VELICALA, a town on and near the head of 
the peninsula of California, near the coast of the 
N. racific Ocean, and w. from Anclote Point. 
Lat. about 20° 35' n. Long. 1 15° 50' a;.] 

VENADO, a settlement of the head settlement 
of the district and alca/dia maj/or of Charcas, in 
Nueva Espana. It has a convent of the religious 
of St. Francis ; and, although its territory is full 
of silver mines, yet as this metal is not of a 
superior quality the same are not worked ; but 
the natives rather occupy themselves in agricul- 
ture, in breeding cattle, and particularly goats for 
slaughter ; five leagues s. w. of its capital. 

Vrnado, an island of the S. Sea, nearly close 
to the coast, in the province and government of 
Vcragua and kingdom of Tierra Firme, at the 
back of the mountain of Puercos. 

VENADOS, Punta de, a point on the coast 
o.' 'le province and government of Cartagena 
and Nuevo lleyno de (jrranada, on a long strip of 
land formed by the mouths of the river Zinu, be- 
tween the points Piedras and Mestizos. 

VENADILLO, a settlement of tl>e jurisdic- 
tion of the city of Tocaima and goveri:ment of 
Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; 
annexed to <he curacy of the settlement of Am- 
bolaima. It is of a very hot temperature, and 
much infested with mosquitoes, garapatns, and 
snakes. It produces sugar-canes, maize, yitcas, 
and plantains. Its name is derived from a tame 
stag, which the Indians had when it was con- 
quered by the Spaniards. In its district is a gold 
mine, which preserves the same title, and which 
produced great riches when it was worked ; four- 
teen leagues to s. xc, of Santa Fu. 




VENANGO, a settlement of the province of 
Pensylvania in the Tnited States. [See I'ort 


VENRAQUI, a river of the province and go- 
vernment of Darien and kingdom of Tierra 
Firnie. It rises in the mountains of the ». part, 
and runs into the sea in the great beach opposite 
the IVIulata Isles. 

VENETA, SiEnnAs or, a cordillcrn of very 
lolty mountains in the province and government 
of Cartagena and Nuevo Jleyno de Granada, 
which serve as limits between this jurisdiction 
and that of Darien, belonging to the kingdom of 
Tierra P'irme. 

VENEIZUELA, a province and government 
of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in S. America ; 
bounded r. by the province of Cumaiui, a), by that 
of Santa Marta, s. e. by the Nuevo Reyno de 
Granada, the river Orinoco serving as limits to 
the s., and the whole of its limits on the «. being 
washed by the ocean. It is 200 leagues long, 
from the Mountain of Unarc to the Cape of 
laye1a,fromc. to2ii>.,andin width 120 leagues. It 
enjoys different temperatures, and has in its dis- 
trict inaccessible mountains and extremely craggy 
sierras, lofty lands, and fertile vallies and plains. 
It abounds in pastures, in which are rcry large 
breeds of cattle of every species, particularly neat 
cattle and goats ; whicn have multiplied to such 
a degree in the jurisdictions of Maracaibo, Coro, 
Caro.a, and Tucuyo, that the inhabitar.ts of the 
province have enriched themselves exceedingly in 
the commerce' of hides and dressed leather. The 
horses are so good as to vie w ith the best of Anda- 
lucia or Chile, and the mules are in numbers suf- 
ficient to supply immense droves for the use of 
the whole province. 

This province is watered by many rivers which 
fertilize it, and as it enjoys, in its vast extent, 
several degrees of temperature, the productions 
are also various, and it accordingly abounds in 
wheat, maize, rice, cotton, tobacco, and sugar, of 
which it makes exquisite conserves, cacao in great 
quantities, this being the principal source of its 
wealth, and of which the crop exceeds annually 
130,000 bushels, growing in 61 vallies and estates; 
this article having been exported entirely on 
account of the Royal Company of Caracas, they 
having had the exclusive right of trade in the 
same, from their establishment in 1728, and until 
the right was redeemed by Charles III. in 1778 ; 
it also abounds in all kinds of fruits and pulse, as 
well European as those indigenous to America. 
The mountains yield precious and much esteemed 
«orts of wood, such as pomegranates, galeados of 


'li :l li 

1 31'flS 

1 t 




if J 



J 56 

V i: N E / U E L A. 

diflprent colours, cmlis, dividibeSf guauarams, 
Brazil wood, chacatnmluy, iiiost houiilirulfor the 
variety of its coloiirM, wliicli are Kitnilar to tlioHc 
of the caruij^ and the cedar, which ih ho common 
aH to be tised for the most ordinary works. More- 
over there is scarcely one of these trees, hut 
what has in its trunk a swarm of bees, yieldin<( 
honey. It produces also r»//»/7/».v, more fragrant 
than those of Soconuhco ; and in the jurisdiction 
of the city of (^'arora wild cochineal, as line as 
that of ^fisteca in Nnova Espaila, and which, if 
cultivated as it is there, would yield immense 
profit. The /arzaparilla and indit|[o are here so 
common as to be thought rather incumbrances 
than things of value. In the woods are different 
kinds of animals, lions, bears, dantas, deer, ha- 
guirtis, rabbits, and tiiyers, the fiercest of any in 
America ; and it is observed, that these animals 
are more savage in proportion to the smaWness 
of the spots on their skin. In the rivers are an 
infinite variety offish, some common and others 
exquisite ; and on the coast is founil abundance 
of salt, of which all profit, not only from the 
facility of collecting it, but from its being of a 
very superior flavour. The fielrls are enlivened 
with birds, e<|ually enchanting by their song as 
their beautiful plumage, and the fowl which are 
eaten are of exquisitely delicate flavour ; and 
amongst these the most notable are the guacha- 
raca, pnugi, uquirn or mountain hen, turtle dove, 
and partridge. It produces also simples of great 
estimation in medicine, such as connjhiofd, tama- 
rinds, china root, laaiiuajaca, an extraordinary 
remedy for the head ache, the balsam of L urora, 
and the oil which they call of Maria or of Cu- 
mana, both this and the former being great anti- 
dotes for wounds. 

It has tin mines in different parts, which were 
discovered by Don Alonzo de Oviedo, an inhabi- 
tant of Barquisimeto; and these were worked 
for a long time on account of the royal estates, 
and much metal were extracted from tliem and 
carried to Spain for the foundry of artillery. 
These mines were afterwards nmde over for 
40,000 dollars to Don Francisco Marin, native 
of Cnraciis, b'lt wlio abandoned them, applying 
the utensils employed in them to other purposes. 
This province hail likewise some very .ich gold 
mines, w'lich are not now worked; eiliier be- 
cause, (lie principal veins being consumed, the 
profit doc not rennitc the expense ; or because 
the natives ;\re inclitiod rather to the cultivation 
vf cacao, whereby they l)ecome enriched with less 
hazard. Here are found crystals transparent, 
solid, and smooth, and a strata of so fine a blue 

as to vie with the ultramarine ; woods of difl'erent 
colours for dyes ; and lastly, it is to be observed, 
that there is in this province whatsoever can ad- 
duce to the comfort of life, without the necensity 
of application to any of the neighbouring pro- 
vinces; and it is equally certain that, were the 
inhabitants capable of turning to the best :idvan 
tage its great natural resources, it would be the 
best supplied and richest province iii all America. 
This country was discovered by Captain Olonzo 
de Ojeda, native of Cuenca, in 1 100, and its con- 
quest was agreed upon with the Knq)eror ('harlcs 
V. by the VVeltzers, German merchants, in 
]5'2(i, and first undertaken by Ambrose Alfinger; 
he being followed by George Spira and Nicholas 
I'ederman, who gave the name of Venezuela 
to the settlements of the Indians which they 
found on the lake of Maracaibo, from their re- 
semblance to the city of V^iice ; and this name 
was afterwards extended to the whole province. 
It was then inhabited by innumerable tribes of 
different nations, who, without acknowledging 
allegiance to any monarch, were in a state of 
vassalage to different caciqites. But the changes 
of time and the continual withdrawing of the In- 
dians, in the early periods, for the space of more 
than ^20 years, to the Leeward Islands and to 
other parts, have so diminished their numbers, 
that in the 82 remaining settlements scarcely any 
thing more than the memory of their former 
greatness reniains : add to this the nioitality 
which happened in 1580. through the introduction 
of the small-pox by a Portuguese vessel, which 
came with negroes from the coast of Guinea. 
The capital is the city of Santiago de Leon de 

Catalogue of the cities, 
nations of Indians of 

Santiago de Leon de 

Santa A na de Coro, 
Nueva Zamora de 

Nueva Segovia de 

Nueva Valencia del 

Portillo de Carora, 
San Sebastian de los 

settlements, rivers, and 
the province of Vene- 


S. Carlos de Austria, 
Pilar de Araiire, 
Puerto de laGuaira, 
San Carlos, 

San Fernando, 
San Jay me, 





Aifiin Hluncn, 
A^iia Ciilebras, 
Altuffrncin i\ci Piier- 


Altni(rncin de Orl- 

AltuI, or Cerro Ne- 





San Antonio, 

Los AiifTclos, 







Barbacoas de Tu- 

BarHacoan de San 


Bocono de Guanare, 

Boca de Tinaco, 
'" uan. 










('t>rrito dc Santa 









Ciia, or Marin, 










San Diego de Carac- 

San Diego de Va- 



San Francisco de 





Gunare Viejo, 

Giiarda Tinajas, 









Humucaro alto, 

Humucaro baxo, 


Santa Ines, 



I pi re, 




San tFacinto, 


San JoHeph, 

J u jure, 


San Lazaro, 



Santa liiicia, 










San Mateo, 







Mi tare, 

S. Miguel de Trux- 

San Nicolas, 
Ociimare of the 

Ocumare del 'Tay, 
S. Rafael de Ori- 

Para para, 


San Pedro and Sant* 


Puerto Cabcllo, 
Puertos dc Allagra- 

Punta de Piedros, 

Rio del Tucuyo, 
Rio de Carora, 
Rio Spco, 
San Rafael de las 


Sabana de Ocumare, 
Santa Teresa, 
Ti motes, 
Valle de la Pasqua, 

Nations of Indians. 

I r 




I ; 



^1 'I f ^ 

•■..fill! ^'1 








San Pedro, 








Sail Joseph, 


Puerto Seeo, 
Puerto Cabello, 

San Pedro. 


[The dreadful earthquake which happened in 
this province on Holy Thursday, April 19, 1810, 
whereby the greatest part of the citv of Caracas 
was destroyed, with the annihilation of Vittoria, 
and with a greai destruction at Puerto Caballo 
and at Leon, is in every body's recollection ; it is 
our lamentabln province to record the event. 
The loss of souls in that city has not been accu- 
rately ascertained, perhaps for political reasons ; 
but it was, doubtlessly, considerable. 

Mr. Depons tells us that the progress of Cara- 
cas has been materially retarded by the hostilities 
betfveen Spain ami England, which have subsisted 
wit', little intermission since 1796; but that, 
pre ious to such interruption, it was advancing 
rapidly in wealth and population. Mr. Depons 
reckons the nunilier of inhabitants in Venezuela, 
i/i 1804, at 500,000 ; but, in 17H7, they amounted, 
according to the Vigero Universal, t. SJ, p. 109, 
to no more than S3liftW). 

The representation of the United States of 
Venezuela was established in July, 1811, in the 
proportion of one for every 20,000 souls. Taking, 

therefore, the representatives at 50, (it was, in- 
deed, assmned at 100, See Section 111, Election 
of Senators, infra), it gives the population of 
those .'States, including the provinces of Marga- 
rita, Merida, Cumana, Varinas, Barcelona, Trux- 
illo, and Caracas, at l,000,0(X) of souls. 

At an average of four years, from 1799 to 1803, 
the quantity of eaeao exported, from hence and 
from MaiTicaybo, amounted t«< WbfiOO fanegas. 

The legislature of Caracas, under the new re- 
gime in 1812, had passed two acts, the one enacting, 
that all foreigners without distinction who should 
intioduce, into any ports of that State, specie, 
either in silver or gold, should be exempt from 
import duty ; and should only pay 6 per cent 
export duty, on the amount of the produce pur- 
chased with the silver so imported, and 8 per 
cent on those purchases made with the gold ; 
and that all individuals of the confederation 
should, in the lirst case, pay 4 per cent, and in 
the second 6 per cent ; and the other enacting, 
that all persons, and particularly foreign mer- 
chants, should be allowed to import, into any of 
the ports of the state of the Caracas, 12,000 
muskets, for which the importer of the first 4000 
should receive, at the rate of yO dollars lor each 
musket : for the second 4000, at the rate of 25 
dollars each ; and for the last 4000, at the rate 
of 20 dollars each, the whole free from import 
duties, provided the said importation should take 
place within eight months from the date of publi- 
cation ; (May 13). 

For accounts of the trade of the above pro- 
vince, see Caracas. 

Further Additional Matter respecting the Kingdom 
of Venezuela. 

I. Revolution. 

I. Introduetion and Outline. — 2. Grievances com- 
plained of bij the Venezuelans, in their Manifesto. 
— 3. Act of Independence, Julij 8, 181 1, in eon- 
sequence of Gceurrtnces at liai/onne, April 19, 
1810. — 4. Articles comprehended in the Decla- 
ration of the Legislative Session, July 1, 1811. — 
5. Invitation to Settlers. 

II. Federal Constitutiov for the States 

OF Venezuela. 


Cap. I. Of Religion— in one section. 

2. Of the Legislative Power — in sev( n 



[3. Of the Executive Power — in Jive see- 

4. Of the Judieittl Power— in two sec- 

b. Of the Provinces — in four sections. 

C. Jievisnl and Reform of the Const :*u- 
tion—in one section. 

7. Sanction or Ratification of the Con- 

st it nt ion — in one section. 

8. Rights of Man, which are to he ac- 

Icnouoledged and respected, through- 
ant the whole e.vtent of the State — 
in four sections. 

9. Regulations and Dispositions of more 

general tenor — in one section. 
10 Conclusion 
(N B. The whole of the said constitution is 
comprised under 'i28 articles.) 

I. Rt5VOMIT10\. 

1. Introduction and Outline. — Tlie revolution 
of Venezuela has proceeded with fur more hasty 
steps, in all the horrors of anarchy and bloodsheci, 
than that of any other part of the Spanish colo- 
nies. The denouement of the distressfid scenes 
are still hidden from our eyes, and the windinij- 
up of events will claim the pen of some future 
historian. To record whai iias already happened, 
as far as our information will allow, is our pre- 
"ieiit intention. Whatever may have been fhe 
partial ligiii thrown upon the subject, by the 
scanty dissertations of the latest writers, it is still 
no easy task to discriminate, with accuracy and 
proper feelings, the whole picture that has been 
represented to our imug^ination. A world in 
arms aafaiust its antient and constituted autho- 
rities, is an event novel in the revolution of ai$es. 
An eftect so uniform is only to be looked for by a 
cause as universal. Some discussion on this 
point has been already offered under the article 
iMRXiro, and a suHiciently accurate consideration 
of it will be found under other articles of this 
Work; we shall therefore confine ourselves, for 
the present, to the local circumstances relating 
to the revolution of Venezuela. 

There is, however, one most material question 
that occurs in treatiu"; this subject, which is, whe- 
ther or not the Spanish settlements, at the time of 
the entry of the Trench into Spain, and of the dis- 
solution of the monarchy, required redress and a 
retbrm of government; and next, whether they 
asked it, and were denied. The people were 
oppressed by the crown, and by monopolies; the 
commonalty and peasantry groaned under bur- 
densome and iinreusonable restrictions, destruc- 

tive of all enterprise ; the laws did not inflict 
punishment on the puilty, nor afford protection 
to the innocent ; arbitrary acts were common ; 
the natives were debarred from a fair participa- 
tion in offices of trust and emolument ; a system 
of government prevailed, disgraceful to the sta- 
tute books of Spain and the Indies, opposed to 
the common rights of mankind, and hostile to the 
dictates of truth and reason : the Spanish Ameri- 
cans, in short, could be considereo in no other 
state than in that of feuda' vassalage to Spain. 
The Viceroys held in their own hands the execu- 
tive, legislative, and military powers ; and, as a 
proof how little the Spanish Americans shared in 
the offices of distinction in their own country, we 
tiiul by the Censor Extraordinario, 4Jadiz, Janu- 
ary '26, 181!?, the fi)llowing is a statement of 
persons who have been in command there since 
its settlement : 

I^iinippnns. Amrriran*. 

Archbishops and Bishops - - - - 70y - - 278 

Viceroys --- — 166 — 4 

Captains-general and Presidents 588 — 14 

1456 296 

Tliat repeated cffiarts were made for a reform 
of government, and to obtain the right of legis- 
lating locally for themselves in their own con- 
cerns, aj)pears to be proved, not only by the 
applications of the respective .Vmerican niiinici- 
paiities and juntas, but also by the journals of 
the Cortes and their debates. The claims ol'the 
Americans were defined and laid before the 
Spanish government, in 1 1 propositions, on the 
16th November, 1810: they were repeated on 
the .'J 1st December, and again on the 1st of Au- 
gust, 1811, in the well known Rcprescntacion de 
la Deputacion Americana a tas Cortes de Espaiiay 
but were never attended to. A torpor seemed 
to have succeeded to distress, and to the violent 
convulsions of a calamitous revolution, which 
iippeared to render the government deaf to the 
jnst cries and appeals of a well deserving moiety 
t»t the nation : there was wanting a healing and 
cementing principle of benevolence ; nor is there, 
up to the present day, a proper measure of re- 
dress or conciliation upon record. 

To the impartial mind, and to him who has 
carefully examined both sides of the question, it 
will be easily suggested, tliat the ideas wliicli 
circulated in the settlements of the iiopeless slate 
of Spain, at the time the French entered Anda- 
liicia ; to which was added, the dread of filling in- 
to the hands of the same usurpers, were the chief] 




: ■ 1' 

i\'^ ' 

1 i 


[causes of the Americans resolvins^ no lonfjer to 
trust to the administration «>r their European 
governors, conceiving their own affairs niorest- 
cure when confided to tlieir own assemblies or 
juntas, whom they created after the manner of 
the provinces of Spain. That they had cause to 
suspect the whole of the viceroys and goverrjors, 
has been provfed by posterior events ; they all 
proclaimed the doctrine, tiiat America ought to 
share the same fate as the Peninsula, and that 
when the one was conquered, the other was to 
submit ; in short, the commanders abroad were 
prepared for this alternative, they had been pre- 
viously chosen by the Prince of Peace, and were 
ready to be moulded to the views on which he 
had acted. It was, therefore, unnatural and un- 
reasonable, after their own dear-l)ought ex- 
Serience, for these distant colonies to have confi- 
ence in such chiefs ; nor was it prudent to leave 
themselves to the mercy of nien, who had no 
other interest in the country than to prolong the 
continuation of their command, v/hicli had i)een 
secured to them by the French, and their Spanish 

The people of Venezuela were, in fact, resolved 
to administer their own concerns, and they con- 
sidered themselves justified in declaiming agaii'st 
any dependence «v governors, who, they argued, 
were ready to deliver them uj. to the 1' rerich, in 
pursuance of the orders of Joseph Napoleon. 
They made use of that right which the most en- 
lightened Spaniards have acknowledged to exist, 
and Don Caspar Jovellanos, in the famous opi- 
nion which he laid before the Central .lunta, Oc- 
tober 7, 1808, expressly says, , " that when a 
people discovers the inuninent danger of the 
society of which it is member, and knows that 
the administrators of the authority, who ought to 
govern and defend it, are siil>orned aiul enslaved, 
it naturally enters into the necessity of defending 
itself^ and of consequence acquires an extraor- 
dinary and legitimate right of insurrection." It 
would be unfair to argue that these were maxims 
only formed for t'le Spaniards of Europe, and 
that they did not extend to the AnuM-iciuis; and 
thus far the revolutionists would appear to enjoy 
the goo(i wishes of every linni, nlio can duly ap- 
preciate the blessings \)f i.ilionai and natural 

But the road to innovation is always danger- 
ous, and those w ho tollow it si ic'om arrive at the 
direct object of their pursuit T!ie insurgents of 
Caracas (for it was in this city that the revolu- 
tionists made their first and firmest stand), soon 
became divided into two parties; those who 

wished to acknowledge Ferdinand VII. for their 
king, and to govern themselves by the Spanish 
laws, under the auspices of a national congress, 
and those who, actuated by a decided hatred of 
the Spaniards, and the exaggerated ideas of 
liberty which they had acquired from the French 
re) u'>!'cans, were determined to make Venezuela 
an independent state, a truly democratic repub- 
lic. The moderate party was supported at first 
by public opinion, which, as we have already ob- 
served, was favourable to the mother-country ; 
but the ill-juflged attempts of the Spanish com- 
missioner, at Puerto Rico, to overthrow the re- 
volutionary goven. ient, and to support the r»- 
fractory towns of Coro and Maracaybo against 
the rest of the province, had the worst possible 
coiis?quences. The insurgents, who were with- 
out military leaders, had been defeated by those 
of Coro, when (leneral Miranda, who had hastened 
to Caracas on hearing of the revolution, arrived 
at La Guaira. His talents and ambition were so 
much dreaded by the majority of the junta, that 
orders had been issued to prevent his landing in 
his native coinitry ; but circmnstances were now 
changed, and his partizans insinuated that he was 
the only person under whose guidance they could 
look for victory. Miranda behaved at first with 
great moderation, and waited until the meeting of 
the general congress, to which he contrived to get 
himself elected by a rather insignificant village 
of the province. The majority prov3d to be com- 
posed of republicans; and few sittings had taken 
place when they declared themselves absolutely 
independent, and constituted a government which 
they called T/ic United Provinces of Venezuela. 
All their proceedings from that period are tinged 
with what might be called a Jacobinical hue. A 
declaration ot the Rights of Man was issued as 
the basis of the new political fabric, and the peo- 
ple were called on to be judges of the conduct 
of their government, while the gaols were crowded 
with persons merely suspected of being disaf- 
fected : nor was this all, for as a system of 
coercion naturally, though insensibly, leads to 
tlie most unrefrained exhibition of power, it was 
not long before the heads of many of the citi- 
zens were to be seen sticking upon poles at the 
gates of tl'.e city, as examples of the piinisii- 
inent that would await all such as dared to shew 
themselves inimical to tiie insurgent party. 
Scarcely had those horrors began to subside, and 
the government to be more settled after the sui)- 
jugation of the refractory town of Valencia, 
l)y the troops of Miranda, when, on April If), 
18 JO, a most dreadful earthquake reduced the] 


for their 
latred oi' 
ideas of 
B French 
c repub- 
d at first 
•eacl^ ob- 
country ; 
lish coni- 
w the re- 
nt the ra- 
D against 
t possible 
ere witli- 
I bj those 
1 hastened 
1, arrived 
HI were so 
inita, that 
landing in 
were now 
liat he was 
[\\ey could 
; first with 
meeting of 
ived to get 
tnt village 
to be com. 
had taken 
lent which 
are tinged 

hue. A 
s issued as 
id the peo- 
le conduct 
re crowded 
eiiig disaf- 
systom of 

leads to 
wer, it was 
f the citi- 
oles at the 
le punish- 
ed to shew 
eiit party, 
ubside, and 
er tlie suli- 


April 19, 
duced the J 



|"thc capital to ruin«. La Guaira met with the 
same fate. But the Congress, after the publica- 
tion of a constitution in which they very nearly 
copied that of the United States, had, fortu- 
nately for themselves, issued a decree for chang- 
ing their residence to Valencia, which they had 
appointed to be the federal town ; and tlius it 
was that they escaped the calamity which de- 
stroyed so many thousands of their fellow citi- 
zens. But the Congress, though they might con- 
gratulate themselves on their personal safety, 
had much to apprehend on account of their 
cause. The extraordinary catastrophe did not 
_ fail to have a marked cfl'ect upon the neople of 

I S. America ; they immediately believed it to be 

I a visible sign of" the wrath of heaven, inflicted 

upon them for the dereliction of their allegiance; 
;> but it served to give only a momentary check to 

the progress of the system of indep«'iidence. 
\ Montverde, the Spanish general, did not fail 

to take every advantage of the distresses and 
fears of the l^atriots on this melancholy occasion, 
and many of the latter began to enter into cor- 
respondence with the government of Puerto 
Rico, and also with the royal troops at Coro, 
commanded by Montverde in person. " At this 
crisis (says the N. York Gazette) the wreck of 
the patriot army assembled, and the command 
was given to the Marquis Del Toro, who re- 
signed his commission. The command was then 
delegated to General Miranda, and the army re- 
inforced with men and arms. About this time 
Congress evacuated, and the royal army took 
possession of V^alcncia. 

" On the Gth July, Puerto Cavallo was taken 
by surprise. The loss of this important sea-port 
anorded a pretext to Miranda for surrendering, 
who entered into an armistice, which led to a 
private ca[}itulation on the part of Miranda. 
The terms of Miranda's surrender were only 
known to one or two of his particular friends. 

" The patriots of Caracas, it is said, were dis- 
satisfied with his conduct. Every patriot re- 
mained persuaded to the last moment that Mi- 
randa had taken care of their safety ; but, on 
finding the result, they fled to La Guaira, to em- 
bark on board the vessels detained by Miranda's 
embargo, which was expected to be repealed ; 
hut on the capitulation being concluded, it was 
continued in the name of General Montverde. 

*' General Miranda arrived at La Guaira the 

30th July, and ordered the embargo to be raised, 

intending immediately to embark on board an 

English schooner, for Cura<;oa ; but the com- 

VOL. v. 

mandant refused to do so, made him a prisoner, 
and confined him in a dungeon, upbraining him 
as a betrayer ; and in this exigence declaring 
himself for Montverde." 

Whether this declaration were actually made, 
we arc not enabled to say, but we find Miranda 
shortly afterwards carried to Cadiz, as it was 
asserted by some, to undergo his trial ; and by 
others, to give information of the best means of 
subjecting the colonies to the mother country, 
lie was allerwiirds taken back to America, 
where he was kept in conflnemcnt, but treated 
with leniency in proportion as the success of the 
patriots liad become more or less evident. 

The affairs of the latter began, shortly after 
the above misfortunes, to brighten under another 
leader, by name Bolivar. Early in the year 
I8iy, the town of La Guiara, together with the 
public properly, to the value of ^00,000 dollars, 
was retaken by the insurgents ; and on the 2d 
September, Bolivar took possession of Valencia, 
obliging Montverde to fly to Puerto Cab<dlo. 
The practice of putting to death all the Eu- 
ropeans arriving at Venezuela now became ge- 
neral, and the public documents began to be 
signed " The Third of Lidependence, and first 
of War without Quarter!" L:deed, during the 
whole of the year IH\3 and later, the result of 
the engagements between Bolivar and Mont- 
verde, were in favour of the former. It would 
be tedious, and our documents are not sufiici- 
eutly copious, to allow us to enter into a regular 
detail of the minute transactions that have taken 
}!ace during that period ; but, according to 
ate accounts, we find that Montverde, in con- 
sequence of a wound he had received, had re-> 
signed the command of the troops in Venezuela, 
pro tempore, to Colonel Solomon, and that the 
king's cause had become daily more and more 
unpopular. This success was not lasting; for 
shortly afterwards the insurgent army, of 1,500 
men, were defeated near Vitloria, by the royal- 
ists, and 500 of the independents deserted their 
stanrlard, and ll-ed to the royalists, when they 
were killed. 

At this time an embargo had existed at La 
Guaira. So rigidly was it enforced by the in- 
dependents, that the sails and rudders of all the 
vessels had been taken ashore, to prevent tho 
possibility of any of them getting to sea. The 
cruelties with which the war is carried on is 
nearly unparalleled in history ; and we almost fear 
to state them on our naked assertion. The fol- 
lowing extract of a letter fromCura<;oa, Novem-] 








»' K N E / iJ i: r. A. 




[brr 4, 1811, nffonls, wc foar, too (rue a picdiro 
of pn'Ht'iit pvoiils. 

" I hnvo jii8t como over Croni ilir Miiin, unit 
nm sorry <<» say, thai llu> finr nroyiiu-o «»f Vnio- 
/urlii NPtMiiH tust viTffinir to n state like that of 
St. Domingo, in tlieynlley of Santa liiieia and 
Snntii Tlieresn,'^) wliites have been pnt toth'uth, 
mostly women nnd children, in the name of l<'er- 
dinnnd VII. whilst to windward similar ntrori- 
tio8 have been p«'rpetmted tV»r ' l<a I'atria.' In 
Ln (^naira 14 Spaniards were siiot on the most 
frivolous antl improbable pretences, without a 
ninrnuir ; l)ut when some black soldiers were to 
be llo}j;»ed, their comrades inlerlered and rescued 
(hem ; and this dan!<;erous Ineacli of discipliiu- 
passed impunished. Will it be believed that 
women have taken an active part in liie horrible 
rticeedinjjs carried on, and have scoiu'ijed She 
adies of the royalist party in (he most cruel and 


indecent manner .' 


ry thinjj, in short, an- 

nounces »u approaching' strufjijle, wherein every 
species of cruelty will be ex»>rcised, and the dil- 
I'ereut sliades of colour in the skin will supersede 
the uecessily ol" all other external distinctions. 
The nejiro oflicers have already the finest horses, 
mnles, nnd arms, and speak with a freedom which 
even a white creole dare not use without ruimin!^ 
(he risk of bocomiuii the inhabitant oi' a jail. 
Hefore nnittins: La Giiaira f was witness to u 
scene which made a deep impression on my minil, 
and indeed which never whilst I live can be 
erased from it. The Spaniards had so lonj; and 
so confidently talked ot reinforcements arriviujif 
from Cadiz, that they were no lonjjer credileil, 
and the matter bejjan to be treated as a jest by 
(he ]>atriots. At leusjth, on the l'2(h Sep(end)er, 
a squadron, cousistins; of a frijjate and six 
transports, full of troops, made its ap|)earauce 
in the olfinsj. Innnediately all was in motion, 
and every thinjj was prepared to deceiv<> them, 
should they be ii'iiorant of the real state of af 
fairs, or to give them a warm reception, should 
they attempt (o force a laudinjj. It was not, 
however, tdl noon the next day that the ships 
drew near, and the headmost were already within 
the reach of ll\e batteries, when they suddenly 
stood off the land and lay to. It was tlien evi- 
dent that they were suspicious that all was not 
rijjht. althoui>h the royal standard was displayed 
on the tort above the town. After a sh.iri iiuif 
a boat was seen approachinij the shore, and mea- 
sures were immediately taken to deceive those 
who were in her ; the tri-coloured was replaced 
by the red cockade ; the picture of rcrclinand 

was again fiung up at ( M>yern'mont Ilonso ; lli^ 
populace were instructed to hail (heir approach 
ny loud acclamations; and to crown all, thr 
former comnuindant of the town, Colonel Mar* 
mal, was taken out of his diuiireon, and threat- 
ened with instant death unless he turned traitor, 
anil consented slill to act the part orcommandant 
for the King. Tiie phin was well laid, and suc- 
ceeded at fnst beyoiul all expecta(ii»n. Alter 
various parleys, the second in conuuaud, with a 
guard ol 10 or \'2 uu<n, landed with all the dis- 
patches and letters, ami directly arterwards the 
frigate and all the lrans])orts ciime to anchor di- 
rectly under the batteries. No one now dreanu'd 
that it was possible to escape, and oin* only con- 
cern was wiiat could be done with so many pri- 
soners. 'I'his, however, gave the patriots little 
concern, as (hey told me they supposed it would 
t)e easy to get (hem landed in small parties, and 
then disposed of by massacreing the whole. My 
teeliiigs were now wound up to the highest pitch 
of anxiety. The consummate ignorance of the 
artillery men saved the lives of perhaps of 2,()()() 
men. Uibas, mis(rus(ing (he answerthat was sent 
(o one of his iv.ssengers tothefriga(e,orileredthe 
firing (o .onunence, as it did iuuuediately ; (jO 
pieces of heavy artillery playing on the frigate 
alone. She instantly cut her cables, and stood 
off followed by all her convoy, yd (he breeze 
was so light, tliat it can be oidy attributed to the 
ignorance of the gunners that every vessel was 
not sunk. Upwards of an hour and a ((uarter 
elapsed, during all which time a furious can- 
nonade was kept up without the frigate deigning 
to return a single shot. What is singular, not a 
spar was seen from the shore to be carried away, 
nor was a single I'inglish schooner touched by 
their ill-directed shot. Yet some damage must 
have been done, as (he frigate, when out of gun- 
shot, was seen to heel, and have carpenters husy 
in plugging holes in her side. The whole loss, 
I have since been informed, was about 10 men." 

Such being the present, unsettled, and pre- 
carious state of affairs in these regions, we shall 
not indulge ourselves in speculation on their final 
results, but hasten to record, for future ages, 
such documents as were issued by the insur- 
{>;ents, either in exculpation of tiieir proceed- 
ings, or in testimony of the incentives to insur- 
rection, alleged by themselves to have been ex- 
perienced from the year IS07, up to their abso- 
lute declaration of independence. 

Of these important documents, the first we have 
to record is tlie famous manifesto of July 30,1 

10-, llie 

1, Il>r 
I Mnr- 
( rait or, 

, willi ii 
lli«< <lis- 
inls ihc 
clior (li- 
lily oon- 
laii.v l>ri- 
)ts" lidlo 
it woiiltl 
tioH, ami 
olo. My 
ifst \)iU'n 
•o of tli« 
of ^2,(MW) 
was sont 
(UtoiI ( ho 
itely ; (iO 
« tVigatc 
1111(1 stood 
ic bn'ozc 
tf<l to the 
t'ssol was 
a (jiiartor 
ions can- 


not a 

(1 away, 

lulioil by 

nj>c must 

i ot'sjiin- 

ors l)iisy 

lole loss, 


and |iiT- 
wo shall 
lioir final 
ire ages, 
)c insur- 
to insnr- 
becn ox- 
icir abso- 

st wchave 
July 30.1 


V E Mi / U E L A. 


l' ISI I, of wliirh wp shall g;ivP a literal and coni- 
|)h-tr traMNhitioii ; since, aithonirh tlifrr bo iin- 
(|iiostioiiably «»bjo(lioiis to tho Hovoro party spirit 
with which it was iiiditod, any mutilation of it 
would, in point of authoiiticity, thron^:h which 
it boars its peculiar claim to our proformoiit, 
roiidor it iisoloss and nnsatislactory. 

N. IJ. 'I'lio other docninoutH will bo fjiven, as 
l>y llio Index, at the head of the now mutter 
comprehended in this article. 

2. Gritranccs coniplniiird of hi/ lliv Ftni-:iii/ti'is, 
in llirir Dlniiijcslo. 

' MANIFF.STd miuli In lUr irmlil hi/ Ihi' <i>nlhliTiiliiiii of 
yiniznclii, in Snulli .tnnriiii, nf Ihr riiiHoiin iin vliich the linn 
foumltii hir nlmiiliilf lndi\>inilincr nf ■V/iiiin, imil uj'ivrvii nlhir 
I'lminH I'liwcr. linni' mill iiritiriil In lir iiiihlithiil liii Ihr 
iiimral ( 'im;; ri«j n/' the I'n'UnI .SVu/cn.- Nimr (|iiiil Ml w^vix- 
diini r<iii>i<li'i;ilf,' 

' Spanish America, condoiiiiied for more than 
three centuries, to have no other oxistencethan to 
•iorvo to increase the political preponderance of 
Spain, without th(< least iiifluonc*' or participa- 
tion ill her j>reatness; would «'voiitiuilly have ar- 
rived by tlu' order of tho events, in wiiich s!ie 
has no other part tliaii KiilVeraiico, to be tlie sure 
sacrifice and \icliin of that same disorder, ecu - 
riiption, and coii(|ii<"^t, wliicli have disor^aiiixed 
tiio nation that first coiupierod her; if tlio in- 
stinct of self-security had not dictated to the 
Ainericans, tiiat the niomeni of acting had ar- 
rived, and liiat it was time to reap the friiitK of 
JOO years of inaction and patience. 

'If llu> discovery of the new worhl was one of 
the most interestini>' occiirieiic(>s to IIk! hiiiiiati 
race, no less so will Ik; the resoiieration of this 
same world, de<;raded from liiat period by op- 
pression and s»Tvitude. Americi?, raisinu^ Ih-i- 
sclf from till' d'.ist, and freed of her chains, yet 
without pass'ii^- through the p<dilical fj^radatioiis 
of otiior nations, will, in her turn, triumph over 
tlie whole world, without iiiiiiidatiii^ it in blood, 
without enslaviuf^ or bnitilyiuf; it. A revoliilion 
the most useful to tho human race, will be that 
of America, when constituted and jjoverned by 
her ow n self, she shall open her arms to receive 
tiie |)eoi)lo of Europe; those who are trampled 
upon by policy, floeiuir from the ills of war, and 
persecuted by tho fury of the passions. In 
search of peace and tranquillity, the inhabitants 
of the other homisplioro will then cross the 
oc(>an, not with the perfidy of the heroes of the 
Kith century ; but, as friends, and not as tyrants; 

ns men in need, not nn lordn; not to deMroy, but 
to build ; nut as li^u^ors, i)ut us men, who horror- 
struck with our former iniHli)rtunes, and hoII- 
taiiKlit by tlioirown, will not conv**rt their reaM«)n 
into a iiialiirnant spirit, nor wish that our annals 
be ii^raiu llmseof l>lood and wretchedness. Then 
shall navi^a I ion, i>eo^rapliy, astronomy, iiiduHtry, 
and trade, perfected by the discovery of America, 
tlion^li rniiioiiH to her, be converted into so many 
means to acceleralo, consididate, und porfi^ct the 
felicity of bolli worlds. 

^ This is not a flalleriiif^ dream but an hoinn^e, 
made by reason to providence. It was written 
in tier ineirablo designs, that on«>-half of tho 
human race should not f;roan under the tyranny 
of tho other, nor could it be supposed that th(; 
i>roat fiat of the world's disKoliition could arrive 
Itefin'o one part of its creatures had enjoyed all 
their inherenl ri^hls. Kvery i\ni\^ has l»een lonn 
prepariii!;' Ii>r this epoch (d' felicity and consoln- 
tion. In iMirope, the shock and fermentation of 
opini(His, the inversion and contempt of the laws, 
the profanation of the bonds that liold together 
slates, the luxury of coiirtH, the sterility «)f the 
fields, the cessation of industry, tho triumph of 
vice, and the oppression of virtue; whilst in 
Ameriiii, tlie increase of population, cd' foreign 
wants dependiiiil on her, the development of 
ai'iiiiilliire in a new and vi^oi<»us soil, the pterin 
of indiistrv iiiiiler a beneficent clime, tlu; ele- 
ments of science under a privilofifod orf^aniza- 
tioit, the means of a rich and |)rosper<ms trade, 
and the robustness of a political adolescence, 
all, all accelerated the proi^iess of evil in one 
world, and that of f^ood in the other. 

'Such WHS the advaiila<;eous alterniitivr', that 
enslaved America |)resen((Ml on the other side tho 
ocean, to her mistress Spain, when cast down by 
the weii>ht of (!very evil, and underminod by 
every deslnictivo principle of socie'y, she called 
upon her to ease her of iier chains, that she 
minhl lly (o her succour. I nl()rtunately preju- 
dice triiimphed ; the u;eiiius of evil and of dis- 
order seized on (lie •■•overiiments ; yoaded jirido 
usurped the scat of co(d priuleiice, aii)I)i(i(iii 
triumphed over lilierality, and siiii-titiiliiii; de- 
ceit and pi-rfidy lor ^nnerosily and tfood failli, 
they tnriK'd auninst us those very arms hIiIcIi we 
oiir-elves used at the time, wlien impelled by our 
fidelity and \i\i\\\\ (iealinj;, wc taught Spain her- 
self the way of resistin;; her enemies, under liie 
l)aimeis of a presumptive kin:;-, unlit to iei»n, 
and witlioiil other tides than the jri neron* com- 
passion of the people, and his own misfortunes.] 
V 1.' 




• ?i 


t r 


V i: N i: / II i; i, v 

i' V<'ni>;nolii «hm Ow (ifil Jn pli'dc.'" <»• S|<imi, 

(ItC tllMIITKns lllll \« IlK'll ■'III* I'lMCIllcri'll ll'l It lit- 

«'i'M'.iM\ liniiiiiiic : \ riir/nclii « ;!•< (Iir lirl ill liri 
iWllit liiin, (i) |tiiiir (lie i'i>iiNii|iiit', Itiilin nl liinul 
slii|i iind li iil<M'iii(> iiidi lirr ukmiiiIm \ I'lir/ni'lii 
Mils llii< tirM( (ii KiiiMt llio ili'4iiiili'i''< tliiit tliiriil 
•Mii'tl (III' ili»i|riii'<ii<ii i>l S|<iiiii : mIu> >iii'< (III' lir'.( 
(o |<riM nil' loi' lirr intu '-iili (\ , «nlliiiii( lni'iiliiiii', 
(lir lutiiijs (liiit lii'M liiT (it (III' iiindii-r iiiimin . 
(Ill' (il'-( (i> jH'iri'Mi' (III' i'lli'r(M ii|' liiT iiiiiliidi'im 
iii({r.i(i(iiili' "111' «ii'> (111- lii.( nil mIumii Mill HUH 
miiilo liv liiT l»ri'(ln-i'ii mnl '.lio is (In- {\\^^^ (o 
i-i'i'iMi'i' Iter inili'pi'iiili'iiri' mill i n il ilif.iiil^ in (lii< 
»ii'« «i>ilil III iMiliT (<< pi'^dl't (III-- iiii'ii'.iiii' nl 
iii<ii<svi(> iiml pislii r. ••Ill' I iiimiiii-i 'J i( ii iliil\ in 
i'iliiil<i'n( on liiT. (i>|Mr'.rn( (n (lio imnri'.r. (Iii' 
I'l'ilsiMi'' >«lMrli I'.iMi' iiifM'il lii'i (i> (III' Miinr, (li!i( 
III')' liDiiiini mill |nin>ii>lr'- mm iii<( Ih' ilniilid'il 
or i'niliiiit;vri'il. M lirn «1ii' riiiiii-- d< (ill (III' In^li 
rmik «liiili |>t,M iJi'iiii' n'.diii". (n lii'f 

• VUllii'sr \\\\i> iin- muii'i' !>(' Din i r'-oliidmi. 
liKr\> i'-i> KiiiM\ «liiil 111'. I'lrn onr ("iid' |nr«iiin'< 
(o (111- lad' iini'i'-ii'ii i>r iliin^',-.. \> liuli iiliiin- ilis- 
soIm'iI nm i'n!;iii;i'ini'n('. \> iili S|iiuii. o\ rn ^rand'tl 
(li;»( (lii'sc vi'ii' li'oul mill i'i|iiidilil<'. I( Mi'ii' 
suiu'vllniMi'* d» (Mi'si'iit iilii".|i (i» iinpaidiil I'n 
r»>|)i', (111' I'lisiiM'dini"! iiiiil > i-Nadoiw slu" lu'isi'h' 
lias si» i>(l<'n lanii'Mii-il, a( a diiii' (liii( hi' niir- 
M'l> I's M I'n' ni>( alloHi'il d> iln m> : iii'idicr i"* i( 
Uivi's'^ai* d> im'r (lii' in|ns(iri' o("i>iii- (li'|<i'nil, -iii' 
iMul ilt'.>:rai)!i(uMi, «lu'ii r\i'r» iiiidtni liiii <ii'\>i'il 
a-i lan <n'>ul( di piOiliral ri)in(», (lia( S|iain, iin 
jiiN>|i|i'il. «-i>nn|Mi'il, aiiil •■imlv in a s(ad" I'l' in 
u> Hon aiul >li'(li h\ a lU'spodi- t;i>> rnnnriM, 
"houlil \\i\\c ('M'lnsM i'l> n'<in'|)i'il I'rnin (lii- iiiiln-. 
i\\ ani\ a(-(Mi(> »>l" (lif n"-( i>(" (lio i'on(iiu'n(, (In- 
jiiis-iiMi-i anil inrali'iilaMi' ii'somvr-. ol' a Morlil, 
I'lMi-ddid'il 111 llii' (ii'(" iuul mi>iut|>l> i>l' a vniall 
^lovdon ol' (hi' titliiT. 

riu' intrri's( o( I'niopi' iat\ni>( ol.i'-h Hitli (lir 
lihiMl^ Ota qnard-r o(' (ho ijlolii'. (luU noH '•Iu-hs 
\t-i'll' (o (111' (i'liiin o(" (ho oduT (hroo . vot a 
nuTO I'oiun'-nla is lomui (.» opjioso (ho in(«'it's(s i»(" 
i(v [jinorninont (o (hoso ol" i(s iialion, in oiilov (o 
raiso (ho 'hi hoiiiis|i|u'ro a<;ains( (ho iioh oiio, 
5iiu'i' du' iin|n>ssihih(> i\t o|>i>rossini; t( iinv 
loiij^r i-: \u»» liiM'in oii'.l In opposidon d> (host* 
oiulo.n om-s, nuMV ( to our lr.ini|inlli(v (han 
(o one pi\i>pori(\. i( is. dial \u' aro ahoii( (i» ilis- 
Y\.\\ (ho oiiii-ios nhii-h opoiMtoil imi our iMn(liu-(, 
(Votu (ho lj(h .'lilv. ISOS. aihl tho arts iha( Inn o 
>MVstoti (Voiu lis dio ro-oluiions ot" tho l!'(h 
Ajiril. cMi\ and ot" (ho ."mIi ,hiU. ISII : «hii!i 
thrtv epochs »ill (oriu d'.o tli-st porunl of tho 

itloiii'i 111' ri'r.i'iii'I'ild'il "I'lli'/lli'lit, wlifH (lit* ini- 
paidiil jH'ii ol' liiMliMt H Mill ii'i'iiiil III!' liiil Iiiii<» 
ol' (ho |iiililiriil OMid'iiro i>r S. Aiiiri irii. 

' Ti'idlioil ll'l >M'n> III niM iiiiiiili"i|M mnl pnlitii 
|iii|ioi'i, iiIiiiiimI all (III' ri'iixiiiiw (liii( inlliiriirnl 
one •'OMiilnliiMi im t^oll im oiir ili".i^.,:i'i , mnl nil 
(ho |iisl mill ili'i'iM'inm iiiomi>i nliirli ««o liiivo oiii 
jiloti'il (i> ri'i'iir/o (lioiii il niif^lil lio mii|i|iii>ii'iI, 
(liiil llio I'Mirl mill iiniimliiil riiiii|iiM isnn ol' mil 
t'liiiiliul Hilll (lull III' llio f^ovri iiiiirlidi nl' S|iiiiii, 
ill llii'so lallor linii"', hoiiIiI nl' itioll' >iiilliro In 
jiC'lilS nut Diilv mn iiihiIoi'iiIidii, iinl oiilv imii 
nii'tisnrcM orsoi'iinlt , iinl mil) mir itiili'|ii<iiifi<iirr, 
lull I'U'ii also llir ili'rliiriilioii (il'mi nii'i'miriliililo 
oiiini(\ ii,(;aiii'<l (liiiso h liii iliiorlU or iiiiliiorllv 
tiau' roiili ilmloil (n llio iiiiiiiiliinil Mvd'in iihh 
tiilo|i|i'il ii,(;iiiiimI ii<i. iVolhiiii; in 'mill ''limilil «vi- 

llllM' III llo ll' ^Ollll lllllll llinl llOOII III)' >i|l|IM^ III 

iii'liiiii, iisoil l<> llio |iiirU III' i>|>|ii'<"iiimi ii^iniiisl 
liliorlv . Iinl ll'l llio lii'it iiiitih Hhi III' mil' iiii>i|iir 
liiiii"', HO I'liniiol ovliuiilo miT'ioUo'i lioin (lio 
roiiilidmi ol' 'dmo'i, Hillimil lioiii;) Iniinili'il hiIIi 
(ho ralninnv ol' lioiii^ ini;iii(i"., lolioU, mnl nn- 
IhanKl'nl. I.ol Ihoso Ihoi'i'l'mc lislon anil jiiilt(o 
IIS, H ho liiMO III) |im'l ill I III r iiiisl'oi liiiion, anil h Im 
mo noH ilosiroiis ol' IniMiif; tioiio in mii' ili'i|nili'>., 
Ill orili'i' nol III iiii'^ini'iil (ho iiii'iiiilii'os ol' mn 
ononiios ; anil lol llioiii nol (oso si|iihl nl' llio 
solonin iirl ol' mir |ii'<l, iiorossiM'* , mnl ninilo'il 

' Ciiniriis lomnl tlio si-iiniliilnns srono'i llia( 
|iassoil III l''l l''.si'iii'iiil mill .\i'an|iio/, nl ii liino 
(ha( sho alri'jiil\ |ii'iri'i\ oil uliiU Horo lior ri^lils, 
mill (ho s(a(o III uliirli (hoso hoio tiliiroil liy 
(liO'oj;roa( ort'iinonros ; Imi( llio lialnl ol' nlio- 
ilionro on (ho oiio hiiinl, (ho a|iiillu |iroiliiri'il 
Im ili's|in(isni on (ho odioi': mnl, in sliml, (iilolilv 
mill i;ooil tiiilh Horo III llio nioini'iil snporinr In 
o\or\ i'oiiiiiina(ion : mnl iit'd'r (ho ilisiiad'hi's nf 
iMiiial, (ho kili<;lv siil)s(idt'." (o ,Iohi'|i|i Nil|)oli'mi, 
hail roaihoil iho (-iipilal, tho millinriiiis .lii! nnt 
I'^on «avor rospoiiinj; llioir i'Ofi'|i(imi, il Has no( 
jiossihio lor tho in'o|il«' to IhiiiK ol" mi> tliiiin' olso 
(han ol" hoiiij; rmlhrni, roiisislonl, mul <«i'iiorons. 
^«ilhoii( l'oros('i'in!> (ho ills In vliirli this iinlilo 
mill !<'iillmit t'oniliii-t umilil cxposo llioin. W'ilh- 
oiit am o(hoi->ioH thiiii thai nl" hnnniir, N'oiio- 
/iii'la lol'iisoil In tiillow Iho oiiiiiinii ol' Iho load- 
ins{' inon ol" Spain, snmo ol" wliniii in sii|)|iorl nl" 
(ho oniiTs nl iho l'"roiu'h Ko^oiil ol" tho kin<;- 
iloin, oxacd'il ("roiii us aliofjianro to Iho noH' 
kiiii;-: o( hois iloi'lm'iii'i' anil |nil)lishiii<;, (hii( Spnin 
liail rocoiM'd a ucw <'\is(oni'i' siiico tho aliannmi- 
luoiit of luT uiithnrilios, since (lir lossioiis ofl 


V i: N i: / (I li I, A 


•n <lu« 1111- 
IIi'mI lini<» 

11*1 |i(ililir 
•< , iiiiil III! 

llllVI' till 

inn i>r out 

dl' S|Miiii. 

•inniir li> 

( i>nl\ oiii 



I niiliii'i'llv 
>m(('iii now 
I hIiouIiI \\r 
< >i|ii inj; ol 
lion ii,iriiiiix( 
oiir ini'ilor 
•1 lioin llir 
iniili'il «< till 

|v|, llllll iiii- 
IMIll iiMlt(<> 
ii'ii. llllll tvlio 
nr ili'i|ni(i"i, 
lict'M ol' oin 
.\fl\\i of (lie 
llllll iiiitilo'iJ 

m l>IU"i (liu< 
lit II linn- 
licr right's 
nlin'Cll l>V 
|l)l( ol' olii<- 
loil, I'ltlrlity 
siiin'iior (o 
iHiiiitrli)"' of 
li Nii|i«»UiMi. 
ii s ilii! not 
it U!is not 
» tliiiiH rlsi- 

lIllH liolllc 

Hill. Witli- 
noiir, N'ciw- 
))!' lli(< Icinl- 
sn|i|iort ol 
r tin- Kiii-A- 
tt) tlic lirw 
;, llnil Spain 
lio aliiiiKloti- 
cossioiis o(\ 


ftlio Moiiilionx, llllll till' inlroitin-lioM ol' tlir ihmv 
Hvnii'<lv . lltxl lln'f l«"l !•'• ovcioil llicir iilHoliitc 
iiiili|iciiilrni<' mill IiIhtIv, hihI tliiil tliiv oH'i'inl 
tlllM I'Miiiiiitr to IliK AiliriiriillM, lliiit llicy liii|{lil 
ii'iovrr till' Nltliic lit(litM lliiTr |MorliiMiiril , lillt 
iiM Moon im llir HimI q|i<|i «vi< liinl tiiltrii I'or mil 
Ni'i-niitv, llllll roiMiiunl tlic rniliiil .liinlii lliiil 
lliri'o 1VIIH III iiH Hoiiirtliiii^t iiioii< lliiiii liiiliil'^ mill 
Mr|inliri»i, tlii'V lM')(iin lo vmy llic lmi^,iiii"i' ol 
ilirriility mill Minrriitv ; llnv jmi liilioiiMly iiilii|ilril 
till' liiliMiiiiiii ol' l''riililiiinil, III fii'Hl tiiyrnli'il liy 
}(ooil liiitll ; tliry miiii|ii'i>mi«>iI, IhiI iviIIi • iiliniii^ 
mill mvi'rtnrHM, tlir |)lmii iinil li'((iil |iio|ri'l ol' ( ii 
iiiniM in INIIH to roriii ii pint.i, mill to iiiiiliiti- tin- 
i'i'|M'i<Mi'iitiiti\ (< roiiiliii't ol' till' ^ovi'i nini'iit'i ol' 
S|iiiiii, mill tlicy Im'/^iiii to Hi>t on I'oot ii iirn •i|ii' 
t'ifM ol' iliwiiotiwiii, niiilrr tlir lint tioim niiiiir ol' ii 
km;;, iirltniMvli'ilgiMl only I'toin ii |ii'inri|ilc ol' 
l^i'iiri'imity, mill ilrMlinnl to cHitI our ill iinil 
lii'ilislrr, My ||iomi< tvlio Imil ii>iii|'|m<iI llir Movrii'mn 

|IO\« IT. 

' I' rcxli i^ovr 'loi'M mill jnil^rH, initiiitril in tin* 
iii-u Hyhtrin |il'o|<'rlnl ii^iiiiimI Ainrilrii, ili-riilrti 
III siiMliiin it lit our i>«i|h<iihi>, miil inuviilril tvitli 
iiiwli nrtioiiM I'or ryrii tli<> lii''t |iolitinil rlimiK'' 
llllll iniKlit orriir in tlii< otlirr licniiHiilii-ii-, tvcrr 
llir ron><ri|iiriirrH n'Niiltiii}^ I'loiii tlii' mim'|ii'Imc, 
tiliii'li our iiiilii'iii'il-oriiiKl nflrx|iiTlril ({i-tici'OHilv 
raiiNi'il lo till' ( 'i-nti'iil •liinlii. /\iiil>i|(nity, iirti 
liri>, mill iliMorilrr, \ycii< nil tlic ><iiiin({M mi-I in 
iiiiition liy liiiw tottciint; mnl hIioiI livnl iiiliiiini 
Klnition: iih tliry ^iiu lliril riii|iii'r cvpoMi'tl, it 
uii'« ryiilnil tliry ivi'-linl to ^iiiii in oih' iliiy, wliiit 
llllll I'lirirhi'il tln-ir iiiMi-HtorM in iiinny ^i'Iii'n; mill 
lis tlicir mitlioi'ity \\»h liiirlii'ii liy tliiit ol' tlirir 
piiriisitrM, all llirir rnilrayoiiiH yycrr ilirrcli-il to 
iipliolil I'lirli oIIht, iiiiiirr tlir mIiikIimv of our illii- 
''ion llllll frooil raith. No Htatiilc coiilrary lo 
lln"ic plaiiH wii'i valid and rlVrrliyr, and fvrry 
iiiriisiii'c tliiit liivoiirrd tlic iiriy order of political 
I'ri'riniisoiiry, Mils to liavi- tlic rorcc ol" law, liow 
( vcr opposed lo tlic pi'ini'iplc-i of justice and 
rtpiily. Ai'tcr (lie declaration ol' tlic ('aptain 
f;eiicnil I'liiiparan, iiiadc to tlie .IiiiUdu in, tu>\i in 
(iiracas tliere wim no other law nor will lint lii>4 
own ; and this liiily iniinircstcd in Mcveral arlii- 
ti'iiry aclH and cxccshch, hiicIi iih placiii;^ on the 
seal ol' (he iiiilor, (he iiscai in civil and criminal 
rases; intercepting; and opeiiin<; the dispnlclicH 
Neiit to (he (cnlral .liintii, liy Don l'e(lro(ioii- 
salcs ()rtcj>a ; sending out oI'IIiohc provinci-H thi^ 
Kain<> riiiutiiiiiary, as well aH Captain Don I'ran 
cisco ltodrii{;iic/, and (he aHHCHsor ol' tlie hoard of 
(rude, Don Miguel .lo/Y- San/,, all cinliaikcd I'or 
Cadiz and I'lirrtu Rico; uh well as cundeinnini' 

to the liilioili of III!' pilldii woilii, Willioiil eilliei 
Iniiii III iippeiiiiinie ol' llllll, .1 I iiii'iilenildi' iiiiil 
llllidi' ol ^ooil men, MM ill hell tioiii then liiiniev 
niidcl llie pielencc of vii(riiiiilM . ii'Vol«Mij{ mid 
HiiMpi'iiiJiii^i; llie lemdiitioii'i ol' the hiilii m ni, when 
not I onliM iiiiiliie to Iih ciipi ICC mill ali>Mlnle will: 
iillir iimt)ili|r ii lecoider without the coiiMenl of 
the iiiiinii iiiiii Itoily, iiiiiliii|( and iiiiiMini/, the 
il'mc'i nil to lie let I'iM'il willioiil (:tlc or illllhiinly, 
iil'lei Hiippoi liii){ lim ii^noiaiiie and pride to the 
iiliiii)>il leiifJIiM: iil'li'i Miiiiiy Mcmidiiloim diMpiiic, 
lielweeii the /hiilii III III and th«< ninniiipiil Itody, 
and iil'ler nil the law i haiacter'i lieini^ lei oni ilnl 
to these ill ipol'i, III otdi'l llllll they liili>lil In- 
more Mi'i nil- llllll itienpii^niilili' iikiiiiisI im, iI wii'i 
ii^ieeil lo oi^iini/e mill iiiiiy into cU'ri t, iindei 
the mIiiiiIow of liilliicy, the piiiji'i Ih ol' cipionii^e 
mid miiliiiriiii y. 

' (M all llii'i there leiiiiiinM iinlheiilir teMlniiony 
in oiii anhivi'x. iioltvilh':lmidiiii'; the yi^ihiiicc 
Willi which these wen- eviiiiniicd liy llir riirnds 
ol'llie lute aiilliorilies, there c\mtH in ('iiiiimiii mi 
order of the SpaniMli i^ovcriiiiienl lo chciIc dis 
cord miioiiu;sl the nolileu mid reliilions ol' the 
Aniciicmi liiiiiiiicM 'I'liere are liesules, iniinv 
written and well luiown doriiiiii'iitsuj'coi riiplion, 
^aiiililiii)^ mid lilierhiiisni, proinnliil liy ( iiirviirii, 
to dcniorali/.c llie coiinliy . anil no ittie can ever 
liiiKel Ihe i ollii'<ioiei and siiliiu iiiiii^rs piijiliclv 
used liy the imloiis, and ployed in the pliii e ol 
their residence. 

' liiidrr Ihese iiiiMpiccM the delisils anil iiiisliir. 
times ol' the Spanish iirmies were < oiici iiiid ; 
iioiiipoiis and iina|{iniiry Iriiiiiiphs over the i'lench, 
III the I'eiiinsiila and on the Dannlie, were i'nrffi'd 
mid amioiiiK I'd ; they caused llie Hlreeti In \u: 
illniiiiiialed ; gunpowder wan wasted ; the lielK 
chimed ; and relitrion was piOHlihiled liy 'I'e 
Deiiiiis, iind acts ol thanks lieint( siium^^ as il' lo 
iiisiill i'liividi'iii e in the perpeliiily oi' our I'vil-. 
In oi'drr lo leave lis iii> lime lo miali/e onr own 
(iile, or di-cover the snares laid liii Us, conspira 
lies were iiiveiili'd, jiailies and iiictioiii wer* 
iiiiairieed, every one was caliiiiiiiialed who did 
not conseiil lo ill- initialed in Ihe tiiysleries rd 
perlidy ; liei'ls and einisHarii'M I'roin the T riiii h 
were lii>iired, as liein;^ in our seas and aiii'iiii,'-! 
us . our relations wilii the neii(|il>ouriii<r col'iines 
were circiiin''Cl iiied and restricled ; our trade 
vyas newly rdlered ; and the whole, to the end 
ol' keepiiif^ us in a stale ol' coiiliiiini a:Mlahf>ii, 
that we iiii<rhl not lix onr allenlion on our real 

' Onr rorlicarancc once aiarriietl, and our yi^i- 
luntc uwukcncd, we hc^an lo Iohc coiilideiice in j 



> I N i: / ii 1,1, \ 

i 1 

% 1 

» 1 




h > 

I (III- iMM i<nii\iiMH'< I'l' S|iniii mill (hill ii)ii'nr. . 
(liliMD^Il (lir 'I'll o( tlicn iiid ■•!iii"i intil iiim liiim 
liKil'.. wr ill .iiM I'll il (III' liiiiii<l Cnliiiitt tli<< 
llili'iili'lK'il ii-. (Ill' I'l iiiit'. I't (rildi. liiiiril iiliiMi' 
lllr ilriwr Mlini<'-|ilii'ir n( h|'|m i"i«ti>n iniil i nlinniM . 
)<i«iiti'il i>ii< III n'4 «« i<li (III- liii'M'i III iii<|iii| li'ililK 
llli' (lllr llili' ii| S|»iiiil, lllr iliiiMiIrl >^ nl liri )>ii 
xrimnriU, llir iiii'ii-^ ,<{' Ih'i iiiliiiliilniilu, (lif (hi 
iiMiliilili' |'«i«i'i <>(' lii'i <-n«'inti"', iiiiil (III- fiiiiiiiiil 
ll''-'. IliHK"- l>l ln'l '. •\\ ;i(uin Slll|( up III Hill "Ml 11 
llHll'.i"-. '.Ill iHiiiiilcil li\ 'nu";. (Iiri<:i(i<iii'i| In ill 
(illtu mill l<mii'Jiiiirii( , >ii iM'i'i'N \\i'\\' «« i< iilili' (ll 
l<i-u:iil KID iM«n '■idiiitiKM, or (ll ili< iiinii' (linn 
hi-(i<'(U (i> I'ltiiipliiin iioDiii'^l itiic M);ilmi( iiifl 
t'iMinniu I'liiMiiii". rill' i'iii\>ionmii'i> ol'oiic lilcnilfil 
s-mlw. fvliiili'il III (III' iiiKiiioiiiu 111' hidi'iin'U'i mill 
i>|>|>rt>'-'-lon. ;\( Irnnlli ijini' liilili<riiiil' (n oiir 
'•<ti(iiiirii('., mill iiiiid'il inn i>|<inii>ii^. Slml ii|> 
i« iduii lllr « ;(1U i>( iMM 1M1 n lmii«i'n, miil ili'l>;n ii'il 
iViim ;lll riinimiuiii'iidon <'iili kih li'llm* rid/i'ii'j. 
vi'mi'oK « ;!'• (lii'ic oiii' iiiiIm uliiiil nC V 'miii'!!';, \« lii> 
iliil iiol (liiuK (li;i( (III' iiionioni ol' Itoiiia •""' <'><'i 
I'li'i' Iviil ill I M I'll. <M I'Ki' (liid, oC n r<'\iir!»l>l\ 
>.:Ulrdoiunu s\ \\>'\\ mul lioniil kIim crv 

' ••"'I'l^ oiii- liiH^iin d< ilf-io'i-r (III' iiiilli(\ (>r 
ll\<> atl'i ol' n:nonni\ ilir iimkIiiIiI^ «'(' (In- iioIH'j 
olTcrilmiinil, ini<( <>!' sill llio noiiiKoii'- >« Im nin- 

)>!d(ll"- lO ll\0 '-;iul '-dpillildilll'. ; llli> IlIlllinillM 

« nil « lilill llir> liiiil ili'ln rn-il up !i« "-liM i".. llii".!-. 
«lio liilil pl;iroil lliriii on llir (liroiii-, in I'l'iio-iiliini 
111 llir I'li'ti'ii'.ions ,>( ilii' hini-.!' i>r Vii'-diii: llii> 
« onnn mu-o o(' (lie mdii'-ni' nimiilndirir-^ n('S|i;iin. 
lo (111- pliin>. oC (ho iu'« i!Miii'.(< : (lii< ri<(<< (li,i( 
ihovo -iiiur |>li(n>i prrpiirrd \'oy im.-rnn. suiil flio 
IliHO'-^iU Kl'liikiii!; MiiniM o-oh (', (li;i( inioli( slnclil 
<li(' !!<'« «<m1i1 ('rom (lio «;iliiiiiidi's ilml ^.on' 
nl>onl \o vo'.iill \\o{\\ \{< (•('liiioii'- \\\{U ilw oM 
ouo \U <:\« llioii dtM>.nri"^ lunioil in llio nn 
l";ilbiini;iMo aln*.-^ (>r (lu^ ili>-onliM'< o(' llu' IV-nm 
••nl;i. \\\c\ \\c\H ("or iho Mo<*il ol' \in«>ri('an>; >ipill 
\\\ \hc snnio sinigii'i" «illi llml ot' (hi- ritoiuii'vi ol" 
AmiMii-n : in oritrr (o sMsimn llir >-1;»mm'\ ol'lln'ir 
own i-ound>, nin\> itli^'.,niilini; ilu- < isjil.-iiuo o'" 
lIuMV Uranl-. (In-x -iUN inio (li<< ind-rior ol' Spji.n 
li(M--i'U'. >< lii'K' lh<'\ Uohi-lil notliini; Inil di-orJor. 
oonn|>(ion. (',u(ioii'«. lU'li-al"-. inislocluno'^. (r<\i- 
chorio'-. ifispoi-voil i>inno'». « liolo pv<ninri'>. ni llio 
p«n<iM' ol" \]\o rnonn, iho hm.N phalaiiN.''. ol" llic 
i;Ulor. ;»nif al \\\o hoail oTall. a urak an. I di;niil 
inarx co>rrnuionl. l'<>!'iiu\l oiil <>!' Mwh laro ol(> 

• Siii-li M.i'iiho C'^nnal atul niul'onn iinprc'->.ion 
notiiOii iMi ihc laoos ot" all llio piN^plo of \ t'iu<- 
S'liola 1>\ (ho acmt^ ot" onpr<^vvis)n, mmiI oiil lo 
snpporl. at o»or_> lia/ai-il. iho iiitainoii^ caiiso t>j" 

(lii'ii riiiwddiiMil'i : i'M<r^ «viiiil pioililicil n jmh 
>iiiip(ii<n, r\r(\ (li'.rinii ■•I' i'H'i( liiiiiiuliiiii'iil toil, 
milliiii, .11x1 rvrrt ell 'il in iillrnipl In iln (In 
"mm* 11'. \ini<i irii, iiM Innl Itrcii ilmii' in Spain, il il 
ilnl nrl rmi'ii- Iln- lilnnil mC Viiii'i 11 imm III Hii««, ll 
tuc^ III Ii'iimI viHlii ii'iiI lot llii> I'liin, iiiIIimm . anil 
ilr>4iiladi>ii III niiiiu IiiiiiiIiom, hu mat l>i' Mirn Im 
llif III I nl' piiwriipdmi III' Mi'ti ral oiliri'i'j nl iliu 
linrliiin. miil nd/nilM nl' raitit ami ptnliilv. iln ii'imI 
IMini'li Vlt, IHIO, liv iMiipaiiiM Sinli ii mnnu 
I'lilriiliidnn iinilit nnl I'ml In innlliplv <li)< iimm nl 
uinnx. Ill aii.iinii-nl , Im niiMiii" i<| llmin, llin pitpnlni 
ri< ai'liini. In pii'pair Iln' < iiinlniulilil)', mid iliMpnuo 
ll in uiii'li a inmini'i , lliiil nillt llin Ira-tl Mpailt it 
'(inilil rrrain a lilavo, llial w niilil rnn«iiiiii< iiml 
(M iMi rH'at'n im i-n » I'xliiio nC in limil anil inniitn 
t'lioh a I'lniililinii. Spam, nci'ilv nnil )li<unlaln, 
lii'i I'alo tli'prnili'iil on llin iii'iiniiMil v n( \ini'iira, 
anil aininul in Iln- ml ol' lii<in(( Mnllril mil riinii 
llio IihI ol' nadotni, iipprmnij ii" ll' ll aiwpmioil 
l<ai K lo llii> llilli anil I I'lli atii<M, >^lii' M{iain liriiaii 
lo I'lniipiiT \nii<Mia, nilli iinnx innir Inn ililn 
llian lion or Irinl . ('\rr^ ila» nino I it In a iiiMf 
proolor llir liilo ihal aniiili'il iw ; 'null a oni' a<< 
tioiilil plai ■■ n-. Ill lln< '-ail allniialHi' ol Iii<imii_ 
"•old lo a |i>i ri.iin pimi'i . in nl>lif;«'d lor r\i>rlo 
.■'.I nan nnilnr a Iriwh nnd iiri'\nraldi> HniMlndn. 
\<liiKl «i' alono nvvi- i-xpni'lmil on lln> liaiipt 
nionii'iil, llial inii'.lil K'^*' ■■iip>il'-<' <<■ niir npiiiinii, 
and nnilo onr ^Ircnolli In i<\prouM aiui lo nim 
lain il. 

' ViniiNl (lio ''v.i'liM and nnprrralionu orKonnial 
r\a''prradnn, llio irinpdon nl llio I'lniii'l) itiln 
\nilaliK-iii, llio dis>;olndon ol' (ln< t'nnlral .liintii, 
Inon.ivlil alioni Im iIio oII'itI'* ol' piildii' i'\«'riiilinii, 
and llio alioiliM' invdlnlioii ol anollii'r I'rolnan 
j^iM oriiniiMil. niidnr llio naiiii' ol' Uo,o'nin'v, rrai'lird 
oni OHi'* rills «as annoimrod nndnr idnas more 
lil»oral, and on pi'iiTM iiu> llin cn'orl'- ul' llir .Aiiir- 
ricanx lo a« ail llii>in><rUi<w nl' llin « ii'<<>4 mid iiiilli- 
Ikw ol' so raro a fjiMoi niniail. Iliny nnlnavoiirod 
^• "ii'iMi.itlhrn (li<< illn<-ion Im liiilliaiil pronii'4i«<, 
Im lliroi'ii's liii'i'i'i) ol I'ci'onii, and In aiininini'iii(( 
(o ns thai onr I'air wn'i no Iniuior in llin liaiidM of 
>ni'ro»'k, inini'-lcrs. or j^m I'lnors ; al (lio hhiiic 
(lino, ilial all ihoso asjciii'. ii'i'oi\4'd llioniiisl hIi-joI 
ordoi''* lo »»a(oh ou'r onr inndnrl, o\or oiii' opi- 
nioii>-. and not lo -.iillor llii".!- to ovoood llio liinll';, 
traood Im llio oloipionco dial ijildod iMor iln* 
oliaiH'-, pi'0)<arod in llio oaptioiis and cniiiiin!; I<>l 
li'r ol oinaiioipalioii. 

* Al aiM olli(<r porind \tliato\i<r this uoiiid 
Jiaxo MiHiii'd lo doo»'i\o till' .Vinorii'iiiis ; lint tlio 
, Inula ol' Sox illo, as Midi iis llio Contral oiio, liad 
alroaiU iloiio too iniicli in nrdin' to tiiki* ilio l>iiii-| 

V i: N I. / nils. 


•(I It |>l H 
ll'lll <•> ll ' 
III till till' 

|iiMn, ll I* 
II {\i>\\ . it 
liiitiv. iinil 

t' UI'I'll lit 

•)•« nJ' (liN 

V, lll'l IITll 

II «liillK 
Ih< riiiM III 
ii> ii<i|iiiliii 
ml tliM|iiiui' 

|4( u|llllK ll 

ii«iliiir iinil 
Hill iiirliill 

I ilrutiliitr, 

II ViiiiM ii'ii. 
mI mil limn 

lyillM lll'»MIII 

II i< (iTiililr 
■ii' (ll II now 
11 ll i« tiiir itH 
M> III' lirinu 

I'lIC ('»!'»■ Ii» 

I H«M> lliiilr . 
I llii> liil|ilM 
,1111 ii|iiiiliili. 

iinil 111 "'tt 

iH orni'Mcriil 

I'n-iioli iiilo 

iilnil .liiiilii, 



ii'V. rrai'lii'il 

iiloiis iinnr 

ollltr Atin'- 

»4 mill niilli- 


ll iimmixi"*, 
I 111' liiuiiU iif 
It (III" siiinr 
11- iin»'-l Nirit'l 
iM r Diir i»|)i- 

•ll (In- lllllll'^, 
.(1 OMM- ill'" 

I nmiiii!; !•'( 

Illis MOIlliI 

mis : liut IIk' 
ilral onr. Iiail 
uUo ilu< Imii-I 




iliiirr Iriiiii <>'M rV''« : iniil wlinl win (lini iiiiii mil In lin i|c|ii'iiili<nl im \ iriMov-i, miniilcri, lunl 

|iii« I'l mil 'I, mill (^ri'iiln ii'iiumi «m' < niilil liol lio 
Miiliji'i t I'lllin III II liiii|i>, u rii|iliM< mill «villi'>iil 
till' I IK III 'J III' iiiilliiii ilv, iiiir III II i;<it i<i tiiiM'iil Mil It 
null illi'iiMliiiiiili', linr In li niilliili llini|iiilili> iil' 
liiililiiifr uiviiv iivi'i' iiiiiillicr, 11)11' III 11 |M<iiiiiuiiliir 
• iiiniM III' l''.iirii|ii', iii'iiilv M'linllv «i»rii|iii'il liy n 
I'lirritrM Hilii>. N rvri (lirli'ii, drsiioim nl' I'll'ci I 
iii|> ml) )iu II I'lPi'iliiiii, liy |Im< niriuiu ol {ri'iii<r<iiil y, 
iiiiiili'liilimi, mill ) iviMiii, tvi< III l<iifitvli'il((i<fl till' 
liilil|;ritim y iitMil'inI' llii' uiiii nC Mmiii liiiiimii, Mi> 
|i<u|ii<rli<il llll- llil'iriilliiliru (illlir iiiiliiili, mill fliviini 
iillii ml IMiliri' III llii< >:iiiiii' l(i<(/i<iiry «vi< iliuiMViifil, 
ivi' oU'ri'i'it lint III 'ii'|iiiiiili' I'miIii S|iiiiM iiq liiiiu ii i 
ulin iiiiiiiiliiiiii'il II li'i^iil (Mivi'l liiiii'iil, I'xiiililiulii'fl 
liv till' tvill III' tlii< iiiitiiiii, iiikI III wliii ll AiiM'ri'il 
hull tlinl |iiiil (iivrii In lii'i, iri|iiiri<il liy jii^liir, 
iii'i i"i>iil t , mill till' |inlitiiiil Miipni Imii'o nl' iicr l«'i' 
I llni y 

' II'IIh' ."I((0 yciii'i nrnin rnrnii'i' MiTvilii/lo Ihiv*" 
lint milliii'il In iiiithnri/)' niir i'iiiiiii('i|iiil jnii, llicri' 
ivniilil III' uiillii ll'lll riiiic.i< in llir (niiilili t nl' tlic 
(Mivi'i iiiiM'iit", wliii ll III! n/^iili'il In tlii'iii'ii'lvf'-i III'' 
'in\rri'i(>lity nl' ll rnl|i|i|i'i iil liiltinn, wllji'll ll»"V»'r 
iniilil liiivi' liny |iin|ii'rly in A iimm icii, rli'i liir'<fl iii) 
inli'.iriiil |iiiri nl till' uiiiiii', «vliil>il llicy iittrinfitfil 
iifiiiin In invnivi' it in inni|nitt. H'llic (rnviTrinr-i 
nl' S|iiiin IiidI Iii'I'M |iiiiiI liy lifi I'liiniii'i, lliry 

I niilil lint liiivi- ilniH' iiinl'i- ii(ir|ii||i!| (lie Irlli ity nl' 
till' iiiilinii, liniiiiil ill it'i i'lni<«< nninii iin'l (/nnd 
rni ri':i|innili'riri' Willi A iiK'riiii. Willi lln' {(iciil. 
I'll rnnli'iii|il III' niir iniiini tiiiii'f, iiiiil nl' llic jiiutiin 
III' mil I liiiiiiM, wlii'ii iIm'v rntilil lint di'liy iik IIic 
ii|i|i('iii'iini'i' nl' II I i'|iii";i'iiliitinii, Ilicy iiilijci (cfj 

II In till' ili'^iintir inlliiriiM- nl tlnii ii^rfiil.! nvcr 
III!' iiiiiniri|iii1ilii'>i In wliniii tin- il'-' linn wsm rnm- 
niilli'il ; mill wliiUl in H[iiiin, nt lln- ^miii' liin« 
tliiil lliry iillnvvi'il I'Vi'ii (nr III'' |irnvin'('-i in pn^- 
';i"i';inn nl' llii' T'li'lii li, lin wrll ii-t the ( 'iiri;iri<'-i 
mill Itiili'iinr i'iliiml'i, ;i ri'iirr-^i'ntiili v fnr i-^ir li 
.'i(),0(Ml «nlll>i, I'ri'i'ly I'li'clri) liy IIip [ir'n|il<' ; in 
/\ iiii'iicii, nciirii'ly II l,(K)t),000 ■iiiHi'crl In h;ivo 
llir ii;r|it nl' nnc ri'j»r'''irntntivi', n;iiii('(| liy tli« 
Vii'iTiiy nr ('>i|ilsiin j^i'ni'iiil, iiiidcr liii' ■fi.'^njitiir*! 
nl' till' niiini' i|iiility 

' At III!' Hiiiiii' lime tlillt we, Htrntirr in tlic ('■•tli- 
ninny nl' niir nwn |n>ilir«', imd tin- iiin'WT'itirin rif 
mil' |irnrr('dili(^i, linjiid, lliiil il' llic ri'ii-mrn tvf; 
iillr;(i'd In IIm- Ki'ircnry In rnnvinrc th''in ril' lli»; 
iii'd'H-iity nl' niir ri'-^olntinii did nnt Iriiinifili ■ ;il 
l^il'^l, tliiit till' irrni'rmm iliiipn-iitinrH witlivvliifli 
wi' nU'rrrd nnt tn li<''niiU! tlic iiifriiy nl' riiir 0[i- 
|iri'-( I'd iiiid iint'nrtiiniifi' hrt'tlii'ii "vordd Iw •'iir- 
( I' 1- lid, diMli'HitintH wliii'li til'! fif'w ■^nvcrnmrnt. 
()!'< 'ar!i';i'i uiis di'-iirniin Mliniild nnt. Ix- liriiilcd loj 

iilii'il, iiii'dillilrd. iind |iiill«ll<'d. In «llli|i'i I IM 
iiiiiini "llll |ilirii'i"i mill Im jut Imli'i. milv ■••Mid 
Idii'ilniildr mil \ ir.dniK •'. ••• • nllii t mil n|iinimi«, 

* mill III Immii linn "nd iiiHliiddii M'lidiilinii In 
I |iiri'di. iiilliiT llimi In iiniiiiii miy Innmi'i lln- vir 
i (mil III iidiiil mid IhmIIiIv. TIii' i-vi' nl tlint diM . 

nil uliiill nlif',imi rili')il iitri llii< liiii'.t iimjimmI 
; iiivmIi'iv III llll' ii'ili'iii|ilimi III' (III! Iiiinimi iiiii<, 

• mix lliii( di'tijiniiti'd liy I'l nvidiini' In lii> (In- 
riiliniH'Mrrlili'llt nl llii< |>idllliiil I i'di'in|itlnn id 
Aiiiiiii'ii nil Hilly riinr>4iliiv. A|iiil l<>, IHIO. 
ll Miw, (lull llll' ( 'niii>4MnM id' di«)|MitiMin wim nml 
iliiwii in \'i<nr/iii'lii, llii< riii|iiir nl' llii< Iiih'J |iiii 
I'liiiiiiod, mid till' (tiiint'i i'ii|ii'l|i'd. Willi nil tlii< 
li'liiilt. iniiili'i iiliiiii, mid ll mii|iiillilv, tlinl tliry 
(lirlil'<idvi"i lliivr rnnli"iii'il. 'in mnrli un, i|it i'\ rn 

I ill liiivi' lilli'd tvilli iidiiiiiiitinn ml I'l ii<ndMlii|i Im 

II':, llll' ir'd id' llll' iin|imliiil unild 

> Willi lull "mild liiivi' tlimit{lil lliiil ii iiiitinn 
irriiM'l llIK il'i rip,lil», mid I'li'i'llii^ iImi'II' linin IIm 
ii|itiii"4'iiii u, in il'-i liliiid I'liiy, wmild liii\i' liinlii'ii 
iliiiMi rvi'iv liiiniri tliiil iiiif(lit |diiii' it diii'illt 
. nr iiiiliri'''*l\ willi'ii till' ri'inli id' llir inllni'iii r id' 
1 lliii'.i' ^I'ly (•iivi'i'Miiii'iil'i, lliiil liDil liillii'iln «nu 
liiiiinl ill nii'irniinnri mid n|i|ii'i''mimi. Vini' 
/iiclii, liiitlil'id In lnT |niiiiiiin"J, ilni'M nn niiirii 
I (liiiil iiwilli' III! iMMI 'icriillly in mdi'l' In rniii|ily 
3 "llll tlirin : mid it " itii nni< Lilriiii}i mid ^I'lnrniH 
li:iilil, ''III' di'|iii''i'd till' ii>)<'nt'4 id' lirr ini'iriy nnil 

IliiT uliivriy. ««lt'i till' nllii'i, .dm |iliii I'd tlii" liiinii' 
III' I'l'i'dinmid \ \\ nl llii' Ih'iiiI nl' lirr nnv ((iivi'iti 
iiii'til, Mwnri' In nimntiiiii lii>: i iiL',lit'<, pi niiii'inl In 
iirKniMi Iril^i' till' iinit^ mid iiilr)',iily id' llin Spn ■ 
mill iinlinii, iipi'iii'd lirr miim In lin {'.iiinpi'iin 
lii'i'tliri'ii, ulliTi'd IIm'iii mi ii'iylnin in llirir iiiis' 
(.iitiinri mill riilmnitici, i-ipiiilly liiilid llic I'lii'- 
iiiiri III till' Spmiiiili nmiii', '^mijrlit tin' irrni'inim 
idlinnri' III' l'<n,»,lnnil, iiiid pirpmnl In Inlic pml in 
(III' li'lirilv nr niHrmtiiiK' nl'dii' nnlinn riiiiii wlimn 
^lic rniild mid niu',lit In liiivr I'lrrniiHv ':i'piii'iilril. 
' llill il wn'i tint tlii^^ lliiil till' Itr.'M'nry rxiirlrd 
rmni 111. Wlicti till' litlli'i' di'i'liuril Il'i I'l I'l' in llir 
llirnrv nl' llirir pImtM, (liry unli|i'rti'il iim in piiir- 
lii'r III 11 'itniill mid iitHiiiiiilii nnt irpir'n'iitiilinii, 
lM'lir\iiit{ that lliiiHV to wlimn nnllnnir wim diii', 
"iiiild III' iniili'iit In ii'ci'ivi' wlinti'\ rr "ii'i f^rmiti'd 
ill llii'in liy lltrir tiiitsliTH. I Itidi'i' ii rnlridiilimi 
Ml lilii'fiil, llll' Uri>i'iiry wiih ilrMirmtn nl' Ki'rpin<r 
lip out' illusion, lo pity iii willi WoriU, pi'mnim'H, 
:niil iitMi't'iplioiiN I'oi' out' liiittr sinvrry, mid I'm- llir 
lilooil ittid Iti'ioitttr Wi- liiid rxpi'iidi'd ill Spnin. 
I'"tilly wcri' wr iiwni'c how liltli- wr liiid In rxjiccl 
rt'iitii till' polii'v and llic iiilriiHivi> ji^^i'iitH id' rVi- 
'liiiaiid } wo wt'ic mil ii^iioiitiil IliitI il' we wnr 

i: .1 





V j: n e z u i: i. \, 

.• .if 1 

fhnrroii phrnflPK : nnil ilio iniin'cjiidiccil iind iin- 
partiiil world will know, thiil Vciic/iiclii litis 
passed all (hat time, which iiitcrviMicd iiclwccii 
April IM, ISIO, (o.liily/>, ISM, in a hitler iind 
painful alternative of ads of iii'-raliltide, insults, 
and hostilities on the part of Spain, and of i^ene- 
rosity, moderation, and torhearanee on ours. 
This period is the most interesting oC the history 
of our rev(»lulion, so much so, that its e\cnJs 
present a eontnist so favourahle to our raiise, 
that it eannot have failed to i^aiii over for us the 
impartial judy;nienl of those mitions, that have no 
interest to dispara;;;e our ell'orts. 

' I'revious to the i-esult of our political trans- 
formntion, every day «e received fresh motives, 
nuHiciently stron;;, for each to hav(> caused ns to 
do what Me have done, after three aijes of misery 
and den;radation. In every vessel that arrived 
from .Spain, new nijents came out to strensrthen 
with fresh instructions, those who sustained the 
cause of amhition and perlidy. I'or the very 
same piirpose, refusal was sent out for the titli- 
cers and other Europeans to return to Spain, 
Hot withstaiidinfr they asked it to fii>ht ajrainst the 
French; fresh orders were issued, y\pril 30, ISM), 
for the schools to he closed, to tlie end that, 
under the pretence of attending' (miy to the war, 
both .Spain and America mii<;ht be sunk deepiM* 
into a state of i<rnorance, it was ordained that 
rij^hts and premiums should not be heard of, and 
that nothing was to be done, but sending to 
Spain money, American men, provisions, colonial 
productions, submission, and obedience. 

' The public prints were tilled with nothing; 
but triumphs, victories, donations, ami acknow- 
ledgments, wrested by despotism from the peo- 
ple, who were not yet informed of our res()lutu)n ; 
and, unde the most severe threats of punish- 
ment, a political inquisition, with all its horrors, 
was established a&;ainst those who should read, 

Eossess, or receive other papers, not only foreijjn 
ut even Spanish, that were not out ot* the Re- 
gency's manufacture. Contrary to the very 
orders, previously issued to deceive the country, 
every bound was overleaped in the selection of 
ultramarine fimctionaries, whose merit alone 
consisted in having sworn to maintain the system 
contrived by the Regency ; in the most scanda- 
lous and barefaced manner the order which fa- 
voured our trade, and encouraged our agricul- 
ture, was declared null, condemned to be burnt, 
and its authors and promoters proscribed; aid of 
every kind was exacted from us, without any 
account of its destination or expenditure being 
Rent to us ; in contempt of every shadow of pub- 

lic faith, and without afiy exception whatever, all 
correspondence I'nun these countries was ordered 
to be opened ; an excess unknown even innler 
the despotism of (iiidoy, and only adopted (o 
cause the espionage oM>r America to Ih> more ty- 
rannical. In short, the plans plotted to p<>rpe- 
tuate our servitude, now began practically to he 

' In the mean time Venezuela, free, and mis- 
tress of herself, of nothing thought less than to 
imitate the detestable conduct of the Regency and 
its agents; content with having secured her fate 
against the ambition of an intrusive and illegiti- 
mate government, and shielded it against plain 
too dark and ci>mplicated, was satisfied in shew- 
ing, by positive acts, her desire of peace, friend- 
ship, correspoiwlence, and co-operation with her 
European brothers. All those who were amongst 
us, wvvo considered as such, and two-thirds of 
tlu! political, civil, and military employnu'Uts, 
both of the high and middle classes, remaineil,or 
wcre placed in the hands of Europeans, without 
any further precaution, but with a sini-erity and 
good faith, that nearly proved latal to our in- 

' Our chests were generously opened, to aid 
with every luxury, to tiie end, that oin* tyrants 
in their passage from us, might enjoy every 
convenience and profusion ; the captains of the 
packets, Carmen, Fortnna, and Araucana, were 
rec(Mved into our ports, and assisted with money, 
to enable them to proceed on their voyage, and 
fulfil their respective commissions ; and even the 
disrespect and crimes of the commander of the 
Fortnna, were referred to the judgment of the 
Spanish government. Notwithstanding the go- 
Aernmental Junta of Caracas, manifested the 
reasons of precaution, which obliged them not to 
expose to the voracity of the government the 
public funds, which were destined to succour the 
nation, they exhorted and lelli room for the ge- 
nerosity of the j)eople, to use their fortunes con- 
formably to the impulse of their own sensibility, 
by publishing in the newspapers the mournlul 
manifest, in which the Regency pourtraycd the 
agonizing state of the nation, in order to imploru 
aid ; at the same tin? , that they represented it 
vigorous, organised, and triumpfiant in the pub- 
lic prints, destined to deceive us. The commis- 
sioners of the Regency bound to Quito, Santa 
Fe, and Peru, were hospitably received, treated 
as friends, a 1 their pecuniary wants supplied to 
their own satisfaction. — But we lose time, in thus 
analysing the dark and cunning conduct of oui 
enemies, as all their endeavours have not sufficed | 

Ml '■ 


I ) 

V E N E Z U E L A. 


(over, nil 
■< (»riliTi'(f 
fii iiintor 

llt|)(C(l III 

imiic (y- 
(() iicrpc- 
nWy to l)c 

, iinil niis- 
ss than to 
<rvi\iy and 
(I lirr tiitt* 
1(1 ill(><;iti- 
iiist plans 
1 in hIu'W- 
cc, friond- 
willi luM' 
(-tliirds of 
s, willioiit 
••erity and 
to our in- 

lod, to aid 
»iir tyrants 
iijoy ovcry 
ains of tin- 

ith money, 

oyagc, and 
1 even the 
er of tlie 

lent of the 
in; the fjo- 

it'ested the 
lern not to 

rnnient the 

iccour the 

for the f<e- 

rtunos con- 
rtrayed t In- 
to implore 
iresentcd it 
in tlie pnh- 
he comniis- 
Juito, Santit 
ed, treated 
supplied to 
ime, in thus 
duet of oui 
not sufficed | 

fto warp the imperious and triumphin<; impres- 
HJon of ours. 

' 'I'he arroirant mandatarieR of our coiuitry, 
fvcre not, however, the only «)nes, authorised to 
support the horrid plot of their rcuistituenis -. the 
sanH< unilorin and uuivi<rsHl mission, was hrouffht 
out l)y all those who inundated Anu^rica, from 
the sad and ominous reii^ns of the Junta of Se- 
ville, the eeiitral one, and the Ueireney ; and 
uiuler the system of polilieal freemasonry, tbunded 
on the IVIaehiavelie pad, they all aeeoriled in mu- 
tually sidistilutin^;, replaein/u;, and assisting eaeh 
other, in the plans combined ajrainst the felieity 
and poliliral existence of the New W ,-ld. The 
island of Puerto Hico, was immedialt iy made the 
haunt ol'all the agents of the !!<-irency, the place 
(ifeiiuipment for all the expeditions', the head- 
c|iun(ers of all the anti-AnuM'ican forces, the 
workshop of all the impostures, calumnies, tri- 
umphs, and threats of the Ke^ents ; the refuse 
of all the wicked, the render.vous port of n new 
set of I'ilibusticrs, in order that there nii^ht not 
he wantinn; any of the calamities of the Kith 
century, to the new c<uuinest of America, in the 
19th. The Americans ot Puerto llico, oppressed 
hy the bayonets, cannons, fetters, and gibbets 
which surrounded the bashaw Melendez, and his 
satellites, lind to add to their own evils and mis- 
fortunes, the painful necessity of contributing to 
ours. Such IS the fate of the Americans, con- 
demned not only to be galley slaves, but to be 
the drivers of each other. 

' The conduct observed by Spain to America, is 
harder and more insulting, when compared with 
that she appcu's to exercise with regard to 
France. It is well known, that the new (Tynasty, 
still resisted by part of the nation, has had de- 
cided partizuns in nuiny of those, who considered 
themselves the first national dignitaries, for their 
rank, offices, talents, and knowledge, amongst 
whom might be recounted Morla, Azanza, Ofa- 
rill, L'npiijo, Mazarredo, and many others of 
every class and prolession ; but still there has 
not appeared one of those who so much desire 
the lil)erty, indepeudeiu:e, and regeneration of 
the Peninsula, who has raised his voice in iavour 
of the American ])rovinces. These, therefore, 
adopting the same principles of fidelity and na- 
tional integrity, have of their own accord, been 
ambitious of preserving themselves independent 
of such intrusive, illegitimate, weak, and tumul- 
tuary governments, as have been all those, which 
have hitherto called thomselveM the asjents of the 
king, or representatives o'' he nat on. It is 
vexing to see so much liberality, so uunhcivism, 

vol,. V. 

and so much disinterest in the Cortes, with re- 
gard t<i Spain, disorganis«-d, exhausted, and 
nearly cfrnqiiered; and at the same time, so 
much meanness, so much suspicion, prejudire, 
and pride, towards America ; tranquil, faithful, 
generous, decided to aid her brethren ; when it is 
she alone who can give reality, (in th(» most es- 
sential point at least) to the theoretical and bril- 
liant plans, which make the Spanish c«mgress so 
exalted. How many treasons, surrenders, assas- 
sinations, perfidies, and convulsions, have not 
appeared in the revoluli(»n of Spain ; these have 
passed by as the inseparable misfortunes of cir- 
cumstances, yet not oiu' of the provirucs '^ur- 
renden'd, or satisfied with the dominion of the 
French has been treated like Venezuela: their 
conduct must however have been analysed and 
characterised according to reasons, motives, and 
circumstances that dictated it ; this must have 
been judged in conformity to the rights of war, 
and the sentiments of the nation must have been 
pronounced according to the statements laid be- 
fore it ; but n«»t one of them has yet been de- 
clared traitorou:,, in rebellion, and iinnaturalised. 
as was Veneziif'la ; for none of them has been 
created a public commission of diplomatic muti- 
neers, to arm Spaniard against Spaniard, to fan 
the flame of civil war, and to burn and dilapidate 
all that cannot be held in the name of Ferdinand 
the Seventh. America alone is condemned to 
endure the unheard of condition of being warred 
upon, destroyed, and enslaved, with the very 
aids she destined for the liberty and common fe- 
licity of the nation of which she was led to lie- 
lieve, for a few moments, that she constituted 

' It appears that the independence of Ame- 
rica, creates more irritation to Spain, than the 
foreign oppression that threatens her ; for against 
her are, preferably employed, measures that have 
not even been used against the very provinces 
that have proclaimed the new king. Tlie incen- 
diary and turbulent talent of a minister of the 
council of the Indies, could not have a more dig- 
nified employment, than that of again conquering 
Venezuela, with the same arms as those of the 
Alfingers and the Weslers, (the first tyrants of 
Venezuela, authorised by Charles V. and the 
roinoters of civil war amongst its primi<i(e in- 
abitants), in the name of a king placed ;u\ the 
throne, against the pretensions of the family of 
him who lot out these provinces to the (Jerman 
factors. Under this name, all the sluices of ini- 
quity are opened upon us, and the horrors of the 
conquest are renewed, the Keiuembrance of which] 




iiil! j (' : 

I , 




[wc hadf^cncroualyendoavourod to blot out from 
our puHterity ; under tluH name we arc trciitcd 
with inon* Hovi'rity than thoHe who abandoned it 
before we did ; and under this name it in at- 
tempted to continue the Hystem of SpuniHh domi- 
nion in America, which haH b<«cn held hh a poli- 
tical phenomenon, even in the times of the rea- 
lity, eneray, and vigour of theSpaninh nionarchy. 
And can there be found aiiy law that obliyeH iiH 
to preHervc it, and to huIut in its name tlie tor- 
rent of distreHseH heaped upon UB by thoHC who 
call theniHelveH itH agents in the peninsula ? By 
their means, this very name obtained the trea- 
sure, the obedience and acknowledgement of Ame- 
rica; and by means of their flagitiouK conduct 
afterwards, in the exercise of their powers, tlie 
name of Ferdinand has lost every consideration 
amongst us, and consec(uently ought to be aban- 
doneu for ever. — Tv.r (jiin persona i/tiis lucrum 
titpU, ejus factum prwstior leuelur. 

' The tyrant of Borriquen, (the primitive name 
of the island of Puerto Rico), not content with 
creating himself into n sovereign, to declare war 
against us, and with insulting and calumniating 
us in his ilimsy, mean, and flattering prints ; not 
satislied with constituting himself into the gra- 
tuitous jail-keeper of the emissaries of peace and 
confederation, sent to him by his comrade Mi- 
yares, from the castle of Zapi^iras de Maracailra ; 
Decause tliey overturned the plans he had re- 
ceived and accejited from the Regency and the 
new king of Spain, in exchange for tHe captain- 
generalsnip of V^enezuela, purchased at a cheap 
rate from Che Regents ; not considering such su- 
perior merit sutlicientv rewarded with the honour 
of faithfully serving iiis king, in the most bare- 
faced manner plundered more than 100,000 dol- 
lars of (he public funds, belonging to Caracas, 
that had been embarked on board the ship Fer- 
dinand the Seventh, in order to purchase stores 
and military clothing in London, where the in- 
surance was eflfectod, and in order that his insult 
might be the more coiiplete, he alledged that 
the Spanish govcriunent might waste and mis- 
apply them, that England might appropriate 
them to herself, disowning our resolution ; so that 
in no place tliey could, or ought to be more se- 
cure than in his hands, negociated by means of 
his partners in trade, as in tact they were in Phi- 
ladelphia, adding, that account of the capital 
thereof was to he given in when Puerto Rico 
had conquered Venezuela, when the latter should 
deliver herself up to the Regency, or when Fer- 
dinand VII. should return to reign in Spain. 
— Such were the periods, it appears, that the 

governor of Puerto Rico imposed upon himscli; 
to render in account of ho atrocious and scanda- 
lous a depredation ; but (his is not all that lhi>. 
worthy agent of the Regency has done in favoui 
of the' designs of his constituents. 

' Notwithstanding so much insult, robbery, 
and ingratitude, Venezuela nuiintained her reso- 
lution not to vary the princiiiles she had traced 
out for her conduct, the sublimt? act of her na- 
tional representation was proclaimed in the name 
«*f Ferdinand VII. under his fantastical authority, 
all the acts of our government and administra- 
tion were sustained, though they re(|uired no 
other origin than the people who had constituted 
them ; by the laws and regulations of Spain was 
judged a horrible and sanguinary conspiracy of 
the Kuropeans, which were even infringed to 
t-ave their lives, in order that the philanthropic 
memory of our revolution might not be stained 
with tlie blood of our perfidious brethren ; under 
the name of Ferdinand, and by the interposition 
of the bonds of fraternity and patriotism, endea< 
vours were made to inform and reduce the im- 
perious mandataries ofCoroand Maracaibo, who 
t)ertidiously kept separated from our interests our 
>r«'threu of the west; under the auspices of re- 
ciprocal intere:<t, we triumphed over the oppres- 
sive acts of Barcelona, and under the same we 
will reconquer Guayana, twice snatched from our 
confederation, as was Maracaibo, against the ge- 
neral wishes of its inhabitants. 

' It would have seemed that nothin|( was now 
left to lie done for the reconciliation of Spain, or 
for the entire and absolute separation of America 
from such a system of generosity, equally as ruin- 
ous and calamitous, as contemptible and ungrate- 
ful ; but Venezuela was desirous of draining 
every means lefl within her reach, in order that 
justice and necessity should leave her no other 
safe alternative than that of independence, which 
ought to have been declared from July 15, 1808, 
or from April 19, 1810. After appealing to sen- 
sibility, and not to vengeance, in the horrid 
scenes that occurred at Quito, Pore, and La Paz ; 
after beholding our own cause supported by the 
uniformity cf opinions in Buenos Ayres, Santa 
Fe, the Floridas, Mexico, Guatemala, and Chili ; 
after obtaining an indirect guarantee on the part 
of England ; after hearing our conduct applauded 
by impartial men in Europe; after seeing the 
same principles triumph from the Orinoco, as far 
as El Magdalena ; and from Cape Codera, as far 
as the Andes; we have still to endure fresh in- 
sults, before we fly to the painful extreme of 
breaking with our brethren for ever.] 



at Ihifi 

r i«'Hi>- 

t> iiiiiiie 

ircd lilt 
St i tilled 
uiii wui« 
irocv ol' 
im'd to 
I stuiiu>d 
I ; iindoi 
I, endea- 
the im- 
ibo, who 
rcstf) our 
es of re- 
! oppres- 
saiiie we 
t'roin our 
it tlic ge- 

was now 

Spain, or 


as ruin- 
irder that 
no other 
ice, which 
15, 1808, 
Mg to sen- 
le liorrid 
d La Paz ; 
cd bv the 
res, Santa 
and Chili ; 
tn the part 
seeing the 
oco, as far 
era, as far 

fresh in- 
extreme of 




C I'urncas, without having done more than inii- 
Into niiiny of the provinccH of Spain ; and iiHed 
lh(> wnne riglils which the Council of Regency 
declared in her favour, as well as that of all 
America; without having had in this conduct 
other dPMignu than those inspired by the supremo 
law of necessity not to bo involved in an un- 
known fate, and to relieve the Regents of the 
troiilile of attending to the government of coun- 
tries, as well extensive as r..ote, at tho same 
tiiiii* that they protested that tiiey would attend 
to nothing but the war; without having torn 
asunder her unity and political integrity with 
Spain ; without having disowned, as was possible 
and proper, the lame rights of Ferdinand : far 
from applauding for convenience, if not from 
sentiments of generosity, so Just, necessary, and 
iiKjdest i.< resolution, and without answering even, 
or siilimitting to the judgment of the nation our 
complHints and claims, is declared in a state of 
war, her inhabitants are proclaimed rebels, and 
uiiiiaturalised ; every communication is cut oiT 
with her brethren ; iBngland is deprived of her 
trade, the excesses of Melendez are approved, 
and he is authorised to commit whatever liis ma- 
lignity of heart may suggest to him, however on- 
poseci to reason and justice, as is proved liy tne 
order of September 4, 1810, unheard of fcir its 
enormity, even amongst the despots of Constan- 
tinople or I ndostan ; and not to deviate in the 
least from the plots of the conquest, a new enco- 
mcndero is sent out under the name of a puci- 
iicator, who, with more prerogatives than the 
conquerors and settlers themselves was to take 
his post in Puerto Rico, and thence to threaten, 
rob, pirate, deceive, excite civil disturbances, and 
all in the name of Ferdinand VII. 

' Till then the progress of the system of sub- 
version, anarchy, and depredation, which the Re- 
gency proposed to itself on hearing of the move- 
niPF'ts of Caracas, had been but slow, but the 
principal (oc.\\» of the civil war being transferred 
nearer to us. thn subaltern agents ac(|uired more 
strength ; the flames of the passions were multi- 
pliod, as well as the efforts of the parties directed 
by the chiefs hired by Cortavarria and Melendez. 
Hence originated the incendiary energy acquired 
by the'al sedition of the west ; hence the 
discord newly fanned by Miyares, rendered vain 
iuid aivogant by the imaginary and promised 
captain -generalsnip of Venezuela ; hence the 
American blooil, in spite of ourselves, spilt on 
the sands of Coro; hence the robberies and ns- 
sassinatioiis committed on our coasts by the 
pirates of the Rei^pncy ; hence that miserable 

blockable, intended to deduce and disaflect our 
shore settlements ; hence the insults committed 
on the Flnglish (lag ; hence the falling oif of our 
trade ; hence the conspiracies of the vallies of 
Aragiia and Ciimaii^ ; hence the horrid ncrtidv in 
Oiiyana, and the insulting deportation of its 
leaning characters to the Moorish dungeons of 
Puerto Rico, dungeons constructed like those of 
Tunis and Algiers; hence the generous and im- 
partial offices of reconciliation, sincerely inter- 
posed by a representative of the British gov«'rn- 
ment in tho Antilles, and rejected by the pseudo- 

[lacificator, (the official dispatch of Admiral 
!!ochrniie in the Secretary of State's office); hence, 
in short, all the evils, all the atrocities, and all 
the crimes, which are, and ever will be, insepa- 
rable to the names of Cortavarria and Melendez 
in Venezuela, and which have impelled her go- 
vernment to go Iicvond wliat was proposed, when 
it took upon itself the fate of those who honoured 
it with their conKdeiice. 

'• The mission of Cortavarria, in the 19th cen- 
tury, and the state of Spain who decreed it, com> 
pared with America, against whom it is directed, 
evinces, to what an extreme the illusion of am- 
bition blinds those who, on the depravation of 
the people, found all the origin of their autho- 
rity. This act alone sufficed to authorise our 
conduct. The spirit of Charles V. the memory 
of Cortes and Pizarro, and the manes of Monte- 
zuma and Atahuulpa, are involuntarily repro- 
duced to our imagination, when we see the ade- 
lantadns, pesquisidores, and enconiendoros, offices 
peculiar to the first settlement of America, re- 
newed in a country, which having endured 300 
years of submission and sacrifices, had promised 
to continue in allegiance on the only condition 
of being free, in order that the circumstances of 
slavery might not blemish the merit of fidelity. 
The scandalous plenitude of power confided to a 
man, authorised by an intrusive and illegitimate 
government, that under the insulting name of 
pacificator, he might depotise, excite, rob, and, 
to crown the insult, that he might offer pardon 
to a peo|)le, noble, innocent, tranquil, generous, 
and masters of their own rights ; could only be 
credited in the impotent delirium of a govern- 
ment that tyrannises over a nation disorganised 
and stunned by the horrid tempest that overtakes 
her; but as the ills of this disorder, and the abuses 
of such an usurpation might be considered as not 
imputable to Ferdinand, already acknowledged 
in Venezuela, at the same time that he was un- 
able to remedy so much insult, such excesses, 
and so much violence committed in his name, we] 

.1 . '« ■ 


X 'i- 


V r \ K / I K I V 



n Su'N >«<'> >\>nthiu>ni«IK i««k«»>«lisls;xsi h\\\\ Ui»( 
to tlu- ««iU\'i,i.»ivM(» ol l"l I'si'mul :«n>l Vit(U|n<-» 

' l< tv «H <M l.llMU (Mit, t')i<( VllKMUa iUh^s UOI 

IvKmij; «i> (Iu- t.-(u(on ot" >jviin, i\\u\ \\ >s i»>m>i> 
.n<( i«Uo tm<\ tJial »lu' HjiJu* wlu«J< tt»o IUmm- 
ls>u<., iiisiN ,<r iuMii'><l*. f«i>>' (o <l. u>>lM \(l<sia»>>i 
nijt lhi'> »i-i-<- luM^Niu.u > , ooulil no« Is- >li>>|>»^N«Nt 
«>(' tilhoiii iho oon«<'ni ol lilt" |»<-«>|'l<v .(Hil |v;«i<i 
t'liLuU ot itiOM' »<r Vi><<Mi»\«. «li>>, on \hf (•Kvdou 
l»o(«i\M\ \\u' I"'. riU'li i«>u< Vuvl(i;«<i «l\niis(ios. 
»«»i;l>« U;\\c ilono u« iho ITlli «vnut«< «)«<<< <J<o\ 
hrt>o no« ,)ono n> U<o l>'«h I'ho \\\\\\ «<t VUv 
;n>li'»' > I an. I (l(o ni-.( (hI.-s »»!u,-U »!|€> ho\is<- o(' 
Ans(n;« ;<llislj;'<\l in (lio \ni<Mi\;<n ro>io. li:«<) no 
o(h<M .Mij;ni (l>:ui tlw <i>;tu ot' ..'n.jno'.l. |vuti:«lh 
.^sli-vi <o (til' >.M<.)ii<MO( ■. ;>n>l s<"ul<M'., ('o\ (l<o .n.l 
<h<'\ l>;>il inMV«\«Mt\l «o iho i)\<«n in onlfi to .-\ 
i(-»\\ Its >lonnniou »n Vnic-iuM N\ iiliont (i«kiii)t 
wHi^ «-«Mivnin;<(ion (In- iio|>»<puliUion »'!" itio «'«>iin- 
t\\, «li<- (-\(i-»nun;»(i><n o(' iJir i>.»<no>. rtii>< llio 
cnujjiiUion >»t\i>h dio •.n(<|'0'«,\t niodioi «vMinln 
minIjuiun), II iipjH-.u--. thai «li<-ii ilu- C\i\\ ol' »-\«ii 
.jiiovl liiiit «-is-»><sl . « h<-n tlio iliir>( lov >;'"l>' «>>■* 
>,Ui>(uhI : «Ji«>:i «ho coiumoiitul «sjiiilil>mini >«;«■. 
(l<vl(U^>>1 III l;»>om ot"S|Mui, In i\u' !»,h iin(i«.<;xH'Hi 
••uNjuisilion ol' Viiioii>;i. tlio t«-iul;il >;\M <M nnioiu 
»li"><i><> <nI and i><o(i\l up lixMii liio (iino ot llio 
MMjMi ot" tlio Ho;iil»oiiN in Spain, an>l <"Xi'i\ »>ijl<( 
f\tiiu'( (Jial «hil not orijjinaio in llio ii«'« «'oiuv>- 
Mon* or inai<ila(<'<i <'(" llir piin><>, \\\r oonijiu'iAMs 
rtiul M'J(l<M-s (lirn tMvanit' ;>U>o\\<'<l ol" lln-U-. \-. 
»(>«'n as (tio laiiKMii'".- an.l in\alii)i(\ \'l il><" iijjUis 
i!ll\V)>al«~»l to ilioiuscK 0-. Im tlu' IvMll l».v|\s i> lio 
»n«>nstiali-.l . lh<" ntli^s b» >»linl' llio Vnioiuans, 
ili-vc.nilanl-- ot tin- ron«jnc>iA>i>, posvi^-.soil tlu'^o 
«onnti lo-., u>ni- not in tloiiitnoiit to tho uatMi-'- 
rtiuj punuti\f' piopi ii-loi >., tint lo (NjimIiso llioiii 
Ui llu' i'Mioi r.viit o( lilvi t> , pn>j>i"in, aiiit iii.U> 
|H'ii.lin>o, wliuli tl>i\ :»l«a\H til- ".>\ a iinlii 
>tt\>n^'<M til."! iliat \»i' tho l»>>uilv IS, or ol aii» 
i»tho'~s t,< M hi . -. inix nun liaxo >"tsK'ii Vnit-iua, 
Mithonl itu" >onM-ni v't'tlio Vniri uaiis, it* naiinal 
o»» noi >i 

• That Vni.'iua J.u's noi 1>>Iomi; to tin- ti-in 
toi> ot"S|ViUii, Is a iniiuipU- ol natnial, an.l a l:i« 
ot'posimo iiijlit No titl<\ pist ov nniiisi, « In.h 
I'Xisis ,>(' !it-r <lrt\<n, can aooU to llio >p-iiniai>|s 
»<»' iMiii-p<- . an.l ;»U tho liI>iM-aht> ol VUxan 
tU-i \ I lOiiUl not v!>> in.>ix> ttian lUvlatv tlio Viis 

tiiaii kin»;N oinmiioIiM's ot' tho I'aiili. in oiaIit lo 
liiul >Mit t'oi tiUMii a pi'oloin.Uinal li.'.ln, « InMvln 
to nirtKo thi'ni l»M\ls ot' Viium'um Nritlioi ili,> 
piMMMIIUUMUO Ot't ho (Vlivm \|(Ul\ IIOI till- pi-on* 
);an>o ol" tlio inotliri >-tMinlr«, tH>n'>i at am tinio 
i;i\MHi(l ttu' oni;ii« t>l" loixisliip on ilio jviit ol" 
S|Min Y\u- tiist «as losi, loini tlio liiiio iti,ii 
ihi> iii>>iian'!i, a. kno« lo.l);\'>l l>x tlio \ niv-i-iortnii, 
1<'I\ tl»<> ooinittA t\»i\ i>«>nonn.<sl Ju« vi;li(s, an<< 
ttio s<von>' al«rt\s <tin«Mini.\l to iioi!iiii>i iii.m'^^ 
ilian a s,-aiulalvni» aliiiM* ol'woiiU . .is <>.>, itiai ot' 
>-allinj; oiii sla\«-r\, t">-li>'H> t' >ir s;mn>; tlio 
*"\\\>iv «\M\' tho pi>>listoi-s «<r tlio Indians aii<l 
that ttios,\ns,>l Vnionoans «iM>' On (-s(«',l ot"o\oi\ 
ii>;h« and >m\»I diitiiiO \\\ ttir nw'ix" act ol'nuMi 
jv»ss(n< ti\»ni «»no lOiintrx to cuii^Nor to »onl<> it, 
tlivvso «ho iU» not Icvm- thon- hoi«os, a<'>)iiu-i> no 
pi-\<iMM t\ , n«»i d\» tlio\ oxposo thom«oUi-s lo tho 
liaiMsliips insi-paratilo (>> oiiiivjralion l"lios,> « ho 
>'(>nipioi and ol'tain possession ot' a <a<imi(i> 1<h 
moans ol ilioir lal»«>iii . in.hisn*, >nlii>a<ion, and 
i>Mino«(ion \\\\\\ till- natuos tluM\\'l", ait' ltu-> »» do 
Ji.ixo a pi-i'lvcaMt^ ii>jl»l to pi>i>stM«o »t, aiul tvaiis 
nni II to tlii'ir po»torit\ Ivm n thoivin , tt>«' if tho 
i'oiintr\ « tioiv Olio is l«oin, >»oi'«^ »>»iisidoi'>\t as 
an ou»;ni ol" s,>>('i\'i>>nt> im a iitio ol' a> Apiisitioii, 
till- >;\-ii<Mal \*\\\ o( n.iUvMis, aiivl t!u~ l,<(.- ol" tiio 
linnian ia.i\ would thon l<o iuit<\< t\» t!ii- s,>il, in 
liWo niaimor as. an' ttio tix<«'s, luonntaiiis, mits. 
and lako<, 

• NoithtM- could It «'<or Iv «■ollsultM■«^i as a tulo 
ol' pi\'i><-rt\ to tho ivsi ,>!' a naiion. Ixn ono jvn t 
tlioiAS<rto lia\o jViist o>ot to anotli.-i Ovuniti* to 
siMtU- i( . t">M l<\ a ii^lit ol" tlu>- iiatiiiN\ SjMin 
luMx'll' would U'loiij; to tlio IMni-nu-iaiis, tlion do 
si^Mulants, or t\i lli<> tariliajjTiiians, \» (iii^>> im- 
iUt-\ max K> t'oiind oxon tlio w t^^^l<■ ol' i\r iia 
dons ol I'niA'po «v<iiid lia\o ti< . !lan^;^• tV,<-ii 
at»«>dos (o inaki' «»oiu and ix- ostaMisti so snujn 
lai a imixt lionio would tlion l>(s onio 
as ions as ai>' tlio wants and >iipt'i>-t>s ol' 
nioii rtio moral at<ns,- ol tlio luaiiMniu ot 
Sp.un. w itli i-t'jjai d t>» Vmorua, is sull in.-ix' in 
<.i);nit(« ant, lor li is woU known, that in flioinuii- 
laloi.iiM ol tliiiii^s, )( isjiu'dut* iv| tlio I'atliiM' to 
(•iiiaiii ipato Ins son, as soon as \jx>ttinj; oin ol' liis 
11111101111. Iio Is alilo to tiso liw ^lif until and i\ni 
sou to p»-«>\ ido Iv*! liU owu snl>sisi,'n<'«' ; an.l iilso, 
ttiat It i» tlio lint* ottlii- son (o omaiu'i|«<ito liiiu 
soil", wliouo\oi' ilio iiuolt\ or f-\tia% ai^^nuo ol'llio 
I'atlior Ol tutor f'ndani;xM his w«>ll K-'iin, ov ov 
pt>s(< Ills patniiiiMit to Ih- tlio pix-\ ot' a iiiisxm- oi 
an iiMU|Vi"r I iiiloi- tlioso )>i imiplo't, lot a ismh 
IMIImU) l»t> iUi»do ot'tho >JtH' >«s!u» ol' oui- (iliatiou 
to S|vuu . nud oioit when it shvuild l>o piN'\od 

* i 

V K ^ I- /: r v. \, \ 


(hiU >lu~ «:»* oui n\o»U<'»', U nonUl suU >-«m««h« 
».» Iv )M\no«U «•»«< w«- HI'S' <rl lir\ innuM^ «»i' 

Muh »-l;un<«., «UMilnn'i in^iu «h<M« \i-r\ i»nj;>n Imi( 

oUur (otvmu jHtu.M, pivMousU»w l<si>;v»i 
;M»\«»'»l-> 'li(«« <U> hrtU.Hi' >luMlUl •■<> ItMl hw \\u' 

nuu'o. i\\\\\ «\M «lvo n»rtli»v ot" w\»u>>l«s< iuviImuoh. 
«h.-»vl\» <o«<iMnsU«, «;«hn\>n>ju<\ ««.< «i\«k<'n :\ 

Hon ■.iiujiMo ««> Xv iuai;()»ui,i,< un,) m>|>«M (;U).^-. 

• \\ IV u.U kno«n, \\\M «U.- pivmi-.»,»«> .v«»l\ 
>n ,ni«>-<<>>n. )s no (hi«n i«n iw.vs««<n I'od.I. 
«l\i.h i»l«;u<. j.(V j-upp.vsvs \\\v \.\\\d\{\ t\\u\ lojji 

\\ h.M\ \n »lu- .vuniUl <hiMv »v n,> » wo x» hu l< n.;» 
ivn>l<T i« indl iu\.< illoj^mntiMc. h »s. fhm «,< tv 
l« ««• iliiU t«\<«\. »n\ok.-,l l>> iu\ »mih. Mill no« ilu-n 

\%\\\\ i\w\\\ \ \\nu\x\x\\ on (Mt <>»uUm»< im>\ii)< oi 

tio.l >;«u a< no omo i;«in(«n(<v i«n\ (lum; »li,u is 
n,>( Imiuuh*; u\ i1(o naiiurtl ,m\I,m oI' (Innv>-.. n,<( 
,N<n \( Iv Mip('.>-..\1 l\,> Mill i«>vop( ,<(' !(n« vv>n 
(trtvt. op'ov.a lo ih,>M< x.M* l;n»> \w lunisoh \u\-. 
0>>rtM>vi>o>l (o» «h«- (vlun> o('ih<< )«nm!«n »>i,^- li 
»onl<l l>iM«> uouli luv «\Ml«Mn. |.> lvlu'»- ihM 
lu- i» jOjmMo ot'liv(onui); (>» ,MM »«<»»*. w l\,n >»,• 
uuploiv 111' ilouu' c.Mi.nvivnvv (o !« »onH:»>( iUw 
.li'.lti^H «iih .<nv >>«M hl>,M(>, (lio ,MiK onjui ,>( 
dio n«.<(;<li(> .»( ,Mu ;«.>u»n>. s(uh ,» Mipposonn 

«.nil,l <n,l»v;>(,\ tl>;U t;,uJ ||;»»I An mJOW-t 111 Ullll 

iiplnni; »n» .luH.-. nt p(V|n,lnv U> nmun*! It 
l'iMt\. 1»> uuNins ot ..u,l( :»,;(\vm<<n«s |',v,-(\ « |»<-n 
(tu- >vul( >»<'U'' <» ;«,l,i ;in* nc« i>l>li\<:i(ion (.> ili.u 
.'(" (Iio .iMidiUi ('Im .,MilMin,\l, (h,- nuUm <>( 
i!\.- .M-,0 ».>\iUI iU tU) mno- Iv iii-.,<|vu!iMi' i>> tli>- 
imiliu .s ilio ,>«I>.M . un.l !(■ hi- u >«»> MoUUi- ;» 
s«.<in i.MXnul I* .mniMrtl iuu', u.>nh> i>( (Mimsli 
\u.'n(, i« >s Usrt'.tM' ho \as •. ioli>i,-,| >;v.,>,l ("cuili, 
(lio onl> Uou.l ol' v,v«M\ ; «(il>,>n( «ho jvi pii » 
(Uoiiji nm»v ''u\\\ >on inij «o in> »^n»m' rti<- , iuki- 
.>n>l U\ rtjtjik^xuo \\u- punislmuMU ri«,\( n.»uu,>l 

Ittw «hi. U oMijjx^* \t« <o Mh\ out ^M^^^«u»^"<'. :uul 
tttiU tin <n<' >>nr «l»U'h <\'il<\iU u'^ 1\> «n».<K<' tlio 
n««u' ttl'Vtfil in «iU\<, >l>> no? in ;>i\> injuuuM ;«Uoi' 
llh' n;«<niv ot' iho ol»Ui;(><hxn> >on(«\>>'<«s< nndov 
\\u- Niiun)(i)nis<nv :\\u\ \W'i'\K\\i\h\y' «'(V<v»t «»l K^lh 
Irtx*" . s«> xhM lUo uitii»>»«><n o( «(<<• «^no, sO|>p\wo'. 
«lw> inlVi«\(ion »>(' ilu' oiln-t t'«M > ■ -.njixMsl 
«o i;»U on 1»\h1 U» ^MinovH oni pi-^'aiw^*. «ntl 
<» t\on «o K'Uoxo itiiU ho »;«n j;niu:»n(<>«'' ihoni ;«nil 
i«»on»jx^ «luM« MoliUion, >l i* ^(Umu Ixvunn' lUo 
»\>nJ\>rt«-j hrt« noilunii <.n i(M-ir«i«ivj>Mo ol' «v«vlo> »nsi 
il m<i»lnl. (Iluit. mmovtlw ol, «>« «An»lnuA li». 
iho «M>-»ni«l in»u»x' ol" »l>i" Sn(>«^'«>o ViImIim. Io 
« tioin «i- snl'ni\( u I n»U'i iKom' |m in«ipU^s >( 

><. lluM «<• rtli' (o aililUsx' i\w «\>Hill(l>Mli>l o;uU l>\ 
«lnvh (lio l^'nl;l■^^x<^ ol' \ onotJin-la lin-. pi\'ii\iM'\l 
(>» pu^MM*.' ihf U>jl«.'» li'jJrtlU held l>\ r<M\li 
»»i«n>l \ U «»il>on( :«((nl<n»inj{ «i< \\ un* odivi, 
«ti\>'t», Kmhj; >\<n((;u » (»< (ho lilvi'i l\ ol jhi- |M"v'(<Io, 
xoiiUI ol ^^Mlsl^^^lon^^• in»;>U>ii«io l)\o \'\M>n iU l M\\\ 
iinnnl iho «siih 

' NN o hi«\o iU loniiih s>\-n, »l\iU unjvUisI l»> »ho 
t'txnilut'l ol «ho tixMoiixnonl-* ol Sivun, tho jM-oplo 
o( \ on.'tnoh* l»<v:«(no •ion<>il<lo»>ru(Ov-Mvnni<.(iiiu o< 
Im «hi.h >ho ioloiiUo«l viiilx-. ol' I'oiaIuuuuI \ It 
>»on' ix-niloixsl \ >Mtl in >'on»o\)nou>'\' ol (ho ((iin* 
.UtUNn-. ,»( I'l I'voUUill ;in.l Viannu'ti. a* «oU ;«> 
iliOM- til'oU his luMiso, Im (ho i-t^ssion>. i>n<l :»)hIi 
OiUions nm.lo M l«,i\iM\no . an«l I«\m\( iho iloinon 
>(ii((ton ot'lhis ii(i(h, loll<<«s, iis i> «iM\»lli>(\. (ho 
inx;)h«ii(« ol'itn «\«(h, «!n.h. hosi.los ls-tn»; > on 
liidonal, o»>nUI no( siiKsisi l<o>oni{ «ho .on(i,>\'( lo 
«hi>hi( «iis,uhlo>l. Us !in .i<\\-sson Ih'HiI l\i 
|>i.s,'i\o (ho ii);h(s ol' I oixUnund, uiis a'.l (ha( 
("<Uii\\»s pi\tiius«Hi on VjMil 1'', rtl i» linio sho <»;»s 
();noi<U(( ho hait losi ihoni, .'^.-),^^• >o'vi :a'v)- 
' ;, v)*,*V) tflO\)Vl',\'-< 0>> (oin vV P S*J, ;,r(, ,">', 

-"»s u»\' .»()' v"S»'^^>* ,^^v^v^,\'.^ s*. <« . >vv) ,<'» »i ift»» .^ ■ 

«%v\i ,w .« ■t^5 •<,/»• '.■^, i^nosi. «'il (Ui .* . l\>on il' 
ioixtintuul »>'(!«in«sl ihiMn, «i(h ix^ijidxl lo SiMin, 
i( M-ncons (o U' piAMotl, «ho(ho<, l<\ xi.Ino ol' 
(ho s^iiiio, ho Wi»s iiMo (»M\'>io Vn»o»io;» lt>i(noihoi 
il»n,»so, voihon* hoi >o>n oonsoni Tho ^\.l\i.(-s. 
>» hu h in •■(■•<(o «>l (ho i>pp»x^ssion ;>n>l >'!uinin»; ol 
(ho iii(iiisi>o j;\M oininoniH ol' Sivxn, \ ono'jm-lA 
u;>son(«Mo«l «>< ohitun ol lhooon>l»u( or(ho Woni 
Kmo*. ««nil iho IJXiil ort'«vts (ho sjuno «:>» i\K\\>~ u< 
oi\(;«il on Vinodoii, hiuo »^»n»u(nio>l .» !<>>.!» ol u 

lxlo;«);;«Mo pi>io|s, «<\inOinn. (ll:l( its loixlintuui 

no loni^i'i iM-(;un<sl ;«iu n»;h(-, (ho pix's»M Xi>(i>>n 
lhoix'<>r, uhtoh \ ono?iiol(« (m.m\hs,-,1. us »oU rts 
iho »m(h l»\ »»huh sho oontiiino<i llns pi v>nuM\ j 

- 1." 

fi: ■■ 




b » w, 




W'. i 

' J 



[consequently are, and ought to be done away, 
Jurabis in lerilate, et in judicio, et in justicia. — 
Jereni. cap. 4. Of the first part of the position, 
the nullity of the second becomes a legitimate 

' But neither the Escurial, Aranjeuz, or Bayona, 
were the first theatres of the transactions which 
deprived the Bourbons of their rights to Ame- 
rica. Already in Basil, (by the treaty made on 
July 13, 1795, and by which Godoy obtained 
the title of Prince of Peace), and in the court of 
Spain, the fundamental laws of the Spanish 
dominion in these countries, had been broken 
through. Charles IV. contrary to one of them, 
ceded the island of St. Domingo to France, — (See 
Recopil de Indias, law i. tit. 1.) disposed of 
Louisiana to the same foreign power, which un- 
heard of, and scandalous infrrctions, authorised 
the Americans, against whor^ they were com- 
mitted, as veil as the who'^ of the Columbian 
people, to stiarate from the obedience and lay 
aside the oatli. by which they had bound them- 
selves to the c'own of Castile, in like manner as 
they were entitled to protest against ihft eminent 
danger which threatened the integrity ot ihe mo- 
narchy in both worlds, by the introduction of 
French troops into Spain, previous to the trans- 
actions of Bayona ; invited there, no doubt, by 
one of the Bourbon factions, in order to usurp 
the national sovereignty in favour of an intruder, 
a foreigner, or a traitor ; but as these events are 
prior to the period we have fixed for our discus- 
sion, we will return to treat of those which have 
authorised our conduct, since the year 1808. 

' Every one is aware of the occurrences which 
happened at the Escurial, in 1807, but perhaps 
every one is not acquainted with the natural 
effects of these events. It is not our intention 
here to enter into the discovery of the origin of 
the discord thatexistt'd in thefamilyofCharlesIV. 
let England and France attribute it to them- 
selves, both governments have their accusers and 
defenders ; neither is it to our purpose to notice 
the marriage agreed on lietween Ferdinand and 
the daughter-ill-law of Buonaparte, the peace of 
Tilsit, the conferences at Erfuhrt, the secret 
treaty of St. Cloud, and the emigration of the 
house of Braganza to the Brazils. What most 
materially concerns us is, that by the transac- 
tions of El Escurial, Ferdinand VIi. was declared 
a traitor against his father, Charles IV. A 
hundred pens, and a hundred presses, published 
at the same time in both worlds his perfidy, and 
the pardon which at his prayer, was granted to 

him by his lather ; but this pardon as an attri- 
bute of the sovereignty and of paternal autho- 
rity, only absolved the "son from corporal punish- 
ment ; the king his father, had no power to free 
him from the infamy and inability which the 
constitutional laws of Spain impose op the traitor, 
not only to hinder him from obtaining the royal 
dignity, but even the lowest office or civil em- 

Eloyment. Ferdinand, therefore, never could be 
in'g of Spain, or of the Indies. 
' To this condition the heir of the crown re- 
mained reduced, till the month of March, 1808, 
when, whilst the court was at Aranjuez, the pro- 
ject frustrated at the Escurial was converted 
into insurrection and open mutiny, by the friends 
of Ferdinand. The public exasperation against 
the ministry of Godoy, served as a pretext to 
the faction of Ferdinand, and as a plea indirectly 
to convert into the good of the nation, what 
was perhaps calculated under other designs. 
The fact ot using force against his father ; his 
not rather recurring to supplication and con- 
vincing arguments ; his having excited mutiny 
on the part of the people ; his having asi.emblcd 
them in front of the palace in order to surprise 
it, to insult the minister, and force the king to 
abdicate his crown ; far from giving him ar.y 
title t'j it ; only tended to increase his crime, to 
aggravate his treachery, and complete his inabi- 
lity to ascend the throne, vacated by means of 
violence, perfidy, and factions. Charles IV. out- 
raged, disobeyed, and threatened with force, had 
no other alternative left him, suitable to his de- 
corum, and favourable to his vengeance, than to 
emigrate to France, to implore the protection of 
Buonaparte, in favour of his offended royal dig- 
nity. Under the nullity of the abdications of 
Aranjuez, all the Bourbons assemble in Bavona, 
carried there against the will of the people, to 
whose safety they preferred their own particular 
resentments ; the Emperor of the French took 
advantage of them, and when he held under his 
controul, and within his influence, the whole 
family of Ferdinand, as well as several of the 
first Spanish dignitaries and substitutes for de- 
puties in the Cortes: he caused the son to restore 
the crown to his father, and the latter then to 
make it over to him the Emperor, in order that 
he might afterwards confer it on his brother 
Joseph Napoleon. 

' Venezuela was ignorant of all this, or at least 
only knew it partially, when the emissaries of 
the new king reached Caracas. The innocence 
of Ferdinand, compared with the insolence and] 



[despotism of the favourite Godoj, impelled and 
directed her conduct, when the local authorities 
wavered on the 15th of July, 1808; and beinjj 
left to choose between the alternative of deli- 
vering herself up to a foreign power, or of re- 
maining faithful to a kins, who appeared unfor- 
tunate and persecuted, tne ignorance of events 
t. umphed over the true interests of the country, 
I nJ Ferdinand was acknowledged, under a belief 
t;-at, by this means, the unity of the nation being 
maintained, she would be saved from the threat- 
ened oppression, and a king be ransomed, of 
whose virtues, wisdom, and rights, we were 
falsely prepossessed. But less was requisite to 
oppress us, on the part of those who relied on 
our good faith. Fsidinand, disqualified '>nd un- 
able to obtain the crown ; previously announced 
by the leaders of Spain as dis^ossed of his rights 
to the succession ; incapable; of governing in 
America, held in bondage, and under the in- 
fluence of a foreign power ; from that time, be- 
came by illusion, a legitimate but unfortunate 
Crince; it was feigned a duty to acknowledge 
im ; as many as had the audacity to call them- 
selves such, became his self-created heirs and re- 
presentatives, and taking advantage of the innate 
fidelity of the Spaniards of both worlds, and 
forming themselves into intrusive governments, 
they appropriated to themselves the sovereignty 
of the people, in the name of a chimerical king, 
begsn to exercise new tyrannies, and, in a word, 
the commercial Junto of Cadiz sought to extend 
her control over the whole of Spanish America. 

' Such have been the antecedents and conse- 
quences of an oath, which, dictated by candour 
and generosity, and conditionally maintained by 
good faith, is now brought against us, in order 
to perpetuate those evils which the dear-bought 
experience of three years has proved to be inse- 
parable to so fatal and ruinous an engagement. 
Taught, as we are, by a scries of evils, insults, 
hardships, and ingratitude, during an interval 
from the 15th of July, 1808, until the 5th of July, 
7811, and such as we have already fully mani- 
fested ; it becomes full time that we should 
abandon a talisman invented by ignorance, and 
adopted by a misguided fidelity, tor ever since it 
has existed, it has not failed to heap upon 
us all the evils attendant on an ambiguous state, 
and on suspicion and discord. The rights of 
Ferdinand, and the legitimate representation of 
them on the part of the intrusive governments 
of Spain, fidelity and the obligations of compas- 
sion and gratitud'^ on ours, are the two favourite 
springs alternately played to sustain our illu- 

sion, to devour our substance, prolong our de- 
gradation, multiply our evils, and to prepire iis 
ignominiously to receive tliat passive fate, pre- 

Eared for us by those who have dealt with us so 
indly for three centuries. Ferdinand the Seventh 
is the {"^iversal watch word for tyranny in Spain, 
as veM as America. 

' No sooner was that visiiant and suspicious 
feai-, produced amongst us by the contradictory 
acts, the arts and falsehoods of the strange and 
short-lived governments, which have succeeded 
one another in Spain, since the Junta of Seville, 
there h ij known, than they recurred to a system 
of apparent liberality towards us, in order to 
cover with flowers the very snare we had not 
perc; ived whilst shrowded by the veil of candour, 
at length rent asunder by mistr; st. For this 
purpose, were accelerated and tumultuously as- 
sembled the Cortes, so desired by the nation, yet 
opposed by the commercial government oi' Cadiz, 
but which were ut length considered necessary, 
in order to restrain the torrent of liberty and 
justice, which in every quarter burst the mounds 
of oppression and iniquity in the new world : 
still it was supposed that the habit of obedience, 
submission, and dependence, would, in us, be su- 
])erior to the conviction, which, at so great an 
expense, we had just obtained. It appears in- 
credible by what kind of deception, fatal to Spain, 
it is believed, that the part of the nation which 
passes the ocean, or is born under the tropics, 
acquires a constitution suitable to servitude, and 
incapable of ceding to the efforts of liberty. As 
notorious to the world, as they are fatal, are the 
effects of this strong rooted prejudice, at length 
converted into the good of America. Perhaps 
without it, Spain would not have lost the rank 
of a nation, and America, in obtaining this bles- 
ing, would not have had to have passed through 
the bitter ordeal of -^ civil war, more ominous 
still for its promoters, than for ourselves. 

' Our public prints have already sufficiently well 
manifested the defects, under which the Cortes 
laboured respecting America, and the illegal and 
insulting measures by them adopted, to give us 
therein a representation which we could not but 
oppose, even though we were, us the Regency 
had Itudly boasted us to be, integral parts of 
the nation, and had no other complaints to 
allege against their government, than the scan- 
dalous usurpation of our rights, at a moment 
they most required our aid. They will have 
been informed, no doubt, of the reasonings we 
used with their perfidious envoy, Montenegro, at 
a time that the former niissious being frustrated,] 

J)a i« ■ 





V E N E Z U jfc: L A. 

' (! 

iJL''ii '^i; 


III!,! ^ 

• 'i' 

[<he f;;rpat sMpnients of newspapers, filled with 
triumphs, relbnns, heroic nets, andiamentations, 
beiiijf rendered uselens, and the inefficacy of 
blockadeH, pacificators, squadrons, and expedi- 
tions, made known; it was thous:ht necessary to 
da/zle the self love of the Americans, by seating 
near the throne of tlie Cortes, members whom 
the latter had never named, nor who conld be 
chosen bv those who created them into their sub- 
stitutes, as in like manner they did others for the 
provinces in possession of the French, submittin:; 
to and alleiring themselves content with their 
dominion. In case this puerile measure, of 
which Spain has bivn prolific, shoidd not have 
had its due eifect, the envoy was directed, (and 
an American and a native of Caracas, in order 
to add to the illusion, was for this purpose se- 
lected), that in case the enerny of the country, 
now defined rebellion, should prevail against 
perfidy to which the name of fraternity was 
given, he was to add fuel to the flanif of the pas- 
sions, already kindled in Coro and Maracaibo, 
and that discord, again raising her serpent head, 
migiit lead the herald of the Cortes by the hand 
under the standard of rebellion, through those 
deceived districts of Venezuela, that had not 
been able to triumph over their tyrants. 

' New/ artifices were still forged, in order that 
duplicity and cunning might prepare the road 
to the sanguinary armies of the chiefs of Coro, 
Maracaibo, and Puerto Rico ; and when the 
Cortes were convinced that the conduct of Ferdi- 
nand, his bonds of affinity with the Emperor of 
the French, and the infiucnce of the latter over 
all the Bourbons already placed under his tute- 
lage, began to weaken the insidious impressions, 
which fidelity, sustained by illusion, had pro- 
duced in the Americans ; preventatives were 
placed, in order to stop the flame thuR >^nkindled, 
and limit it to what was yet nece?,sary for their 
vast, complicated, and remote designs. For this 
purpose was written the eloquent nianifi^st which 
the Cortes aimed, on the 9th of .lanuary, 18! 1, 
against America, worded in a style worthv of a 
better object, but under the brilliancy of dirtion, 
the back ground of the perspective, designed to 
deceive us, was discovered. Fearing that we 
should be beforehand to protest against the whole 
of these nullities, they began to calctdate on what 
was already known, not to rir.que what was yet 
hidden. The misfortunes of Ferdinand were the 
pretexts that had obtained for his pseudo-repre- 
sentatives, the treasures, submission, and slavery 
of America, after the events of Bayonne ; and 
Ferdinand seduced, deceived, and prostituted to 

the designs of the Emperor of the French, i.i 
now the last resource to which they fly, to extin- 
guish the flames of liberty, which Venezuela 
had kindled in the SouthContinent. In one of our 
periodical works (Vide Mercurio Venezolano, for 
Feb. 181 1) we have discovered the true spirit of 
the manifest in question, reduced to the follow- 
ing reasoning, which may be considered as an 
exact commentary : — " America is threatene«l to 
become the victim of a foreign power, or to con- 
tinue to be our slave ; but in order to recover 
her rights, and throw ofl" all dependency what- 
ever, she has considered it necessary not vio- 
lently to break the ties which held her hound to 
this country. Ferdinand has been the signal of 
re-union which the new world has adopted, and 
we have followed ; he is suspected of connivance 
with the Emperor of the F'renrh, and if we give 
ourselves up blindly to acknowledge him, we 
afl^ord the Americans a pretext for believing iis 
still his representatives, and openly denying us 
this character, and as these designs already 
begin to be understood in some parts of America, 
let us previously manifest our intention, not to 
acknowledge Ferdinand but under certain condi- 
tions ; these will never be carried into effect, and 
whilst Ferdinand neither in fact, or right, is our 
king, we shall be enabled to reign over America, 
which country so much coveted by us, and so 
difficult to maintain in slavery, will not then so 
f Jsily slip through our fingers." These expres- 
sions are supposed to be uttered by a Spaniard, 
and are illustrative of the opinions agitated in 
the Cortes respecting the allegiance to Fer- 

' The above resplendent appearance of libe- 
rality, is now the real and visible spring of the 
complicated machine destined to stir up and 
excite commotions in America ; at the same time, 
that within the wall? of the Cortes, justice to us 
is overlooked, our eflbrts are eluded, our reso- 
lutions contemned, our enemies upheld, the 
voices of our imaginary representatives i ip- 
pressed, the inquisition is renewed against them, 
at the same time that the liberty of the press is 
proclaimed, and it is controversially discussed, 
whether the Regency could or not declare us 
free, and an integral part of the nation. (Vide 
El Concisci, The Diarios of Cadiz, and all the 
papers that came from Spain). When aii Ameri- 
can, worthy of that name, raises his voice against 
the abuses of the Regency, in Puerto Rico : en- 
deavours are made to silence his just, energetic, 
and imperious claims, which distinguish him 
from the satellites of despotism, and by means of J 



French, iiJ 
ly, to cxtin- 
' Venezuela 
n one of our 
ezolnno, for 
•111? spirit of 
I the follow- 
idered as an 
ireatened to 
r, or to con- 
to recover 
:lency what- 
iry not vi fl- 
ier bound to 
the riip^nal of 
dopted, and 
r connivance 
d if wc give 
Ifje him, we 
believinjy lis 
denyinp; us 
igns already 
! of America, 
ition, not to 
nrtain condi- 
to effect, and 
r\i!;ht, is our 
ver America, 
I us, and so 
not then so 
^hese expres- 
a Spaniard, 
IS agitated in 
nee to Fcr- 

ance of libe- 
pring of the 
stir up and 
le same time, 
justice to us 
d, our reso- 
uphold, the 
iitatives s ip- 
[igainst them, 
f the press is 
lly discussed, 
ot declare us 
lation. (Vide 
^ and all the 
len an Ameri- 
voice against 
ito llico : en- 
ist, energetic, 
itinguisli him 
i by means of] 


fa decree, short, cunning, and insignificant, they 
strive to get out of the conflict of justice against 
iniquity. Melendez, named king of Puerto Rico 
by the Regency, by a decree of the Cortes is left 
with thy equivalent investiture of governor, sy- 
nonyirious names in America ; because it now 
appeared too monstrous to have two kings, in a 
smal'i island of the Spanish Antilles. Corta-^ 
varria alone was sufficient to elude the effects of 
a decree, only dictated by an involuntary senti- 
ment of decency. Thus it happened, that when 
the investiture, granted by the Regency to Me- 
lendez was declared iniquitous, arbitrary, and ty- 
rannical, and a revocation was extended to all the 
countries of America, then situated as was Puerto 
Rico, nothing was said of the plenipotentiary 
Cortavarria, authorized by the same Regency 
against Venezuela, with powers, the most un- 
common and scandalous, ever remembered in the 
annals of organical despotism. 

' It was alter this decree of the_^Cortes, that the 
effects of that discord, promoted, sustained, and 
aimed from tlv fatal observatory of Puerto Rico, 
were more severely felt ; it was after this de- 
cree, that the fishermen and coasters were in- 
humanly assassinated in Ocumire, by the pirates 
of ('orta varria ; after the publication of the same, 
Cumanu and Barcelona were blockaded, threat- 
ened, and summoned; a new and sanguinary 
conspiracy, against Venezuela, was plotted and 
organized, by a vile eiiiissary, who perfidiously 
entered the pacific bosom of hU country, in order 
to devour it ; deceptions were successively prac- 
tised on the most innocent and laborious classes 
of the imported colonistsof Venezuela, principally 
emigrants from the Canary Islands, employed in 
tillage, remarkable for their sobriety and indus- 
try ; and in spite of our endeavours, the chief 
instigators were led to the block, as a sacrifice 
to justice and tranquillity. By the suggestions 
of the Pacificator of the Cortes, and posterior 
to their said decree, the political unity of our 
constitution was interrupted in Valencia ; at- 
tempts were in vain made to seduce other cities 
of the interior ; a false summons was sent to 
Carora by the factious leaders of the west, in or- 
der that on the same day Venezuela might be 
deluged in blood, and sunk in affliction and deso- 
lation ; and be hostilely assaulted from every 
point within the reach of the conspirators, who 
were scattered amongst us by the same govern- 
ment, which issued the decree in favour of Puerto 
Rico and of all America. The name of Fer- 
dinand VII. is the pretext under which the new 
world is about to be laid waste, if the example 

vol,, v. 

of Venezuela does not henceforward cause the 
banners of an unshaken and decided liberty, to 
be distinguished from those of a malicious and 
dissembled fidelity. 

' The bitter duty of vindicating ourselves 
would still carry us further, if we did not dread 
splitting on the same rocks as the governm?nt of 
Spain, by substituting resentment for justiti; at 
the same time that we can charge her with three 
centuries of injuries, backed by three years of 
lawful, generous, and philanthropic efforts, in 
vain expended to obtain what it was never in our 
power to dispose of. Had gall and poison been 
the chief agents of this our solemn, true, and 
candid manifest, we should have began by de- 
stroying the rights of Ferdinand, in consequence 
of the illegitimacy of his origin, declared i>y his 
mother in Bayonne, and published in the French 
and Spanish papers ; we should have proved the 
personal defects of Ferdinand, his ineptitude to 
reign, his weak and degraded conduct in the 
Cortes of Bayonne, his inefficient and insignifi- 
cant education, and the futile securities he of- 
fered for the realization of the gigantic hopes of 
the governments of Spain, hopes that had no 
other origin than the illusion of America, nor any 
other support than the political interest of Eng- 
land, much opposed to the rights of the Bourbons. 
The public opinion of Spain, and the experience of 
the revolution of the kingdom, furnish us with 
sufficient proofs of the conduct of the mother, and 
the qualities of the son, without recurring to 
the manifest of minister Azanza, pubiished after 
the transactions of Bayona, and the secret me- 
moirs of Maria Louisa ; but decency is the guide 
of our conduct, to her we are ready to sacrifice 
our best reasons. Sufficient has already been 
alleged to prove the justice, necessity, and utility 
of our resolution, to the support of which no- 
thing is wanting but the examples by which we 
will strive to justify our independence. 

' It were necessary for the partizans of sla- 
very in the new world, either to destroy or to 
falrify history, that unchangeable monument of 
the rights and usurpations of the human race, 
before they could maintain that A merica was not 
liable to the same changes that all other nations 
have experienced. Even when the rights of the 
Bourbons had been incontestable, and indelible 
the oath, which we have proved not to exist ; the 
injustice, force, and deceit, with which the same 
was snatched from us, would suffice to render it 
void and of no effect, as soon as it was discovered 
to be opposed to our liberty, grievous to our 
rights, prejudicial to our interests, and fatal to] 

A A 



« V 


E* > i 



i ■ I 






V i: i\ I-: z I' fi L A. 



[our tranquillity- !^ii*'li i^ tlic naturf nl'tlir oat!i 
uiado to tlio ('on(|u<>rors, aud ttt lli«>ir li*>irs, at the 
Haiuc tiino that the crown holds thiMii iu oppres- 
sion In means of (hat same additional slnMi^th 
it ohtained Uy the resources ol' their con(piest. 
In this manner it was, that Spain hersolt' reco- 
vered her rijjhls aller she had sworn alle»;iance 
to (he ('arlhai;;inians, Koinans, (ioths, Aralis. 
and almost to the I'rench : nevertheless she yet 
disowns the rii^hts of America, no lon^rcr to de- 
pend on any nation I'roni (he time she is capable 
of throwintr o^\' its yoli(<, and followin<>; the ex- 
ample l)o(h of Spain, and of other nalions. It 
would he siiperlhious to remind our <'nemies of 
ivhat th(>y alreadv know, and in what thev huv(> 
themselves founded the sacri'd rii'ht of their t>wn 
liberty and independence : epochs so nuMuorable, 
that they were worthy of not bein»' tariiislie<l 
with the slavery of the ja^ieatest part of (he na- 
tion, situated on t!i:> otIuM' side of the ocean. 
\hi{ unfortunately, it is iiol they alone whom it 
is reipiisile to convince by palpable examples, 
of tlu' justice and common resemblance «)ur in 
dependence bears willi tliat of all oth(<r nalions 
which had lost, and ajjain recovered it. 'i'lu' il- 
lusions of slavery. Kept alive by the candour of 
the Americans, and sustained by the nu)st crimi- 
nal abuse that can be made by snperstiti(ni of 
the established belief aud relif>iou, which one 
woidd su))pose were only <licla(ed for the liberty, 
felicity, and salvation of the people, namely, by 
the exconuiuinications dtMiomu'ed ai>'ainst the 
people of Caracas t'or chanijint;- their •govern- 
ment, renders it necessary to Iranquilli/.e the <le- 
ceived piety of sonu', to instruct their i.nwary 
i(;noranc(>, and stimulate their apathy, that had 
sliuubered since the uuusiuil tranipiilHly o{' the 
new order of thiufjs ; it is, in short, tiau' t<) in- 
culcate, that iJ;overnm(>ut^: never had, nor can 
have, any other duration than the utility and 
felicity of the human race, that kinj;s are not of 
any privileged nature, nor of an order superior 
to oilier men: that their a\ithority emanates from 
the will of the people, directed and supported 
by the Providence of (lod, who leaves our ac- 
tions to our own Iree-will : that his oamipotence 
does not interfere in favour of this or that form 
of povernmeut, and that neilhir religion, or its 
minist<>rs, can anathemati/e the elVorts ofa nation 
struifi'linij It) be tree and indepeiulent in the 
political order of thiuijs, and n'solved to «lep»Mid 
oidy on (lod, und on his vicar, in a moral and 
religious sense. 

' The \cry people of (uxl sjoverued by himself, 
and directed by t^uch miracles, portentous sij^ns 

and I'avours, as perhji;,s will never aafuin be re- 
peated, oiler a proof of the rijjhls of insurrection 
on the part ofthe people, suliicientlv satisfactory 
to the orthodox piety of the friends of public 
order. The Israelites, subject to i'haraoh, and 
bound to his olu'dience by i'onv, cidlecl rouiul 
\loses, and luider his direction Iriinupli over 
llu'ir enemies, and recover tlu'ir independence, 
without either (iod, or his chief prophet aiul 
lej^islator Moses, bhiniin"' them for their con- 
duel, or subjecting them to the least maleiliction 
or anatluMua. This samo peopl(> being afterwards 
subjected by the tbrces of Nebuchadnezzar the 
I'irsl, under the direction of liolofernes, (lod 
himself seiuls Judith to obtain their ind«-pend- 
ence, by the death of the llabylouian (ieru<ral. 
Under Antiochus Kpiphanes, IVfathathias ami his 
sons raised the slandani of independence, and 
(itid blessed and aiih'd his eH'ortstill he obtained 
the entire liberty of his people, against the op- 
pression of that sanu> im|>ious king and his suc- 
cessors (Macliab. lib. I. cap. if.) Not only 
against thi> foreign kings who oppressed them, 
did the Israelites uuike use of the right of in- 
surrection, by breaking through the obedience 
to which they were bound by force; but even 
against those whom (iod had given them in their 
own country, and of their own nation, «lo wo be- 
hold them claim this imprescriptible right, when- 
ever their liberty and their advantage required 
it, or when the sacred character of those pacts, 
bv which (iod himself bound them to those he 
chose as their governors, had been proliuied. 
David obtains the allegiance of the Israelites in 
favour of his dynasty, and his son Solomon ra- 
tified it in favour of his posterity ; but scarcely 
was this king dea<l, who had oppressed his sub- 
jects by exaotions and contributions l<» support 
the splendor of his court, aiul the luxury and 
sumptuousness of his pleasures, than the tribes 
of .ludali and lienjamin alone acknowledged his 
son, and the other 10, availing themselves of 
their rights, recover their political iiulepeudence, 
and in exercise thereof deposit their sovereignly 
in Jeroboam, son of Nabath. The nu>uu<utaneous 
and passing hardships of the reign of Solomon, 
sulliced for the Israelites to annul their obe- 
dieiu'e sworn to his line, and to place another on 
the throne, without waiting for (rod to tell them, 
that their fate no longer depended on the kings 
of Judali, nor on the ministers, priests, or chiefs 
of Solomon. Aud shall the christian people of 
Venezuela be still in a worse plight, and after 
being declared free by the government of Spain, 
after JOO years of captivity, exactions, hard- 1 


V E N i: Z T) K I. A. 


.\g;vA his 

fsliips, iiiid injiislico, hIiiiII ihoy nut ho alhinod to 
(lo tvhiit Ihr ^lod of iNiacI, whom thoy <<<|iiiillv 
ndor*', loriiM'rlv |)«'rini(tt'«l to hin propio, witlioiit 
h<>iii^ N|)iiriu>tl, iiiid without vcn^raiico ht>iii^ do- 
|)r(<<-ii(('d upon them ? It is his divino hinid that 
f(nid(>H uiir rondiict, and to his ctrrnal jud^niontH 
onr roMointi«)ii shall ho suhiiiiltod. 

' If tlio indepondfiico uf tho llrhrow pooph' 
was iii>( a sin airainst th<- written law, tiial oi' a 
Christian people cannot he such against the law 
of "fiace. At no time has the Apostolical see ex- 
communicated any nation that has risen ii|) 
against the tyranny of those kinfys or jfovern- 
inents which had violated the social compact. 
The Swiss, Dutch, French, and N<ntli Americans, 
proclaimed their indiMiendence, overturned their 
constitution, and varied their forms of ^overn- 
mi'nt, without havinjj incurred any otiier spi- 
ritual censures than those which the church 
mislit have fulminated for the infringements on 
the helief, discii)line, or piety, hut without their 
hein"; connecttul with political measures, or al- 
ludini; to the civil transactions of the people. 
The Swi-is were hound by oath to (Jermany ; as 
were also the Dutch to Spain; the l''rench to 
Louis XVI. an<l the Americans to (leorjje IFI., 
yet neither they, nor the other princes who fa- 
voured tlu'ir iiulependence, were exconnuuni- 
caled l»y the Pope, 'i'he trrandllither of I'erdi- 
nand Vll. one of the most pious and catholic 
kings that ever tilled the throne of Spain, toi;e- 
ther with his nephew l.ouisXVI. protected the 
independence of North America, without dread- 
•Kfr ecclesiastical censures, or the anj;;er of hea- 
ven ; and now that the order of events more 
justly places it within the reach of S«)uth Ame- 
rica, those who call themselves the authorized 
ai>ents of his grandson, wish to abuse that same 
religion, so niuch respected even by Charles III. 
in order to prolong the most atrocious and lui- 
heard of usurpations. Just, omnipotent, and 
merciful CJod ! Till when will fanaticism dispute 
the empire of that sacred religion, which thou 
sent to the uncorrupted regions of America, for 
thy glory and her felicity ? 

' i'he events which have accumulated in Imi- 
rope, to terminate the servitude of America, 
have, beyond doubt, entered into the high de- 
signs of Providence. Placed at a transatlantic 
distance of a,flOO leagues, we have done nothing, 
in the three years which have elapsed since we 
ought to be Iree and independent, till the period 
when we resolved to be so, than pass through 
the bitter trials of stratagems, conspiracies, in- 
sults, hostilities, and depredations, on the part 

of that same nation wlunn we invite to partake 
of the goods of our regeneration, a.-.i for whose 
telicity we wished to open the gates of the new 
worhl, heretofore closed to all comminiicalion 
with the old one ; now wasted and inllanu'd by 
war, hunger, and desolation, 'i'hree distinct 
oligarchies have declared war against us, have 
contenuied our claims, have excited civil dis- 
sensions amongst us, have sown the seeds of 
discurd and mistrust in our great family, have 
plotted three horrible conspiracies against our 
liberty, have interrupted our trade, have sup- 
pressed our agriculture, have tradiu'cd our c<m- 
•liu't, and have sought to raise against >is an 
I'iUropian power, by vainly imploring its aid to 
oppress us. The same Hag, the same language, 
the same religion, and the same laws, have, till 
now, confounded the party of liberty with that of 
tyraiMiy ; l'"erdinand VII. as liberaior, has been 
opposed to Ferdinand Vll. as oppressor ; and if 
we ha<l not resolved to abandon a name, at the 
same time synonymous with crime and virtue, 
America would at h-ngth be enslaved by the 
same force that is wiehled for the independence 
of Spain. 

' nuch has been the nature of the imperious 
impulse of conviction, tending to open our eyes, 
and to impel Veiu'zuela eterniilly to separate 
from a name so ominous and so fatal, \^y it, 
j)laced in the irrevocable alteriuilive <tf being 
the slave or the enemy of her brethren, she has 
|,referred purchasing her own freedom, at the 
expense of friendshi|>, without obstructing the 
means of that reconciliation she desired. Rea- 
sons the most powerful, interests tlie nu)st sa- 
cred, meditations the most serious, considerations 
the most profound, long discussions, contested 
debates, cond)iuations well analized, imoerious 
events, most urgent dangers, and the public opi- 
nion, clearly pronounced and lirndy sustained, 
have been tlie precursors of that solemn decla- 
ration, made on the .'ith of July, by the General 
Congress of Venezuehi, of the absolute inde- 
pendence of this part of South America ; an act, 
sighed for and applauded by the people of the 
capital, sanctioned by the powers of the Confe- 
deration, acknowledged by the representatives of 
the provinces, sworn to and propitiously hailed 
by the chi«'f of the church of Venezuela, and to 
be maintained with the lives, fortunes, and ho- 
nours of all the citizens. ■>■' 

' Free men, companions of our fate ! Ye who 

have known how to divest your hearts of fear or 

of hoj)e ; direct, fr«>m the ••levation on which 

your virtues have placed vou, an impartial and | 

A A y 


V E N E Z U E L A. 




I I'/l 

[diHintorostcd look, on (ho portrait wliicli Voiie- 
ziielu has jiiHt truopil out for joii. She connti- 
tutps you the nrbitratorH of hor tlifferoncoH with 
Spniii, and judtros of lior now doHtinioH. If you 
have boon nllcctod by ourovilw, and are intoroHtod 
in our felicity, unite with us your ofTorts, that the 
artifices of amiiition may not any longer triuinoh 
over lilMM'ality and justice. To you l)oloiig tlic 
olficos of conviction towards Spain, which an 
unfortunate rivality places beyond the roach of 
America. Contain the giddiness wliicli has seized 
upon her governments ; point out to them the 
reciprocal benefits of our regeneration ; inifold to 
them the soothing prospect which they are dobar- 
ed from beholding in America, by the monopoly 
that has hardened their hearts; tell them what 
threatens them in Kurono, and what they may ex- 
pect in tho New World, tranquil, uncorru|)tod, 
and already crowned with all the benedictions of 
liberty ; swear to them, in sliort, in our name, 
that V'enezuola awaits lier l)rethreM with open 
arms to share her happiness with tluMu, without 
asking any other sacrifice than that of projiulico, 
pride am) ambition, wliich have, for three ages, 
produced the united misery of Imtli countries. 

Juan Antonio Rodriguez Domingucz, Pros. 

Francisco Isnardy, Secretary. 
Federal Pal.icc ofCuracaii, 

Jill) 30, 1811. 

* 3. Act of Independence. 
' In the Name of the All-powerful Gof', 

' We the Representatives of the United Pro- 
vinces of Caracas, Cumana, Varinas, Margarita, 
Barcelona, Mcrida, and Truxillo, forming the 
American Confederation of Venezuela, in the S. 
Continent, in Congress assembled, considering the 
full and absolute possession of our rights, which 
we recovered justly and legally from April 19, 
1810, in consequence of the occurrences in Uay- 
onne, and the occupation of the Spanish throne 
by conquest, and the succession of a new dynasty, 
constituted without our consent ; are desirous, 
before we make use of those right?, of whicii we 
have been deprived by force for more than three 
ages, but now restored to us by the political order 
of human events, to make known to the world 
the reasons which have emanated from these 
same occurrences, and which authorize us in the 
free use we are now about to make of our own 

' We do not wish, nevertheless, to begin by 
alleging the rights inhorcnt in every conouered 
country, to recover its state of property ana inde- 
pendence ; we generously forget the long series 

of ills, injurios, and privations, which the sad 
right of compiost has indistinctly caused to all 
the dcscoiwlaiils of the iliscovorors, conquerors, 
and settlors of those countries, plunged into a 
worse state liy the very same cause that ought to 
hav«> ravoni'od them; and, drawing a veil over 
tho .'JOO years of Spanish dominion in America, 
wo will now only present t., view tho ai.thontic 
and well-known tacts, which ought to have 
wrestofi from one worhl the right over the other, 
by the inversion, disorder, and conquest, that 
have already dissolved tho Spanish nation. 

' Thisdisorderhasincreasodthe ills of America, 
by rendering void its claims and remonstrances, 
enabling the governors of S|)ain to insult and 
oppress this part of the nation, and thus leaving 
it without the succour and guarantee of the 

' It is contrary to order, impossible to the go- 
Aoriiinent of Spain, and fatal to the welfare of 
Ainorica, that the latter, possessed of a range of 
country inlinitoly more extensive, and a popula- 
tion incomparably more numerous, shoula de- 
pend and bo subject to a peninsular corner of the 
European continent. 

' The cessions and abdications at Bayonne, the 
revolutions of the Escurial and Araiijiiez, and 
the ordorii of the royal substitute, the Duke of 
Berg, sent to America, siiflTico to give virtue to 
the rights, which till then the Americans had 
sacrificed to the unity and integrity of the Spanish 

' Venezuela was the first to acknowledge, and 
generously to preserve, this integrity ; not to 
abandon the cause of its brothers, as long as the 
same retained the least hope of salvation. 

' America was called into now existence, since 
she could, and ought, to take upon herself the 
charge of her own fate and preservation; as 
Spain might acknowledge, or not, the rights of a 
king, who had preferred his own existence to the 
dignity of the nation over which ho governed. 

' All the Bourbons concurred with the invalid 
stipulations of Bayonne, abandoning the country 
of Spain, against the will of the people ;— tlioy 
violated, disdained, and trampled on the sacred 
duty they had contracted with the Spaniards of 
both worlds, when with their blood and treasure 
they had placed them on the throne, in despite of 
the house of Austria. By such a conduct tlioy 
were left disqualified and "incapable of governing 
a free people, whom they delivered up like a flock 
of slaves. 

' The intrusive governments that arrogated to 
themselves the national representation, took ad- j 




[ viuitiiK*' ofllio (liMpoRitionH tvliicli (lio f^ood faitli, 
<listaii('(>, «»|)|)rcHHi(»ii, und igiioruncc nt'ntecl in llie 
A iiu'riraim iipiiiiHt Hie 

new (l^iuiHty tliut Imd 
i>iiti'i«'(l Spiiiii by incaiiH o( force; luul, contrary 
to llioir own principlen, thc^ HUHtaini-il unioufrst 
tiH tlio illusion in t'avinir ol' luM-dinand, in order to 
devour and harass nH with iinpnnily ; at most, 
tliey promised to ns liberty, etpiality, and I'ra- 
teriiity, conveyed in poniponH discourses and 
studied phrases, for the purpose of covering tlic 
snure laid l)y a cunning, useless, and degrading 

' As 80on as tliey were dissolved, and had sidi- 
stituted and destroyed amongst themselves the 
various forms of the government of S|>ain ; and 
as soon as the imperious law of necessity had 
dictated to Venezuela the urgency of preserving 
itself, in order to guard and maintain the rights 
of her king, and to oH'cr an asylum to her l<iUro- 
pean bretnren against the ills that threatened 
thcin ; their former conduct was divulged : they 
varied their principles, and gave the appellations 
of insurrection, perfidy, and ingratitude, to the 
same acts that had served as models for the 
governments of Spain ; because then was closed 
to them the gate to the monoply of administra- 
tion which they meant to perpetuate under the 
name of an inmginary king. 

' Notwithstandingour protests, our moderation, 
generosity, and the iiivioiahilily of our principles, 
contrary to the wishes of our brethren in Europe, 
we were declared in a state of rebellion ; we 
were blockaded ; war was declared against us ; 
agents were sent amongst us, to excite us one 
against the other, endeavouring to take away our 
credit with the other nations of Europe, by 
imploring their assistance to o|)press its. 

' Without taking the least notice df our reasons, 
without presenting them to the impartial judg- 
ment of the world, and without any other judges 
than onr own en«'mies, we are condemned to a 
mournful excommunication from our brethren ; 
and, to add contempt to calumny, empowered 
agents are named for us, against our own express 
will, that in their Cortes they may arbitrarily dis- 
pose of our interests, under the influence and 
force of our enemi<;s. 

' In order to crush and suppress the eflects of our 
representation, when they were obliged to grant 
it to us, we were submitted to a paltry and dimi- 
nutive scale ; and the form of election was sub- 
jected to t!ie passive voice of the municipal 
bodies, degraded by the despotism of the gover- 
which amounted rather to an insult to our 

ledgment of our incontc table political impor- 

' Always deaf to the cries of justice on our part, 
the governments of Spain have endeavoured t«» 
discredit all our elTorls, by declaring as riiminul 
and stam|)ing with infamy, and rewarding with 
the scaflold and conliscation, every attempt, which 
at diiferent periods some Americans have made, 
for the felicity of their country ; as was that 
which lately our own security dictated to us, that 
we might iuit be driven into a state of disorder 
which we foresaw, and hiirried to that horrid 
fate which we are about to remove for ever from 
us. Ry means of such atrocious policy they have 
succeded in making our brethren insensd>lc to 
onr misfortunes ; in arming them against us ; in 
erasing from their bosoms the sweet impressions 
of friendship, of consanguinity, and converting 
into enemies a part of «>ur own great family. 

' At a time that we, faithful to oiu- promises, 
were sacriHcing our security and civil dignity, 
not to abandon the rights which we generously 
preserved to I'Vrdinand of Bourbon, we have seen 
that, to the relations of force which bound him to 
the Emperor of the French, he has added the ties 
of blood and friendship, (by having, as it was 
supposed, nuirried a relation of Buonaparte,) in 
conse(|uence of which, even the goveriuneuts of 
Spain have already declared their resolutitin only 
to acknowledge him conditionally. 

' In this mournful alternative we have remained 
three years, in a state of political inilecision and 
ambiguity, so fatal and dangerous, that this alone 
woidd suffice to authorize the resolution, which 
the faith of our promises and the bonds of fra- 
ternity had caused us to defer, till necessity has 
obliged us to go beyond what we at first proixtsed, 
impelled by tlie hostile and unnatural conduct of 
the governnients of Spain, which have disbur- 
dened us of our conditional oath, by which cir- 
cumstance we are called to the august represen- 
tation we now exercise. 

' But we, who glory in grounding our proceed- 
ings on bet*er principles, and not wishing to 
establish our felicity on the misfortunes of onr 
fellow-beings, do consider and declare as friends, 
companions of our fate, and participators of our 
felicity, those who, united to us by the ties of 
blood, language, and religion, have suffered the 
same evils in the anterior order of things, pro- 
vided they acknowledge our absolute indepen- 
dence of the same, and of any other foreign 
power whatever ; that they aid us to sustain it 
with their lives, fortune, and sentiments ; declar- 

as well aa to < 

;.!'■' ; 





plain dealing and good faith, thau as an acknow- ing and acknowledging them (as well aa to every] 




V E N E Z U E T. A. 


I H 

f ../ 

fotlior iiHtion,) in war Piiomics, and in [)ouvo 
friends, InotliorH, and cu-patriots. 

' In roiiscqn«Mic« orall Uiosi* Nolid, puldif, and 
incontrntaliU' roa^onn of p(diov, uliicli ho powor- 
fnlly nraro (l>r in'cussilv of rccoverinjj Qur natin'al 
dif^nitv, r«'stori'(l to us l»y llio order of events ; 
and in coniplinnce tvitii tlie iniprescriptil>le rii^lits 
enjoy «'d Ity nations, to destroy every pact, njjree- 
ment, or association, nliicli does not answer tlic 
purposes for w liicli !;overnnients were estahlislied ; 
we believe that we cannot, nor onjjlit not, to pre- 
serve tlie bonds which hitherto kept us united to 
the government of Spain ; and that, like nil the 
other nations of the world, we are free, and 
authorized not to depend on any other authority 
than onr own, and to take anion^;st the powers of 
the earth the place of equality which the Supreme 
Bein^ and Nature assitrn to uh, and to which we 
are called by the succession of human events, and 
ur^ed by our own ^ood and utility. 

' Notwitstandiufyweareaware of thcdifliculties 
that attend, and the obligations imposed upon us, 
by the rank we ar